# Question 1: (a) A can solve 90% of the problems given in a book and B can solve 70%.

What is the probability that at least one of them will solve a problem selected at random? Ans 1 p(A cannot solve) = 0.10 P(B cannot solve) = 0.30 Prob(atlest one can solve prob)= 1- P(none can solve problem) = = = = 1 - 0.1x0.3 1 - 0.03 0.97 97%

(b) When a computer uses a number base 2, how many significant decimal digits are contained in the mantissa of floating numbers? Ans: Assume that the binary computer has p-bit mantissa. Then the error bound is 2 –p . This computer will have q significant digits with symmetric rounding , if 2 –p = ½ x 10 –q+1 Taking logarithms to the base 10 we get q=1 + (p-1)log 10 2 if we assume p=24 then q=1+23 log 10 2~=7.9 we may say that the computer can store numbers with seven significant decimal digits (c) Evaluate the integral 101dxIx using (i) composite trapezoidal rule, (ii) composite Simpon‟s rule, with 2, 4 and 8 equal subintervals. Ans: When N=2, we have h=0.5, Nodes are 0, 0.5 and 1 We obtain lT = ¼ [f(0) + 2f(0.5) + f(1) ] = ¼ [1+ 4/3 + ½] =0.708333 lS = 1/6 [ f(0) + 4f(0.5) + f(1) ] = 1/6 [1+ 8/3 + ½] = 0.694444 N=4 : h = 0.25 , Nodes are 0, 0.25 , 0.5 , 0.75 and 1 . We obtain lT = 1/8 [ f(0) + 2{f(0.25) +f(0.5) +f(0.75)} +f(1) ] = 0.697024 lS=1/12 [f(0) + 4f(0.25) + 2f(0.5) + 4f(0.75) + f(1) ]

h> #include<conio. f0=F(a). ……. if(f0*f2<0) { b=c. We get lT = 1/6 [ f(0) + 2Σ7i=1 f(i/8) + f(1) ] = 0.125 .b. } else . float a.f2.h> #define ESP 0. verify your answer with the programme written by you. do { c=(a+b)/2. Ans: #include<stdio. a. printf("\n %d %f %f %f %lf %lf %lf". scanf("%f".001 #define F(x) (x)*(x)*(x) .693147 Question 2: Write the following programme in C language: (a) Write a programme in C to find a root using bisection method.694122 lS= 1/24 [ f(0) + 4Σ4i=1 f(2i-1)/8 + 2Σ3i=1 f (2i)/8 + f(1) ] = 0.&a). f2=F©.t. printf("\n n a b c f0 f1 f2").f1.b. nodes are 0.693155 The exact value of the integral is I = 0.693254 N = 8 : h = 0.&b). printf("\n________________________________________________________\n"). clrscr().125 . scanf("%f". printf("\n________________________________________________________\n"). 0.= 0.ESP). getch(). printf("\n Enter the value of a: ").5*(x) + 1 void main() { int i = 1.1.f0. double f1.0 We have eight subintervals for trapezoidal rule and four subintervals for Simpson’s rule.25 . Perform the five iterations of the bisection method to obtain the smallest positive root of the equation f(x) = x3 – 5x +1 = 0. printf("\n Accuracy upto %g". f1=F(b).f0.c. 0.h> #include <math. i.c. printf("\n Enter the value of b: ").f2).

250000 0.069092 -0.000000 1.500000 0.000000 1.069092 -3.234375 -0.083282 -0.500000 0.234375 0.234375 0.250000 1. }   Output a.000000 -1.000000 -3.01 Enter the value of a: 0 Enter the value of b: 1 Accuracy upto 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 -1. getch().01 _____________________________________________________________________ n a b c f0 f1 f2 ______________________________________________________________________ 1 0.c).000000 -1.250000 0.234375 -1.125000 0. printf("\n________________________________________________________\n").187500 0.root = %f".375000 2 0.000000 0.376953 -0.000000 0. }while(fabs(f2)>ESP).250000 0.375000 -0.375000 -0.187500 0.125000 1.250000 0.218750 0.218750 0.234375 3 0.001 Enter the value of a: 0 Enter the value of b: 1 Accuracy upto 0.083282 6 0.500000 0.250000 0.000000 -0.376953 0.250000 0.069092 5 0.125000 0.218750 1.234375 -0.187500 0. printf("\n\nApp.250000 0.root = 0.083282 .376953 0.000000 0.001 _____________________________________________________________________ n a b c f0 f1 f2 ______________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 0. } i++.500000 1.375000 -0.069092 -0.000000 0.007244 _____________________________________________________________________ App.187500 1.125000 0.187500 0.376953 4 0.069092 -0.203125 0.203125 b) when ESP = 0.234375 -0.000000 0.000000 0.234375 0.{ a=c. When ESP=0.000000 1.

istep.203125 0.201172 0.007244 0.030888 -0.h> #define f(x) (exp(x)*log(x)-x*x) main() /* Main program to use the Secant Method to find the root of f(x)=exp(x)*ln(x)-x*x=0.201660 0.002482 -0.xf.203125 0.002282 -0.8lf\n".root = 0.007244 0. */ { int istep.011813 9 0.195312 0.xi. xi = (a+b)/2.di.di. Apply Newton-Raphson ‟s method to determine a root of the equation f (x) = cos x – xex= 0.199219 0. Copyright © Tao Pang 1997.011813 -0.8lf %16.069092 -0.030888 8 0.201172 0.187500 0. */ .xi.&df. secant (dl. a = 1.007244 -0. double dl=1e-6.df).199219 0. printf("%4d %16.di.xf.083282 -0.h> #include <math.istep) /* Subroutine for the root of f(x)=0 with the secant method.df.069092 -0. Copyright © Tao Pang 1997. di = (b-a)/10. if exists verify your answer with the programme written by you.195312 0. /* Root Using Secant Method*/ #include <stdio.007244 7 0.002482 11 0.007244 0. b = 2.b.6 0.202148 0.&xf.000100 _____________________________________________________________________ App.203125 0. void secant ().187500 0.201172 0.201660 (b) Write a programme in C to find a root using Newton Raphson Method.&istep).202148 0. double a.203125 0.xf.002282 10 0.203125 0. } void secant (dl.218750 0.xi.002282 -0.df.

x1 = x2.d. q=1/2 and n=20 Therefore the probability of getting between 6 and 9 tails in 20 tosses are as follows p(6)+p(7)+p(8)+p(9) = 20 C 6 (1/2)^6 (1/2)^14 +20 C 7 (1/2)^7 (1/2)^13 +20 C 8 (1/2)^8 (1/2)^12 .xi.di. } Question 3: (a) Find the probability of getting between 6 and 9 tails inclusive in 20 tosses of a fair coin by using (i) the binomial distribution. *istep = *istep+1. x1 = xi+di. double dl. while (fabs(*df) > dl) { d = f(x1)-f(x0). Ans: (i) Let us call it a 'success' when tails comes . double *xf. p = 1/2 . x0 = x1.x1. } *xf = x0.*df.int *istep. *istep = 0. *df = x1-x0. (ii) the normal approximation to the binomial distribution. x0 = xi. x2 = x1-f(x1)*(x1-x0)/d. { double x0. Then .x2. *df = di.

42. q=1/2 σ^2=npq=5 σ=2.236] =p[-1. Mean(x) =169. p=1/2 . ∑x=2033 . (iii) Find the least-squares regression line of x and y. we get p[6-10/2. (ii) Find the least-squares regression line of y on x. Mean(y) =171.3521 (ii) Here n=20 . u=x-169.78<Z<-0.236<Z<9-10/2.+20 C 9 (1/2)^9 (1/2)^11 = fact20/fact6 fact14*64*16384 + fact20/fact7 fact13*128*8192 + fact20/fact8 fact12*256*4096 + fact20/fact9 fact11*512*2048 =4845/131072+77520/1048576+125970/1048576+1175720/1048576 =1. (i) Construct a scatter diagram.2925 (b) Table 2 below shows the respective heights x and y of a sample of 12 fathers and their oldest sons. Table 2 Height x 165 16 170 16 17 158 17 168 173 17 175 of 0 3 3 8 0 Father (centim etres) Height y 173 16 173 16 17 168 17 165 180 17 173 of Son 8 5 5 3 0 (centim etres) Ans:From given table we have.75 .236 μ=np=10 We require P[6<X<9] Using standard normal distribution . v=y-171 X 165 160 170 163 173 y 173 168 173 65 175 u -104 -9 1 -6 4 u2 10816 81 1 36 16 v 2 -3 2 -6 4 v2 4 9 4 36 16 u*v -208 27 2 36 16 180 178 .44] =0. ∑y=2061.

75=(0.42) =≫ y=0.158 178 168 173 170 175 180 168 173 165 180 170 173 178 -11 9 -1 4 1 6 11 121 81 1 16 1 36 121 -3 2 -6 9 -1 2 7 9 4 36 81 1 4 49 33 18 6 36 -1 12 77 From above table we get. b_yx = ∑uv-1/n ∑u∑v / ∑u^2-(∑u) ^2/n =1503/126899 =0.51)(y-171.2)-F (0) =.068 ≤ z ≤ 0) =p (0 ≤z ≤0. ∑u^2=11327. ∑v=9.01x+169.2. ∑uv=54.21.31 Regression line of x on y is: x-169. Ans: (a) z=0 and z=1.46 and z = 2. (d) between z = 0.51 Therefore.68 and z=0 p (-0. (c) between z = – 0.51y+169. (b) between z = – 0.01 b_xy = ∑uv-1/n ∑u∑v / ∑v^2-(∑v) ^2/n =1503/2955 =0. ∑u=-95.68 and z = 0. ∑v^2=253 Therefore.2 p (0 ≤ z ≤ 1.2) =F (1.7517 (from normal dist table) .94.068) =F (0.068)-F(0) =0.3849 (from normal dist table) (b) z=-0.01)(x-169.81and z = 1.42=(0.75) =≫ x=0.31 =≫ x=0.51y+81. the least-square regression line of y on x is: y-171.83 (c) Find the area under the standard normal curve (a) between z = 0 and z = 1.

94)-F (0.3228 (from normal dist table) =0. Ans:” 2nd blk 8page (b) Solve the questions: 10x1 – x2 + 2x3 = 4 x1 + 10x2 –x3 = 3 2x1 + 3x2 + 20x3 = 7 .9864-0.21) =F (2.94) =F (1.81 ≤ z ≤ 1.1828 (d) Question 4: Solve the following equation (if a solution exists) using given method: (a) Solve the equation: 10x1 – x2 + 2x3 = 4 x1 + 10x2 –x3 = 3 2x1 + 3x2 + 20x3 = 7 using the Gauss elimination method.6636 z=0.94 p (0.21 p (-0.81 and z=1.21)-[1-F (0.46)] =0.9738-0.46 and z=2.7910 (from normal dist table) =0.46 ≤ z ≤ 2.(c) z=-0.81) =0.

375 You can verify the answer by substituting it in the given equation . Secant method. But the method approaches to the root only when the initial guess is chosen very near the root.using the LU decomposition method. But the Regula Falsi method always converges. . Ans: I got the values as L11 = 10 L21 = 1 L22 = 101/10 L31 = 2 L32 = 32/10 L33 = 2018/101 U12 = -1/10 U13 = 1/5 U23 = -12/101 Using LUX = B let UX = y LY = B 10y1 = 4 y1 = 4/10 y1 + 101/10 y2 = 3 y2 = 26 /101 2y1 +32/10 y2 + 2018/101 y3 = 7 y3 = 543/2018 Now solving UX = Y The equation are.269 x2 = 58984/203818 = . x1 -1/10 x2 + 1/5 x3 = 4/10 x2 .289 x1 = 76457/203818 = 0.. Regula Falsi method and the Newton Raphson method which method is more efficient and why? Determine the efficiency or the order of these three methods? Ans: The Newton-Raphson method is considered to be the fastest method. If the initial guess is not near the actual root. the method may diverge. But the Secant method may not converge to the root sometimes. Question 5: Out of the three method i.12/101 x3 = 26/101 x3 = 543/2018 = 0.e. The Secant method gives better results than Regula Falsi method method.

for approximating roots is the secant method.If f '(x) evaluation is not difficult then Newton Raphson method is recommended. This will be the new ‘a’. if the guess is relatively close to a root. To find the new point. Newton's method works incredibly fast. Unlike the other two methods. This one works by always making the old b value into the new a value. use the formula [a – (f(a))/(f’(a))]. and one repeats this process until the root is found to sufficient precision. This allows the user to predict exactly how long it will take to arrive at a root. This is a detailed examination of four methods of discovering roots and the effects of different equations on the efficiency of each method and the amount of error produced by each method. Secant One of the faster methods. Although some calculation here has been done by hand. Newton’s method uses not only the function itself but also the derivative of that function to approximate the root. and Newton. It must be performed several times until the f of the current guess is very small. One chooses a point ‘a’. Another problem is that this method like the false position method does not know when to stop. This is why Newton requires the same number of steps in Table B. Error calculations simply show the difference between the values arrived at by some method and the actual value. this will be replaced by the zero of the tangent line (the zero of the derivative). false-position. regardless of the value of n in the equation. the vast majority of our conclusions were arrived at by using computer programs for each of the methods. But the convergence must be verified using bisection method once in every 10 iterations. The four methods examined were bisection. Newton’s Method Newton’s method is generally used in calculus to approximate roots. One main difference between Newton and other methods is that it only requires one initial guess instead of two. Another interesting possibility with Newton’s method is error calculation. however. f(a) and f(b) of the two initial values that we pick to start with do not have be on opposites sides of the root and have a sign change. One of the problems with this method is that the slope of the secant line can become very small and this will cause it to move very far from the points you have. If the guess is not close to a root. assuming the function and the original guess are sufficiently "nice" for Newton’s method. depending on the function. . The new b value then becomes the zero of the secant line. If evaluation of f '(x) is difficult then Secant method is recommended. Also. which has a very low slope near the root because the secant line will jump large amounts due to the low slope. This method fails when estimating the roots of an equation. Newton’s method can work slowly and. compared to bisection and false position. Each method seemed to have a particular type of equation or desirable outcome for which it is most efficient. secant. Newton’s method doubles in precision with each step. One similarity between Newton’s method and the bisection method is that both approximate roots in a consistent fashion. Throughout the course of the method. may be impossible to use. Notice below where R is the root and x is the result of the most recent Newton iteration.

false position finds the zero of the secant line joining (a.(f(x)/f'(x))-R ~ f(x) and f'(x) are expanded out to a power series. If f(a) and f(b) are not roots. When n becomes large then false position often becomes the slowest method. This method functions by first starting with two endpoints a and b.f(b)) and then setting that as its new endpoint. In the data section of this paper. This follows the logic that a negative value times a positive value equals a negative value. After the endpoints are chosen. An examination of the computer code for the false position method shows that it is very similar to the bisection method except that it uses the zero of the secant line to approach the root rather then finding the midpoint each time. we make the assumption that X is close enough to R so that the first nonzero term in the power series in numerator and denominator is almost the entire error. table B shows the number of repetitions for each method and value of n using the equation y = x n-2. Data Table A: f(x) = x2 – 2 a = 1 b = 2 accuracy within 0. one can determine that the new error is about (xR)/2.00001 Method Name Number of steps Bisection 17 steps False – Position 8 steps Secant 5 steps Newton Table B: 4 steps . This is done repetitively as the endpoints become continually closer to the root. With the Newton's method. following this assumption. which means that the error is cut in half each time.R New Error = x.Error = x . Finally. then f(a) times f(b) is a negative value since they both need to lie on opposites sides of the root.f(a)) and (b. False Position Another method used for estimating roots of equations is the false position method. The false position method is often significantly faster then the bisection method for equations such as y = x n –2 for a small value of n.

0001 Number of steps n=3 n=4 n=5 n=6 n=7 n=8 n=9 N = 10 Bisection 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 False – Position 13 20 31 49 76 120 189 296 Secant 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 Newton’s Table C: 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 For f(x) = x2 – 2. done for 25 iterations of each method. . the program was not able to complete 25 iterations.For f(x) = xn – 2. the error was: Method: Error: Bisection 9.…. 10} and accuracy within 0.420323 x 10-8 For secant and Newton.420323 x 10-8 Newton -2. a = 1.501 x 10-8 False-Position -2. Analysis of Data The above data produces "nice" endpoints since the functions that were examined are also ideal. It is clear that in this case Newton’s method would be a good choice for finding the root. n = {3. Even so.420323 x 10-8 Secant -2. b = 2. After 6 iterations. b = 2. Table A shows the variation in speed between all four methods. and reliability of each method. the memory overflowed. there was a lot of variation in the speed. 4. a = 1. accuracy.

non-asymptotic function whose slope is not very close to zero. but just as consistent for x n – 2 for all n. which can be achieved in 25 iterations of each method. The errors for all the methods are the same except for the bisection method. Because they worked so quickly. After six iterations. each of the methods used require relatively few iterations before coming very close to that root. the false -position method’s effectiveness is inversely proportional to the degree of the polynomial. For nice functions and guesses relatively close to the root. False-position’s definition of a nice function would be something more on the order of a low – degree function. which were as accurate as the computer’s memory could hold. the computer would have a memory overflow. The main problem encountered in this exercise had to do with the speed of these functions. Table C shows the degree of accuracy. This once again emphasizes how relatively fast the other three are for functions they consider nice. Conclusion It was shown first-hand in this analysis that the speed of the method was inversely proportional to the consistency of the method to deal with non-nice functions. one can see the consistency with which the bisection and Newton methods work for nice functions. Newton will work well on any non-oscillating. Newton’s method originally seemed to be an exception to this rule. which makes Newton inconsistent and unable to efficiently solve for the root. within six steps secant and Newton’s methods had produced results. This same consistency could be seen using the bisection method on any function. Nearly any polynomial fits this description. One can also see that one method’s definition of a nice function is not the same as another method’s definition. We corrected this by altering the number of iterations. By examining the type of function. However. one can determine which sort of method would be most efficient in finding the root. but Newton requires a relatively calm function in order to be helpful. because it was about five times as fast as bisection.In Table B. These non-nice functions are easily found for Newton’s method. . It was after trying some functions of different forms that one can find that the functions which are nice for Newton’s method are different than those for false-position and secant methods.