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5 SEPTEMBER 2009
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5
Table of Revisions from SDC 1.4 to SDC 1.5
Section
Table of Contents
Revision
New captions for Sections 2.1.1, 6.1.1, 6.1.2 and Appendix B; New Sections 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 added; Minor repagination Updated definition of an ordinary standard bridge Updated definition of types of components addressed in the SDC Major revision on “Ground Motion Representation” Major revision – New material on “Design Spectrum” Major revision in the definition of Curvature capacity φ u ; Units added to symbol definitions Correction to value of Es (prestressing steel) in Figure 3.5
1.1 1.2 2.1 2.1.1 3.1.3
3.2.4 3.2.6 3.5 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 7.4.4.3 7.6.1
′ Symbol correction: f c′ changed to f ce
Change in the definition of “Minimum Lateral Strength” New material on Ground Shaking and Design Spectrum New material on Liquefaction New SDC Section: “Fault Rupture Hazard” New SDC Section: “Additional Seismic Hazards” Symbol correction: A jv changed to Asjv Equation (7.24) augmented to include guideline on Footing DepthtoColumn Depth ratio Correction of typographical error in Equation 7.27 Correction to Equation 7.32 Correction in the definition of Type II pile shafts Major revision on “Development length for column reinforcement extended into enlarged Type II shafts” Minor revision Major revision – New material: “Design Spectrum Development”
7.6.2 (c) 7.7.1.3 7.7.3.5 8.2.4
Appendix A Appendix B
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
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3.1.4 2.1 2.2 DEMANDS ON STRUCTURE COMPONENTS Ground Motion Representation Design Spectrum Horizontal Ground Motion Vertical Ground Motion Vertical/Horizontal Load Combination Damping Displacement Demand Estimated Displacement Global Structure Displacement and Local Member Displacement Displacement Ductility Demand Target Displacement Ductility Demand Force Demand Moment Demand Shear Demand 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 24 27 27 29 29 29 29 29 210 2.1.2 2.3 2.3.3 2.3 Shear Demand for Capacity Protected Members SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA i .2 1.3 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.1 2.3.5 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.2.1 1.1 Column Shear Demand 2.1 2.2.5 2.3 1.2 2.4 INTRODUCTION Definition of an Ordinary Standard Bridge Type of Components Addressed in the SDC Bridge Systems Local and Global Behavior 11 12 13 13 2.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.1.1.1.2 Pier Wall Shear Demand 2.3.2.2.4 2. 1. 2.3.
4.1 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.6.6.1 Maximum Shear Reinforcement 3.6.3 3.6 Minimum Vertical Reinforcement in Interlocking Portion Shear Capacity of Pier Walls Shear Capacity in the Weak Direction Shear Capacity in the Strong Direction 3.2 3.7.2 3.6 3.6.6 3.1.2 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.6.1 Shear Capacity of Capacity Protected Members Maximum and Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Maximum Longitudinal Reinforcement SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA .1.3 3.2.1 3.1 3.1.4 3.6.3.1 3.6.1 3.5.5 3.2 3.1 Minimum Local Displacement Ductility Capacity 3.2.7 3.1.2.6.5 Material Properties for Concrete Components Expected Material Properties Nonlinear Reinforcing Steel Models for Ductile Reinforced Concrete Members Reinforcing Steel A706/A706M (Grade 60/Grade 400) Nonlinear Prestressing Steel Model Nonlinear Concrete Models for Ductile Reinforced Concrete Members Normal Weight Portland Cement Concrete Properties Other Material Properties Plastic Moment Capacity for Ductile Concrete Members Moment Curvature ( M − φ ) Analysis Requirements for Capacity Protected Components Minimum Lateral Strength Seismic Shear Design for Ductile Concrete Members Nominal Shear Capacity Concrete Shear Capacity Shear Reinforcement Capacity Deleted Maximum and Minimum Shear Reinforcement Requirements for Columns 3.2.4 CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS Displacement Capacity of Ductile Concrete Members Ductile Member Definition Distinction Between Local Member Capacity & Global Structure System Capacity Local Member Displacement Capacity Local Member Displacement Ductility Capacity 31 31 31 31 33 33 34 34 36 36 37 39 39 310 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 314 314 314 314 315 315 315 315 315 316 316 316 ii 3.2.2.2.6.4 3. 3.2 Minimum Shear Reinforcement 3.1.6.6.6.7 3.5.5.6.6.1 3.
1 5.2 3.1 4.3 3.2 3.3.3 ANALYSIS Analysis Requirements Analysis Objective Analytical Methods Equivalent Static Analysis (ESA) Elastic Dynamic Analysis (EDA) Inelastic Static Analysis (ISA) Structural System “Global” Analysis 51 51 51 51 51 53 53 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA iii .3.3 5. CAPACITY Performance Criteria Global Displacement Criteria Demand Ductility Criteria Capacity Ductility Criteria PΔ Effects Component Overstrength Factors Column Overstrength Factor Superstructure/Bent Cap Demand & Capacity 41 41 41 41 43 44 44 44 45 46 46 4.2 DEMAND VS.7.2 Bent Cap Capacity 4.4 3. 4.2 4.3.3 4.3.3.5 3.8.1.1.8.8. 5.1.2 5.8 3.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.6 Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Maximum Reinforcement Ratio Lateral Reinforcement of Ductile Members Lateral Reinforcement Inside the Analytical Plastic Hinge Length Lateral Column Reinforcement Inside the Plastic Hinge Region Lateral Column Reinforcement Outside the Plastic Hinge Region Lateral Reinforcement of Pier Walls Lateral Reinforcement Requirements for Columns Supported on Type II Pile Shafts Lateral Confinement for Type II Pile Shafts 316 316 317 317 317 317 317 317 318 4.2.1 4.5 3.1 4.7.1 3.2 5.1.1 5.2.8.3 4.8.3 3.1 5.3 Foundation Capacity 5.2.2 4.1 Longitudinal Superstructure Capacity 4.2.2.8.
2 Fault Rupture Hazard Additional Seismic Hazards Foundation Design Foundation Performance Soil Classification Competent Soil Poor Soil Marginal Soil 6.1.2.3 Foundation Design Criteria Foundation Strength Foundation Flexibility 6.1 6.6 5.1 StandAlone “Local” Analysis Transverse StandAlone Analysis Longitudinal StandAlone Analysis Simplified Analysis Effective Section Properties Effective Section Properties for Seismic Analysis 5.4.2.2 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA iv .4 6.6.6.2.4 5.2(B) 6.1 6.1 6.2 5.1 6.1.1.2 SEISMICITY AND FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE Site Assessment Ground Shaking Liquefaction Deleted 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 6.2(C) 6.1.TABLE OF CONTENTS 5.2.1.5 5.3. 6.2 6.2(A) 6.2.2.2 5.4.1 Ieff for Ductile Members 5.2.1.1.6.7 Effective Torsional Moment of Inertia Effective Member Properties for NonSeismic Loading 6.1.1 5.2.2.3 Ieff for Other Superstructure Types 54 54 54 54 55 55 56 56 56 58 58 5.2 Deleted 6.3 6.2.1.1 6.6.2 Ieff for Box Girder Superstructures 5.6.3.
3 Hinge Restrainers Pipe Seat Extenders Equalizing Bolts Bent Caps Integral Bent Caps 7.5.2.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.1.1.2 7.1.4 7.3 7.2 Hinge Seat Width for Frames Meeting the Requirements of Section 7.4 7.1 7.2.3 7.5 Vertical Acceleration Precast Girders Slab Bridges Hinges Longitudinal Hinge Performance Transverse Hinge Performance Frames Meeting the Requirements of Section 7.4.4 Joint Description T Joint Shear Design SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA .3 7.4 7.1.3 7.4.1.4 7.7 7.2 7.2.5 7.3.1 7.5.5.1.1 7.2.1 7.5.2.1.3.3 7.2.4 7.2.1 7.2 7.2.3.2.2.3.1.1.3.1 7.1 7.5 7.4.4.2.5.2 NonIntegral Bent Caps Deleted Bent Cap Depth Superstructure Joint Design Joint Performance Joint Proportioning Minimum Bent Cap Width 7.2.2. 7.2.1 DESIGN Frame Design Balanced Stiffness Balanced Frame Geometry Adjusting Dynamic Characteristics End Span Considerations Superstructure Girders Effective Superstructure Width 71 71 72 72 74 74 74 74 75 76 77 77 77 77 77 78 79 710 710 711 711 711 711 712 712 712 712 712 712 712 713 713 713 v 7.2.2.1 Effective Bent Cap Width 7.3.2 Frames Not Meeting the Requirements of Section 7.2 7.1 Minimum Bent Cap Seat Width 7.6 7.8 7.2 7.4.2 7.
7.5.7.1 7.TABLE OF CONTENTS 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.6 Knee Joints Bearings Elastomeric Bearings Sliding Bearings 713 715 715 717 717 718 718 722 722 722 723 723 723 723 724 724 724 724 724 724 724 728 728 728 728 728 729 730 731 731 731 732 732 732 Columns & Pier Walls Column Dimensions Analytical Plastic Hinge Length Plastic Hinge Region MultiColumn Bents Column Flares Horizontally Isolated Column Flares Lightly Reinforced Column Flares Flare Reinforcement 7.1.5 7.6.6.6.1.7.2 Minimum Joint Shear Reinforcement 7.5.2.6.6.6 Effective Footing Width for Flexure Effects of Large Capacity Piles on Footing Design 7.1.1 7.7.4.5.5.2 Pier Wall Pile Foundations Pier Wall Spread Footing Foundations 7.1.2 7.1.5 7.7 7.7.4.7.4.7.3.1 7.1 7.7.7.3 7.6.7.7.3 7.3 Rigid Footing Response 7.7.1.4.7 7.1 7.2.1.3 Pile Shafts Shear Demand on Type I Pile Shafts 7.4.2 7.7.2 7.5.2.7 Use of “T” Headed Stirrups and Bars in Footings 7.1 Principal Stress Definition 7.3 Joint Shear Reinforcement 7.6.2 7.6.1 7.2 7.7.4.1 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA vi .4 7.4 Footing Joint Shear 7.6.7.4.1.1.3 7.6.2.1 Pier walls Column Key Design Foundations Footing Design Pile Foundations in Competent Soil Pile Foundations in Marginal Soil Lateral Design Lateral Capacity of Fixed Head Piles Passive Earth Resistance for Pile Caps in Marginal Soil 7.1.
2 7.5 Development Length for Column Reinforcement Extended Into Enlarged Type II Shafts Maximum Spacing for Lateral Reinforcement APPENDICES Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Notations & Acronyms Design Spectrum Development Bibliography A1A7 B1B31 C1C2 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA vii .3 8.2.1.4 8.3.2. 8.4 7.7.7.2 7.8.3 7.8.3.2.4 Flexure Demand/Capacity Requirements for Type II Pile Shafts Pile Shaft Diameter Minimum Pile Shaft Length Enlarged Pile Shafts 732 733 733 733 733 733 733 736 737 738 Pile Extensions Abutments Longitudinal Abutment Response Transverse Abutment Response Abutment Seat Width Abutment Shear Key Design 8.2.8 7.8.2 8.4 7.3.1.1 8.1 8.3.1.1.1 7.7.5 7.3 SEISMIC DETAILING Splices in Reinforcing Steel No Splice Regions in Ductile Components 81 81 Reinforcement Spliced in Ductile Components & Components Expected to Accept Damage 81 Reinforcement Spliced in Capacity Protected Members Hoop and Spiral Reinforcement Splices Development of Longitudinal Column Reinforcement Minimum Development Length of Reinforcing Steel for Seismic Loads Anchorage of Bundled Bars in Ductile Components Flexural Bond Requirements for Columns 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 83 8.2 8.2.2 8.1 8.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.3 7.2.7.5 7.3.8.4 8.7.1 Maximum Bar Diameter 8.
3 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.5 Figure 7.2 Figure 2.2 Figure 4.1 Figure 2.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 7.8 Figure 4.4 Figure 3.14A/ B/ C Effective Abutment Stiffness/ Area/ Width Figure 7.1 Figure 7.1 Figure 3.4 Figure 7.11 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.6 Figure 7.4 Figure 5.3 Figure 4.15 Abutment Seat Width Requirements SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA .9 Figure 7.1 Figure 4.12 LocalGlobal Axis Definition The Effects of Foundation Flexibility on ForceDeflection Curve of a Single Column Bent The Effects of Flexibility on Frame Displacements Pile Shaft Definition Local Displacement Capacity – Cantilever Column w/Fixed Base Local Displacement Capacity – Framed Column Local Ductility Assessment Steel Stress Strain Model Prestressing Strand Stress Strain Model Concrete Stress Strain Model Moment Curvature Curve Concrete Shear Factors Global Force Deflection Relationship PΔ Effects on Bridge Columns Superstructure Demand Generated By Column Overstrength Moment Capacity Provided by Superstructure Internal Resultant Force Couple EDA Modeling Techniques StandAlone Analysis Effective Stiffness of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Sections Balanced Stiffness Effective Superstructure Width Equivalent Static Vertical Loads & Moments Seat Width Requirements Effective Bent Cap Width Joint Shear Stresses In T Joints Location of Vertical Joint Reinforcement Joint Shear Reinforcement Details Location of Horizontal Joint Reinforcement Additional Joint Reinforcement for Skewed Bridges Footing Force Equilibrium Simplified Pile Model For Foundations in Competent Soil 23 25 26 28 33 34 35 37 38 310 311 313 42 43 45 46 52 55 57 73 75 76 79 711 714 717 719 720 721 726 727 730 735 738 viii Figure 7.10 Figure 7.4 Figure 3.2 Figure 7.2 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.3 Figure 2.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 7.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 7.13 Assumed Effective Dimensions for Footing Joint Stress Calculation Figure 7.TABLE OF CONTENTS FIGURES Figure 2.
Situations may arise that warrant detailed attention beyond what is provided in the SDC. Bridge Design Aids. It reflects the current departmental state of practice.dot. Designers should refer to the OSD design manuals for seismic design criteria not explicitly addressed by the SDC. The designer must exercise judgment in the application of these criteria. The SDC applies to Ordinary Standard bridges as defined in Section 1. the SDC will serve as a forum to document Caltrans’ latest changes to the seismic design methodology. Deviations to these criteria shall be reviewed and approved by the Section Design Senior or the Senior Seismic Specialist and documented in the project file. 1.1.gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/SDC/ 1. This document contains references specific and unique to Caltrans and may not be applicable to other parties either institutional or private. The SDC is a compilation of new seismic design criteria and existing seismic design criteria previously documented in various locations. Bridge Design Practice 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA . and the Earthquake Engineering Office of Structure Design Services (SDS) should be consulted for recommendations. Memo To Designers.1 Definition of an Ordinary Standard Bridge A structure must meet all of the following requirements to be classified as an Ordinary Standard bridge: • Span lengths less than 300 feet (90 m) 1 Caltrans Design Manuals: Bridge Design Specifications. Proposed revisions to the SDC will be reviewed by OSD management according to the process outlined in MTD 2011. the OSD Earthquake Committee. The designer must determine the appropriate methods and level of refinement necessary to design and analyze each bridge on a casebycase basis.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. The OSD Senior Seismic Specialists. The designer should refer to other resources to establish the correct course of action. Significant departures shall be presented to the Type Selection Panel and/or the Design Branch Chief for approval as outlined in MTD 2011. The goal is to update all the Office of Structures Design (OSD) design manuals 1 on a periodic basis to reflect the current state of practice for seismic bridge design. The following criteria identify the minimum requirements for seismic design. Ordinary Nonstandard bridges require project specific criteria to address their nonstandard features. As information is incorporated into the design manuals. Each bridge presents a unique set of design challenges. This document is intended for use on bridges designed by and for Caltrans.5 http://www.ca. Bridge Design Details. INTRODUCTION The Caltrans Seismic Design Criteria (SDC) specify the minimum seismic design requirements that are necessary to meet the performance goals established for Ordinary bridges in Memo To Designer (MTD) 201.
Abutments Diaphragm Short Seat High Cantilever Superstructures Cast InPlace · Reinforced concrete · Posttensioned concrete Precast · Reinforced concrete · Pretensioned concrete · Posttensioned concrete Substructure Support Systems Single Column MultiColumn Pier Walls Pile Extensions Foundations Spread Footings Driven Piles · Steel H/HP and Pipe · Precast P/S · CISS Drilled Shafts · CIDH · Large Diameter Types I & II Proprietary Table 1 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 12 . Foundations supported on spread footing. and column or pier elements Horizontal members either rigidly connected. or scour Bridge systems with a fundamental period greater than or equal to 0. Cbents. outrigger bents. In the interim. inquiries regarding the seismic performance of structural steel components shall be directed to the Structural Steel Technical Specialist and the Structural Steel Committee. or supported on conventional bearings. lateral spreading.INTRODUCTION • • • • • • Constructed with normal weight concrete girder. isolation bearings and dampers are considered nonstandard components.7 seconds in the transverse and longitudinal directions of the bridge 1. and offset columns are nonstandard components. pile cap w/piles. pin connected. Dropped bent caps or integral bent caps terminating inside the exterior girder. or pile shafts Soil that is not susceptible to liquefaction. Seismic criteria for structural steel bridges are being developed independently and will be incorporated into the future releases of the SDC.2 Types of Components Addressed in the SDC The SDC is focused on concrete bridges. The SDC includes seismic design criteria for Ordinary Standard bridges constructed with the types of components listed in Table 1.SECTION 1 .
subsystems or boundary conditions. See Section 2. subsystem or bridge system including the effects of adjacent components.2. the analysis of a bridge frame is global relative to the analysis of a column subsystem. piles. whereas an individual bent or column has been referred to as a local system.4 Local and Global Behavior The term “local” when pertaining to the behavior of an individual component or subsystem constitutes its response independent of the effects of adjacent components. but is local relative to the analysis of the entire bridge system. The term “global” describes the overall behavior of the component. For example. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 13 . or boundary conditions. The bridge system can be further characterized as an assembly of subsystems. 1. It is preferable to define these terms as relative and not absolute measures.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. subsystems.5 1.3 Bridge Systems A bridge system consists of superstructure and substructure components. or shafts Abutments Traditionally.2 for the distinction between local and global displacements. Examples of bridge subsystems include: • • • Longitudinal frames separated by expansion joints Multicolumn or single column transverse bents supported on footings. the entire bridge system has been referred to as the global system.
.
A detailed discussion of the development of both the probabilistic and deterministic design spectra as well as possible adjustment factors is given in Appendix B.ca.xls) • Deterministic Response Spectrum spreadsheet (http://dap3. (3) A statewide minimum spectrum defined as the median spectrum generated by a magnitude 6.1.gov/shake_stable/references/2007_Fault_Database_120309.ca. 2.ca. (2) A deterministic spectrum based on the largest median response resulting from the maximum rupture (corresponding to Mmax) of any fault in the vicinity of the bridge site. In general.ca.gov/shake_stable/references/Preliminary_Spectral_Curves_Data_073009.1 Ground Motion Representation For structural applications.dot.27) • Spreadsheet with preliminary spectral curve data (http://dap3.gov/shake_stable/references/Deterministic_PGA_Map_81209. These tools include the following: • Deterministic PGA map (http://dap3.1 Design Spectrum Several aspects of design spectrum development require special knowledge related to the determination of fault location (utilization of original source mapping where appropriate) and interpretation of the site profile and geologic setting for incorporation of site effects. Consequently. the Design Spectrum (DS) is defined as the greater of: (1) A probabilistic spectrum based on a 5% in 50 years probability of exceedance (or 975year return period).gov/shake_stable/references/Deterministic_Response_Spectrum_072809.xls) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 21 .dot.5 earthquake on a strikeslip fault located 12 kilometers from the bridge site.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. DEMANDS ON STRUCTURE COMPONENTS 2.13B. Figures B.ca.gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/SDC/ 2.pdf) • Preliminary spectral curves for several magnitudes and soil classes (Appendix B.dot.5 http://www.dot. Geotechnical Services or a qualified geoprofessional is responsible for providing final design spectrum recommendations. Several design tools are available to the engineer for use in preliminary and final specification of the design spectrum. seismic demand is represented using an elastic 5% damped response spectrum.xls) • Recommended fault parameters for California faults meeting criteria specified in Appendix B (http://dap3.dot.
173.php. internet: http://dap3.gov/shake_stable/references/Probabilistic_Response_Spectrum_080409. and prestressing in the upward or downward direction. see Figure 2.4 Vertical/Horizontal Load Combination A combined vertical/horizontal load analysis is not required for Ordinary Standard Bridges.160.2.dot.1. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 22 .php) 2.1.ca.SECTION 2 – DEMANDS ON STRUCTURE COMPONENTS • Probabilistic Response Spectrum spreadsheet (http://dap3. Case II: Combine the response resulting from 100% of the longitudinal loading with the corresponding response from 30% of the transverse loading. where the longitudinal axis is typically represented by a chord connecting the two abutments. A casebycase determination on the effect of vertical load is required for Nonstandard and Important bridges. 2.2 Horizontal Ground Motion Earthquake effects shall be determined from horizontal ground motion applied by either of the following methods: Method 1 The application of the ground motion in two orthogonal directions along a set of global axes.1. 2. especially lightly reinforced sections such as P/S box girders.6g or greater.xls) • Caltrans ARS Online (Caltrans intranet: http://10. Case I: Combine the response resulting from 100% of the transverse loading with the corresponding response from 30% of the longitudinal loading. The intent is to ensure all superstructure types.3 Vertical Ground Motions For Ordinary Standard bridges where the site peak rock acceleration is 0.1.178/shake2/shake_index2.ca.dot. have a nominal amount of mild reinforcement available to resist the combined effects of dead load.gov/shake_stable/) • USGS Earthquake Hazards Program website (http://earthquake.usgs. an equivalent static vertical load shall be applied to the superstructure to estimate the effects of vertical acceleration 2. The ground motion must be applied at a sufficient number of angles to capture the maximum deformation of all critical components.2. 2 This is an interim method of approximating the effects of vertical acceleration on superstructure capacity. The superstructure shall be designed to resist the applied vertical force as specified in Section 7.gov/research/hazmaps/index. Method 2 The application of the ground motion along the principal axes of individual components. This is a subject of continued study. earthquake.
5 Damping A 5% damped elastic ARS curve shall be used for determining the accelerations for Ordinary Standard concrete bridges. RD can be applied to the 5% damped ARS coefficient used to calculate the displacement demand.5 Figure 2.1.1 Local–Global Axis Definition 2. • • • • • Total length less than 300 feet (90 m) Three spans or less Abutments designed for sustained soil mobilization Normal or slight skew (less than 20 degrees) Continuous superstructure without hinges or expansion joints SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 23 . Damping ratios on the order of 10% can be justified for bridges that are heavily influenced by energy dissipation at the abutments and are expected to respond like singledegreeoffreedom systems. A reduction factor. The following characteristics are typically good indicators that higher damping may be anticipated [3].SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.
g.5 [40c + 1] (2. approximately equal bent stiffness) Low skew Elastic Dynamic Analysis (EDA) as defined in Section 5. The analytical model for determining the displacement demands shall include as many of the structural SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 24 . 2.2. as defined in Section 5. ΔD for Ordinary Standard Bridges can be determined by linear elastic analysis utilizing effective section properties as defined in Section 5.2. ΔD is the total displacement at a particular location within the structure or subsystem. The global displacement demand estimate shall include the effects of soil/foundation flexibility if they are significant.1) ARS’=( RD)(ARS) c = damping ratio (0.05 < c < 0. can be used to determine ΔD if a dynamic analysis will not add significantly more insight into behavior. balanced spans.1 Displacement Demand Estimated Displacement The global displacement demand estimate. The global displacement will include components attributed to foundation flexibility. 2.2 Global Structure Displacement and Local Member Displacement Global structure displacement.2 shall be used to determine ΔD for all other Ordinary Standard Bridges.1) ARS = 5% damped ARS curve ARS’ = modified ARS curve However. abutments that are designed to fuse (seat type abutment with backwalls). Δ f (i.2.e.5 + 0. ESA is best suited for bridges or individual frames with the following characteristics: • • • Response primarily captured by the fundamental mode of vibration with uniform translation Simply defined lateral force distribution (e. Equivalent Static Analysis (ESA). and the flexibility attributed to elastic and inelastic response of ductile members Δ y and Δ p respectively. or respond in a flexible manner. foundation rotation or translation). may not develop enough sustained soilstructure interaction to rely on the higher damping ratio.2.6.1.SECTION 2 – DEMANDS ON STRUCTURE COMPONENTS RD = 1. flexibility of capacity protected components such as bent caps Δb .2 2.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5
ΔD ΔY Δ col ΔY
col
ΔD ΔY Δ col Δ
p
ΔY Δ
p
ΔD Δ col
Δ
f
ΔY
col
Δ
f
ΔY
col
Δp
CASE A Fixed Footing
CASE B Foundation Flexibility
col = ΔY Note: For a cantilever column w/fixed base ΔY
A ARS Demand B
Foundation Flexibility Effect
Capacity
ΔY
A
ΔY ΔD
B
A
ΔD
B
Displacement
Figure 2.2 The Effects of Foundation Flexibility on ForceDeflection Curve of a Single Column Bent
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
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SECTION 2 – DEMANDS ON STRUCTURE COMPONENTS
ΔD Δcol
3 1
ΔD Δcol Δb
3 1
ΔD Δ f Δcol
3
Δb
1
4 CASE A
2
4 CASE B
2
4 CASE C
2
Rigid Bent Cap
Flexible Bent Cap
Flexible Bent Cap & Flexible Foundation
Assumed Plastic Hinge

Lateral Force
ARS Demand A B C A B C
Capacity
ΔY1
ΔY2
ΔY3
ΔD
ΔY4
Displacement
Figure 2.3 The Effects of Bent Cap and Foundation Flexibility on ForceDeflection Curve of a Bent Frame
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
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SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5
characteristics and boundary conditions affecting the structure’s global displacements as possible. The effects of these characteristics on the global displacement of the structural system are illustrated in Figures 2.2 & 2.3. Local member displacements such as column displacements, Δcol are defined as the portion of global displacement attributed to the elastic displacement Δ y and plastic displacement Δ p of an individual member from the point of maximum moment to the point of contraflexure as shown in Figure 2.2. 2.2.3 Displacement Ductility Demand Displacement ductility demand is a measure of the imposed postelastic deformation on a member. Displacement ductility is mathematically defined by Equation 2.2.
μ D = ΔD Δ
Y (i )
(2.2)
Where:
ΔD = ΔY(i) =
The estimated global frame displacement demand defined in Section 2.2.2 The yield displacement of the subsystem from its initial position to the formation of plastic hinge (i) See Figure 2.3
2.2.4
Target Displacement Ductility Demand The target displacement ductility demand values for various components are identified below. These
target values have been calibrated to laboratory test results of fixbased cantilever columns where the global displacement equals the column’s displacement. The designer should recognize as the framing system becomes more complex and boundary conditions are included in the demand model, a greater percentage of the global displacement will be attributed to the flexibility of components other than the ductile members within the frame. These effects are further magnified when elastic displacements are used in the ductility definition specified in Equation 2.2 and shown in Figure 2.3. For such systems, including but not limited to, Type I or Type II shafts, the global ductility demand values listed below may not be achieved. The target values may range between 1.5 and 3.5 where specific values cannot be defined. Single Column Bents supported on fixed foundation MultiColumn Bents supported on fixed or pinned footings Pier Walls (weak direction) supported on fixed or pinned footings Pier Walls (strong direction) supported on fixed or pinned footings
μD ≤ 4 μD ≤ 5 μD ≤ 5 μD ≤ 1
Minimum ductility values are not prescribed. The intent is to utilize the advantages of flexible systems, specifically to reduce the required strength of ductile members and minimize the demand imparted to adjacent capacity protected components. Columns or piers with flexible foundations will naturally have low
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
27
but the cross section of the confined core is the same for both the column and the pile shaft. See Section 7. μD ≤ 1.SECTION 2 – DEMANDS ON STRUCTURE COMPONENTS A A A A B B C C D D Constant concrete cover Increased concrete cover below ground Concentric column and shaft cages Enlarged Shaft Section AA Section BB Section CC Reinforcing Cage Section DD TYPE I SHAFTS TYPE II SHAFT Type I Pile Shafts Type I pile shafts are designed so the plastic hinge will form below ground in the pile shaft. compared to Type I Pile Shafts. however there is an advantage of improved postearthquake inspection and repair. containing the majority of inelastic action to the ductile column element.2 for design requirements for Type II pile shafts. Type II Pile Shafts will increase the foundation costs. Type II shafts are usually enlarged pile shafts characterized by a reinforcing cage in the shaft that has a diameter larger than the column it supports. Type II Pile Shafts Type II pile shafts are designed so the plastic hinge will form at or above the shaft/column interface.4 Pile Shaft Definitions NOTE: Generally. Type II pile shafts shall be designed to remain elastic.7. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 28 . Type I Pile Shafts are appropriate for short columns.3. as discussed elsewhere. Figure 2. The concrete cover and area of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement may change between the column and Type I pile shaft. the use of Type II Pile Shafts should be discussed and approved at the Type Selection Meeting. The end result shall be a structure with an appropriate fundamental period. thereby. Typically. The global displacement ductility demand. μD for a Type I pile shaft shall be less than or equal to the μD for the column supported by the shaft. while Type II Pile Shafts are used in conjunction with taller columns.
3 Force Demand The structure shall be designed to resist the internal forces generated when the structure reaches its Collapse Limit State. 2. The minimum lateral strength requirement in Section 3.1 Column Shear Demand The column shear demand and the shear demand transferred to adjacent components shall be the shear col force Vocol associated with the overstrength column moment M o . The shear demand for pier walls in the strong direction is dependent upon the boundary conditions of the pier wall.2.1. and the moment distribution characteristics of the structural system shall determine the design moments for the capacity protected components adjacent to the column. M p defined in Section 3.2 may govern the design of frames where foundation flexibility lengthens the period of the structure into the range where the ARS demand is typically reduced.2.3.5 or the PΔ requirements in Section 4. The designer shall consider all potential plastic hinge locations to insure the maximum possible shear demand has been determined.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.3.1 Moment Demand The column design moments shall be determined by the idealized plastic capacity of the column’s cross col section.5 displacement ductility demands because of the foundation’s contribution to ΔY. 2. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 29 . 2.3.3. Pier walls with fixedpinned end conditions shall be designed for the least value of the unreduced elastic ARS demand or 130% of either the shear capacity of the pinned connection or the ultimate capacity of the foundation.3. the associated shear Vocol defined in Section 2.2 Pier Wall Shear Demand The shear demand for pier walls in the weak direction shall be calculated as described in Section 2.3. Pier walls with fixedfixed end conditions shall be designed to resist the shear generated by the lesser of the unreduced elastic ARS demand or 130% of the ultimate shear capacity of the foundation (based on most probable geotechnical properties). The Collapse Limit State is defined as the condition when a sufficient number of plastic hinges have formed within the structure to create a local or global collapse mechanism.2.2 Shear Demand 2.3. 2 .2.1.3. The overstrength moment M ocol defined in Section 4.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 210 .SECTION 2 – DEMANDS ON STRUCTURE COMPONENTS 2.3.3 Shear Demand for Capacity Protected Members The shear demand for essentially elastic capacity protected members shall be determined by the distribution of overstrength moments and associated shear when the frame or structure reaches its Collapse Limit State.
3 Local Member Displacement Capacity The local displacement capacity of a member is based on its rotation capacity.2) Lp ⎞ ⎛ Δp =θp ×⎜ ⎟ ⎜L − 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ (3. The local displacement capacity Δc of any column may be idealized as one or two cantilever segments presented in Equations 3.1) col ΔY = L2 × φY 3 (3. col Δc = ΔY + Δp (3. See Figures 3.1.1 and 3. 3.1.4.3.5a. Δc is defined as a member’s displacement capacity attributed to its elastic and plastic flexibility as defined in Section 3.1.1.dot.3.gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/SDC/ 3. which in turn is based on its curvature capacity.2 for details.2 Distinction Between Local Member Capacity and Global Structure System Capacity Local member displacement capacity. Ductile members must meet the local displacement capacity requirements specified in Section 3.13.1 and the global displacement criteria specified in Section 4. 3.1.3) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 31 . see Section 3.5 http://www.1a3.1.1 3. respectively.1 Displacement Capacity of Ductile Concrete Members Ductile Member Definition A ductile member is defined as any member that is intentionally designed to deform inelastically for several cycles without significant degradation of strength or stiffness under the demands generated by the MCE.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 and 3.ca. CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS 3. ΔC is the reliable lateral capacity of the bridge or subsystem as it approaches its Collapse Limit State. The structural system’s displacement capacity.1.1. The curvature capacity shall be determined by Mφ analysis.
θ p 2 = L p 2 × φ p 2 (3.5a) L LP = = = = = Distance from the point of maximum moment to the point of contraflexure (in) Equivalent analytical plastic hinge length as defined in Section 7.5) col col Δc1 = ΔY .1a) col ΔY 1 = 2 L1 × φY 1 3 col . Δp2 = θ p2 × ⎜ L2 − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (3.6.2a) Δ p1 = θ p1 × ⎜ ⎜ L1 − ⎝ ⎛ L p1 ⎞ Lp2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎟ . φ p 2 = φ u 2 − φY 2 where: (3. see Figure 3.2 (in) Idealized plastic displacement capacity due to rotation of the plastic hinge (in) The idealized yield displacement of the column at the formation of the plastic hinge (in) Idealized yield curvature defined by an elasticperfectlyplastic representation of the cross section’s Mφ curve. Δc 2 = ΔY 1 + Δ p1 2 + Δp2 (3.SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS θ p = Lp ×φ p (3.4) φ p = φu − φY (3. defined as the concrete strain reaching εcu or the longitudinal reinforcing steel reaching the reduced ultimate strain εsuR (rad/in) θp = Plastic rotation capacity (radian) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 32 . ΔY 2 = L2 2 × φY 2 3 (3.4a) φ p1 = φ u1 − φY 1 .3a) θ p1 = L p1 × φ p1 .7 (rad/in) Δp col ΔY φY φp φu = = Idealized plastic curvature capacity (assumed constant over Lp) (rad/in) Curvature capacity at the Failure Limit State.
L. L Idealized Yield Curvature Capacity Equivalent Curvature Force Actual Curvature Δp Lp θP φu φp φ ΔY Y Δc Displacement Figure 3.3.1. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 33 .6. μc = Δc col ΔY for Cantilever columns. The local displacement ductility capacity shall be calculated for an equivalent member that approximates a fixed base cantilever element as defined in Figure 3. The minimum displacement ductility capacity μc = 3 may be difficult to achieve for columns and Type I pile shafts with large diameters Dc > 10 ft (3m) or components with large L/D ratios.1 Δc1 col ΔY 1 Δc 2 col ΔY 2 for fixedfixed columns (3.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.4 Local Member Displacement Ductility Capacity Local displacement ductility capacity for a particular member is defined in Equation 3.6) Minimum Local Displacement Ductility Capacity Each ductile member shall have a minimum local displacement ductility capacity of μc = 3 to ensure dependable rotational capacity in the plastic hinge regions regardless of the displacement demand imparted to that member.5 Δc ΔYcol Δp C. Local displacement ductility capacity less than three (3) requires approval as specified in MTD 2011.G. & μ c2 = μ c1 = 3.1 Local Displacement Capacity – Cantilever Column w/Fixed Base 3.4.1. Column C.
thus conservatively impacting capacity protected components.2 Local Displacement Capacity – Framed Column. Column φY1 θP1 Lp1 Idealized Yield Curvature φp1 φu1 ΔP2 ΔcolY2 Δc2 L1 ΔP1 ΔcolY1 Δc1 Actual Curvature Idealized Equivalent Curvature L2 Lp2 θP2 φu2 φp2 φY2 Figure 3. An expected ′ recognizes the typically conservative nature of concrete batch design.L.1. shall be based on most probable (expected) material properties to provide a more realistic estimate for design strength. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 34 . The possibility that the yield stress may be less than f ye in ductile components will result in a reduced ratio of actual plastic moment strength to design strength. assumed as fixedfixed 3. and concrete compressive strength. The yield stress f y for ASTM A706 steel can range between 60 ksi to 78 ksi. The possibility that the yield stress may be less than f ye in essentially elastic components is accounted for in the overstrength magnifier specified in Section 4. except shear.1 Material Properties for Concrete Components Expected Material Properties The capacity of concrete components to resist all seismic demands.2 3. f ce the expected strength gain with age.SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS C. An expected reinforcement yield stress f ye is a “characteristic” strength and better represents the actual strength than the specified minimum of 60 ksi.3.2.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 Figure 3.3 Local Ductility Assessment SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 35 .
2. the following properties based on a limited number of monotonic pull tests conducted by Material Engineering and Testing Services (METS) may be used.2 Nonlinear Reinforcing Steel Models for Ductile Reinforced Concrete Members Reinforcing steel shall be modeled with a stressstrain relationship that exhibits an initial linear elastic portion. and a strain hardening range in which the stress increases with strain. The ultimate strain should be set at the point where the stress begins to drop with increased strain as the bar approaches fracture. Seismic shear capacity shall be conservatively based on the nominal material strengths defined in Section 3.3 Reinforcing Steel A706/A706M (Grade 60/Grade 400) For A706/A706M reinforcing steel.SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS Expected material properties shall only be used to assess capacity for earthquake loads. It is Caltrans’ practice to reduce the ultimate strain by up to thirtythree percent to decrease the probability of fracture of the reinforcement. 3.0021 ε ye = 0.1. a yield plateau.000 ksi f y = 60 ksi f ye = 68 ksi 200.4 [4]. Modulus of elasticity Specified minimum yield strength Es = 29. not the expected material strengths.000 MPa 420 MPa 475 MPa Expected yield strength Specified minimum tensile strength f u = 80 ksi 550 MPa 655 MPa Expected tensile strength Nominal yield strain Expected yield strain f ue = 95 ksi ε y = 0. The designer may use actual test data if available. 3. The yield point should be defined by the expected yield stress of the steel f ye .6.0023 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 36 . The material properties for all other load cases shall comply with the Caltrans Bridge Design Specifications (BDS). The strainhardening curve can be modeled as a parabola or other nonlinear relationship and should terminate at the ultimate tensile strain ε su . The length of the yield plateau shall be a function of the steel strength and bar size. The commonly used steel model is shown in Figure 3.2.
060 #11 (#36m) bars and larger #8 (#25m) bars #9 (#29m) bars #10 & #11 (#32m & #36m) bars #14 (#43m) bars #18 (#57m) bars Reduced ultimate tensile strain R =⎨ ε su Onset of strain hardening ε sh ⎧0. The curves in Figure 3.5 Ultimate tensile strain ε su = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪0.090 #11 (#36m) bars and larger ⎧ ⎪0.5 is an idealized stressstrain model for 7wire lowrelaxation prestressing strand.0125 ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨0.7 – 3.120 #10 (#32 m) bars and smaller ⎪ ⎩0.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. Figure 3.0150 ⎪ ⎪0.4 Nonlinear Prestressing Steel Model Prestressing steel shall be modeled with an idealized nonlinear stress strain model. See MTD 203 for the material properties pertaining to high strength rods (ASTM A722 Uncoated HighStrength Steel Bar for Prestressing Concrete).2.090 #10 (#32m) bars and smaller ⎪ ⎩0. Consult the OSD Prestressed Concrete Committee for the stressstrain models of other prestressing steels.4 Steel Stress Strain Model 3.5 can be approximated by Equations 3.0075 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩0.0050 fue fye ε ye ε sh ε R su ε su Figure 3.10. 37 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA .0115 ⎪ ⎪0.
025 0.007 (3.04 ε ps − 0.0086 for f u = 270 ksi (1860 MPa ) ⎩ Reduced ultimate prestress steel strain R ε ps = 0.0086 : f ps = 28.0076 : f ps = 250 − 0.015 0.500 × ε ps (ksi) f ps = 196.500 × ε ps 1.020 0.005 0.5 Prestressing Strand Stress Strain Model SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 38 .030 Strain εps Figure 3.276 (MPa) ε ps − 0.8) 270 ksi (1860 MPa) Strand: ε ps ≤ 0.9) ε ps ≥ 0.SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS Essentially elastic prestress steel strain ε ps .0076 : f ps = 28.u 250 ksi (1725 MPa) Strand: ε ps ≤ 0.25 (ksi) f ps = 196.010 0.500 MPa) 250 (1725) 270 ksi (1860 MPa) 230 (1585) 250 ksi (1725 Mpa) 210 (1450) 190 (1310) 170 (1170) 150 (1035) 0 0.03 .007 f ps = 1860 − 0.0086 : f ps = 270 − 0. EE ⎧0.10) 270 (1860) E s=28.500 × ε ps ε ps ≥ 0.500 ksi (196.72 (MPa) (3.0076 for f u = 250 ksi (1725 MPa ) ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎪ ⎪0.7) ε ps (ksi) f ps = 1725 − ε ps (MPa) (3.500 × ε ps (ksi) (MPa) (3.
The ultimate strain εcu should be the point where strain energy equilibrium is reached between the concrete and the confinement steel.2.11) Where w = unit weight of concrete in lb/ft3 and kg/m3.5 3. The initial ascending curve may be represented by the same equation for both the confined and unconfined model since the confining steel has no effect in this range of strains.12) Poisson’s Ratio vc = 0.05 kg/m3).005 c0 sp ε cc = * ε cu = * Defined by the constitutive stress strain model for confined concrete.6 Normal Weight Portland Cement Concrete Properties Modulus of Elasticity. Equation 3. E c = 0. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 39 .5 × ′ f ce (MPa ) (3. 3.002 ε = 0.5 × ′ f ce (psi) . respectively. The confined concrete model should continue to ascend until the confined compressive strength f cc reached. For w = 143.11 results in the form presented in other Caltrans documents.13) ε = 0. typically εsp ′ is ≈ 0.5 Nonlinear Concrete Models for Ductile Reinforced Concrete Members A stressstrain model for confined and unconfined concrete shall be used in the analysis to determine the local capacity of ductile concrete members.2 ⎧1.6. As the curve approaches the compressive strength of the unconfined concrete. This segment should be followed by a descending curve dependent on the parameters of the confining steel. A commonly used model is Mander’s stress strain model for confined concrete shown in Figure 3.005.043 × w1.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.2. see Figure 3.6 [4].5 (MPa )] ⎩ Unconfined concrete compressive strain at the maximum compressive stress Ultimate unconfined compression (spalling) strain Confined compressive strain Ultimate compression strain for confined concrete * (3.3 × f c′ ⎪ ′ = the greater of: ⎨ or Expected concrete compressive strength f ce ⎪5000 (psi) [34.96 lb/ft3 (2286. E c = 33 × w1. the unconfined stress begins to fall to an unconfined strain level before rapidly degrading to zero at the spalling strain εsp. Shear Modulus Gc = Ec 2 × (1 + vc ) (3.
the bridge is classified as nonstandard.SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS Figure 3. The elastic portion of the idealized curve should pass through the point marking the first reinforcing bar yield. The Μ −φ curve can be idealized with an elastic perfectly plastic response to estimate the plastic moment capacity of a member’s cross section.3. see Figure 3. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 310 . If nonstandard components are explicitly designed for ductile behavior.2. The idealized plastic moment capacity is obtained by balancing the areas between the actual and the idealized Μ −φ curves beyond the first reinforcing bar yield point. 3.7 [4].1 Plastic Moment Capacity for Ductile Concrete Members Moment Curvature ( Μ −φ ) Analysis The plastic moment capacity of all ductile concrete members shall be calculated by Μ −φ analysis based on expected material properties. The material properties and stressstrain relationships for nonstandard components shall be included in the project specific design criteria.7 Other Material Properties Inelastic behavior shall be limited to predetermined locations. Moment curvature analysis derives the curvatures associated with a range of moments for a cross section based on the principles of strain compatibility and equilibrium of forces.3 3.6 Concrete Stress Strain Model 3.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 311 . The material properties used for assessing all other load cases shall comply with the Caltrans design manuals. Expected nominal moment capacity for capacity protected concrete components shall be based on the expected concrete and steel strengths when either the concrete strain reaches 0. The expected nominal moment capacity M ne for capacity protected concrete components determined by either Μ −φ or strength design. Expected material properties shall only be used to assess flexural component capacity for resisting earthquake loads. is the minimum requirement for essentially elastic behavior. joints and superstructure shall be designed flexurally to remain essentially elastic when the column reaches its overstrength capacity. Type II pile shafts.5 Moment Mp col M ne My φy φY Curvature Figure 3.003 or the reinforcing steel strain reaches εsuR as derived from the steel stress strain model.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.7 Moment Curvature Curve φu 3. bent cap beams.4 Requirements for Capacity Protected Components Capacity protected concrete components such as footings. Due to cost considerations a factor of safety is not required.
5 Minimum Lateral Strength Each bent shall have a minimum lateral flexural capacity (based on expected material properties) to resist a lateral force of 0.18) ( MPa ) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 312 .16 through 3.21. Vc = v c × Ae Ae = 0.6 3.17) • Inside the plastic hinge zone ⎧Factor 1 × Factor 2 × ⎪ vc = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩Factor 1 × Factor 2 × f c′ ≤ 4 f c′ f c′ ≤ 0.6.8 × Ag (3.1 × Pdl .6.2 φ = 0. The shear capacity for ductile concrete members shall be conservatively based on the nominal material strengths. φVn ≥ Vo V n = Vc + V s 3. where Pdl is the tributary dead load applied at the center of gravity of the superstructure.SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS 3.14) (3.1 Seismic Shear Design for Ductile Concrete Members Nominal Shear Capacity The seismic shear demand shall be based on the overstrength shear Vo associated with the overstrength moment M o defined in Section 4.33 f c′ (psi) (3.15) Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete shear capacity of members designed for ductility shall consider the effects of flexure and axial load as specified in Equation 3. 3.85 (3.3.16) (3.
25 × Factor 2 × f c′ ≤ 0.150 Factor 1 = ⎨ ⎪0.5 g ⎪ Factor 2 = ⎨ Pc ⎪1 + < 1.5 ⎪ 13.5 • Outside the plastic hinge zone ⎧3 × Factor 2 × f c′ ≤ 4 f c′ ⎪ vc = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.20) (English Units) (3.67 − μ d < 3 (English Units) ⎪ ⎪ 0.083μ < 0.21) (Metric Units) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 313 .33 f c′ ( psi) (3.3 ≤ + 3.19) (MPa ) ρ s f yh ⎧ 0. (3.25 (Metric Units) d ⎪ 12.305 − 0.8 × Ag ⎩ For members whose net axial load is in tension.5 ⎩ Pc ⎧ ⎪1 + 2000 × A < 1.025 ≤ ρ s f yh + 0. v c = 0 .
SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS
The global displacement ductility demand μD shall be used in the determination of Factor 1 provided a significant portion of the global displacement is attributed to the deformation of the column or pier. In all other cases a local displacement ductility demand μd shall be used in Factor 1 of the shear equation.
3.6.3 Shear Reinforcement Capacity
For confined circular or interlocking core sections
⎛ Av f yh D ' ⎞ ⎟, Vs = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ s ⎠ ⎝
where Av = n ∗ ⎜
⎛π ⎞ ⎟ ∗ Ab ⎝2⎠
(3.22)
n = number of individual interlocking spiral or hoop core sections.
For pier walls (in the weak direction)
⎛ Av f yh D ' ⎞ ⎟ Vs = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ s ⎠ ⎝
Av = Total area of the shear reinforcement.
(3.23)
Alternative methods for assessing the shear capacity of members designed for ductility must be approved through the process outlined in MTD 2011. Deleted
Maximum and Minimum Shear Reinforcement Requirements For Columns
3.6.4 3.6.5
3.6.5.1
Maximum Shear Reinforcement
The shear strength Vs provided by the reinforcing steel shall not be taken greater than:
8×
f c′ Ae
(psi)
0.67 ×
f c′ Ae
(
N mm 2
)
(3.24)
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
314
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5
3.6.5.2 Minimum Shear Reinforcement The area of shear reinforcement provided in columns shall be greater than the area required by Equation 3.25. The area of shear reinforcement for each individual core of columns confined by interlocking spirals or hoops shall be greater than the area required by Equation 3.25.
Av ≥ 0.025 ×
D′ s f yh
(in 2 )
Av ≥ 0.17 ×
D′ s f yh
(mm 2 )
(3.25)
3.6.5.3 Minimum Vertical Reinforcement in Interlocking Portion The longitudinal rebars in the interlocking portion of the column shall have a maximum spacing of eight (8) inches and need not be anchored in the footing or the bent cap unless deemed necessary for the flexural capacity of the column. The longitudinal rebar size in the interlocking portion of the column shall be chosen correspondingly to the rebars outside the interlocking portion as follows:
Size of rebars required inside the interlocking portion #6 #8 #9 #11
Size of rebars used outside the interlocking portion #10 #11 #14 #18
3.6.6
Shear Capacity of Pier Walls
3.6.6.1
Shear Capacity in the Weak Direction
The shear capacity for pier walls in the weak direction shall be designed according to Section 3.6.2 & 3.6.3. 3.6.6.2 Shear Capacity in the Strong Direction
The shear capacity of pier walls in the strong direction shall resist the maximum shear demand specified in Section 2.3.2.2.
φVnpw > Vupw
φ = 0.85
(3.26)
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
315
SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS
Studies of squat shear walls have demonstrated that the large shear stresses associated with the moment capacity of the wall may lead to a sliding failure brought about by crushing of the concrete at the base of the wall. The thickness of pier walls shall be selected so the shear stress satisfies equation 3.27 [6].
Vnpw < 8× 0 .8 × A g
3.6.7
f c′
(psi)
Vnpw < 0.67 × 0 .8 × A g
f c′
(MPa )
(3.27)
Shear Capacity of Capacity Protected Members
The shear capacity of essentially elastic members shall be designed in accordance with BDS Section 8.16.6 using nominal material properties.
3.7
3.7.1
Maximum and Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement
Maximum Longitudinal Reinforcement
The area of longitudinal reinforcement for compression members shall not exceed the value specified in Equation 3.28. 0.04 × Ag
3.7.2 Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement
(3.28)
The minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement for compression members shall not be less than the value specified in Equation 3.29 and 3.30. 0.01 × Ag
Columns Pier Walls
(3.29) (3.30)
0.005 × Ag
3.7.3
Maximum Reinforcement Ratio
The designer must ensure that members sized to remain essentially elastic (i.e. superstructure, bent caps, footings, enlarged pile shafts) retain a ductile failure mode. The reinforcement ratio, ρ shall meet the requirements in BDS Section 8.16.3 for reinforced concrete members and BDS Section 9.19 for prestressed concrete members.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
316
2.3.2.8.31) 3.8.18.3.18. If the Type II pile shaft is enlarged. 3.8. ρ s for columns with circular or interlocking core sections is defined by Equation 3.1. ρs = 4 Ab D′ s (3. shall not be less than 50% of the amount specified in Section 3.2 Lateral Column Reinforcement Inside the Plastic Hinge Region The lateral reinforcement required inside the plastic hinge region shall meet the volumetric requirements specified in Section 3.4 Lateral Reinforcement of Pier Walls The lateral confinement of pier walls shall be provided by cross ties.8. 3.2 through 8.2.8.8. The maximum spacing requirements in Section 8.2. at least 50% of the confinement reinforcement required at the base of the column shall extend over the entire embedded length of the column cage. 3 3.3. The lateral pier wall reinforcement outside the plastic hinge region shall satisfy BDS Section 8. ρ s provided inside the plastic hinge length shall be sufficient to ensure the column or pier wall meets the performance requirements in Section 4.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.2.5 Lateral Reinforcement Requirements for Columns Supported on Type II Pile Shafts The volumetric ratio of lateral reinforcement for columns supported on Type II pile shafts shall meet the requirements specified in Section 3. The lateral reinforcement shall be either buttwelded hoops or continuous spiral. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 317 .4.8. and the spacing requirements in Section 8.3. The total cross sectional tie area.18. The required length of embedment for the column cage into the shaft is specified in Section 8.5 should prevent the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement between adjacent layers of transverse reinforcement.1.2.1 Lateral Reinforcement of Ductile Members Lateral Reinforcement Inside the Analytical Plastic Hinge Length The volume of lateral reinforcement typically defined by the volumetric ratio.6.31.2 or BDS Sections 8.8. Ash required inside the plastic end regions of pier walls shall be the larger of the volume of steel required in Section 3.6. the shear requirements specified in Section 3.8.2 and meet the shear requirements specified in Section 3.3. 3 The SDC development team has examined the longitudinal reinforcement buckling issue.1 and 3.4.5.8 3.8.3 Lateral Column Reinforcement Outside the Plastic Hinge Region The volume of lateral reinforcement required outside of the plastic hinge region.5 3.2.
the volumetric ratio of lateral confinement in the top segment 4Dc. the volumetric ratio of the Type II pile shaft lateral confinement shall not be less than half that of the upper pile shaft. If this results in lateral confinement spacing which violates minimum spacing requirements in the pile shaft. If this results in lateral confinement spacing which violates minimum spacing requirements in the pile shaft. The confinement of the remainder of the shaft cage shall not be less than half that of the upper pile shaft.6 Lateral Confinement for Type II Pile Shafts The minimum volumetric ratio of lateral confinement in the enlarged Type II shaft shall be 50% of the volumetric ratio required at the base of the column and shall extend along the shaft cage to the point of termination of the column cage. Beyond the termination of the column cage.8. the bar size and spacing shall be increased proportionally. Under such conditions. the bar size and spacing shall be increased proportionally.max of the shaft shall be at least 75% of the confinement reinforcement required at the base of the column.SECTION 3 – CAPACITIES OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS 3. Under certain exceptions a Type II shaft may be designed by adding longitudinal reinforcement to a prismatic column/shaft cage below ground. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 318 .
The frame displacement when any plastic hinge reaches its ultimate capacity.1.1) Is the displacement generated from the global analysis.1.4. as well as the reserve capacity observed in many of the Caltrans sponsored column tests. The SDC development team elected not to include an interaction relationship for the displacement demand/capacity ratios along the principal axes of ductile members. or the larger of the two if both types of analyses are necessary.1.3 Capacity Ductility Criteria All ductile members in a bridge shall satisfy the displacement ductility capacity requirements specified in Section 3.2.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 http://www. This decision was based on the inherent factor of safety provided elsewhere in our practice.1 Performance Criteria Global Displacement Criteria Each bridge or frame shall satisfy Equation 4.1. see Figure 4.1 4. Currently test data is not available to conclusively assess the impact of biaxial displacement demands and their effects on member capacity especially for columns with large cross sectional aspect ratios.1. 4.2 Demand Ductility Criteria The entire structural system as well as its individual subsystems shall meet the displacement ductility demand requirements in Section 2.1.ca. 4.dot. Where ΔD is the displacement along the local principal axes of a ductile member generated by seismic deformations applied to the structural system as defined in Section 2. 4 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 41 . CAPACITY 4. This factor of safety is provided primarily by the limits placed on permissible column displacement ductility and ultimate material strains.1. 4 Δ D < ΔC Where: ΔD ΔC (4. the standalone analysis. DEMAND VS.1.4.gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/SDC/ 4.2.
CAPACITY ARS Demand Strength Reduction due to P.[7] SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 42 .Δ F2 Δp Δp Δ1 Δ2 1 2 1 F1 ΔY ΔY Δ3 2 ΔD Δc 1 ΔC Δc 2 Displacement Δ1 F1 Δ2 F2 Moment Diagram 1 1 F3=0 Δ3 2 Moment Diagram 2 1 Idealized Frame Force Capacity = ΣF(i) = F1+ F2 Displacement Capacity = ΣΔ(i) = Δ1 + Δ2 + Δ3 Figure 4.SECTION 4 – DEMAND VS.1 Global Force Deflection Relationship [4].
2Mp allowance for the PΔ effects is justifiable.2.3 is satisfied. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 43 . As the displacement of top of column is increased.Δ Effects The dynamic effects of gravity loads acting through lateral displacements shall be included in the design. The idealized plastic moment Mp is always less than Mu in a wellconfined column and 0.3 can be used to establish a conservative limit for lateral displacements induced by axial load for columns meeting the ductility demand limits specified in Section 2. In lieu of such analysis.20 × M col p Where: (4.2. The magnitude of displacements associated with PΔ effects can only be accurately captured with nonlinear time history analysis. moment demand values at the base pass through My. and Mu (key values defining the momentcurvature curve. If Equation 4. Δr = ΔD − Δs Δ s = The pile shaft displacement at the point of maximum moment Pdl Δr Pdl Δs ΔD Δr Pdl V V Mu Mp Mn Column Height My Mu L Ground Line Plastic Hinge Moment at Plastic Hinge Mn 0.5 4. See Figure 4.4. Mn.2.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.2). given the reserve moment capacities shown above.3) Δr = The relative lateral offset between the point of contraflexure and the base of the plastic hinge. For Type I pile shafts. [4] Pdl × Δr ≤ 0.2Mp φ My Figure 4. PΔ effects can typically be ignored 5. Equation 4.2 P.2 PΔ Effects on Bridge Columns [4] 5 The moment demand at point of maximum moment in the shaft is shown in Figure 4. see Figure 4. Mp.
a 20% overstrength magnifier shall be applied to the plastic moment capacity of a column to account for: • • Material strength variations between the column and adjacent members (e. CAPACITY 4.SECTION 4 – DEMAND VS. Longitudinally. The distribution factors shall be based on cracked sectional properties. Consequently.4) 4.3.5) (4.7) col col col col Mo = M dl +Mp / s + M eq R L col M eq + M eq + M eq + Vocol × Dc. see Figure 4.2 Superstructure/Bent Cap Demand & Capacity The nominal capacity of the superstructure longitudinally and of the bent cap transversely must be sufficient to ensure the columns have moved well beyond their elastic limit prior to the superstructure or bent cap reaching its expected nominal strength M ne . the column earthquake moment is distributed to the adjacent superstructure spans. sup( R ) M ne ≥ sup( L ) M ne ∑M ≥ ∑M R dl L dl R R +Mp / s + M eq L L +Mp / s + M eq (4. when coupled with the existing column dead load moment and column secondary prestress moment. Transversely. and column earthquake moment. g . The strength of the superstructure shall not be considered effective on the side of the column adjacent to a hinge seat.3 4. bent cap. oversized pile shafts) Column moment capacities greater than the idealized plastic moment capacity col col Mo = 1. = 0 ( ) (4.8) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 44 . footings.6) (4. superstructure.3. the superstructure capacity shall be greater than the demand distributed to the superstructure on each side of the column by the largest combination of dead load moment. The column earthquake moment represents the amount of moment induced by an earthquake. will equal the column’s overstrength capacity.g. Any moment demand caused by dead load or secondary prestress effects shall be distributed to the entire frame. secondary prestress moment.2 × M p (4.1 Component Overstrength Factors Column Overstrength Factor In order to determine force demands on essentially elastic members.3. similar requirements are required in the bent cap.
4. g . The effective width of the superstructure increases and the moment demand decreases with distance from the bent cap. (moment induced by the overstrength shear) distributed to the left or right adjacent superstructure span 4. Axial forces not shown 2. L M ne = Expected nominal moment capacity of the adjacent left or right superstructure span = Dead load plus added dead load moment (unfactored) = Secondary effective prestress moment (after losses have occurred) = The column moment when coupled with any existing dead load and/or secondary prestress moment will equal the column’s overstrength moment capacity M dl M p/s col M eq R.2.1.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.3 Superstructure Demand Generated by Column Overstrength Moment Where: sup R . The reinforcement should be terminated after it sup has been developed beyond the point where the capacity of the superstructure. L M eq L M p/s Mdl col V Mo Vo col R Mdl M R p/s M R eq Note: 1. M ne exceeds the moment demand without the additional reinforcement. Forces shown in positive counter clockwise sign convention Figure 4. see Section 7. As and/or soffit As superstructure.1. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 45 .g.3.5 C L Column V L Dc.L M eq = The portion of col M eq and Vocol × D c.1 Longitudinal Superstructure Capacity ′ to increase the moment capacity of the Reinforcement can be added to the deck.2. see Figure 4.
2 for additional information on foundation performance. CAPACITY C L Column Ts Tps εps εs φ As εc εs εps φ ε's Cs Cps Cc Aps Cc C's Stress Strain ε's εc As Vo col ' T's Stress Strain Mo col Figure 4. 4.3 Foundation Capacity The foundation must have sufficient strength to ensure the column has moved well beyond its elastic capacity prior to the foundation reaching its expected nominal capacity.1. Bent cap reinforcement required for overstrength must be developed beyond the column cap joint.3.3. Cutting off bent cap reinforcement is discouraged because small changes in the plastic hinge capacity may translate into large changes in the moment distribution along the cap due to steep moment gradients. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 46 . Refer to Section 6.2 Bent Cap Capacity The effective width for calculating bent cap capacity is defined in section 7.2.SECTION 4 – DEMAND VS.3.1.4 Capacity Provided By Superstructure Internal Resultant Force Couple 4.
ca.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. The number of degrees of freedom and the number of modes considered in the analysis shall be sufficient to capture at least 90% mass participation in the longitudinal and transverse directions.2. ESA is best suited for structures or individual frames with well balanced spans and uniformly distributed stiffness where the response can be captured by a predominant translational mode of vibration. ANALYSIS 5. The seismic load shall be assumed as an equivalent static horizontal force applied to individual frames.5 http://www.2.1 Analysis Requirements Analysis Objective The objective of seismic analysis is to assess the force and deformation demands and capacities on the structural system and its individual components. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 51 .gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/SDC/ 5.2 5.2 Elastic Dynamic Analysis (EDA) EDA shall be used to estimate the displacement demands for structures where ESA does not provide an adequate level of sophistication to estimate the dynamic behavior.1 5. 5. A minimum of three elements per column and four elements per span shall be used in the linear elastic model. Inelastic static analysis is the appropriate analytical tool to establishing the displacement capacities for Ordinary Standard bridges. The horizontal force shall be applied at the vertical center of mass of the superstructure and distributed horizontally in proportion to the mass distribution. A linear elastic multimodal spectral analysis utilizing the appropriate response spectrum shall be performed.dot. The total applied force shall be equal to the product of the ARS and the tributary weight.1. 5. Equivalent static analysis and linear elastic dynamic analysis are the appropriate analytical tools for estimating the displacement demands for Ordinary Standard bridges.1 Analytical Methods Equivalent Static Analysis (ESA) ESA can be used to estimate displacement demands for structures where a more sophisticated dynamic analysis will not provide additional insight into behavior.
SECTION 5 – ANALYSIS EDA based on design spectral accelerations will likely produce stresses in some elements that exceed their elastic limit.1. 2 Abut Long. and nonlinear restrainer and abutment behavior.: Transverse Axis Bridge Expansion Joint Figure 5. 2 Abut Long. 1 Long. opening and closing of expansion joints. The presence of such stresses indicates nonlinear behavior. Tran. EDA modal results shall be combined using the complete quadratic combination (CQC) method.: Longitudinal Axis Tran. yielding of structural components. See Figure 5. The engineer should recognize that forces generated by linear elastic analysis could vary considerably from the actual force demands on the structure. Multiframe analysis shall include a minimum of two boundary frames or one frame and an abutment beyond the frame under consideration. 3 Tran. 3 Model 1 Boundary Frame 3 Boundary Frame 2 Model 2 Legend Model 3 Long.1 EDA Modeling Techniques SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 52 . 1 Boundary Frame 2 Boundary Frame 1 Tran. Sources of nonlinear response that are not captured by EDA include the effects of the surrounding soil.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. which combine the characteristics identified for the tension and compression models.5 5. In the compression model. multiple transverse expansion joints.3 Structural System “Global” Analysis Structural system or global analysis is required when it is necessary to capture the response of the entire bridge system. The boundary frames provide some continuity between adjacent models but are considered redundant and their analytical results are ignored. massive substructures components. the superstructure joints including the abutments are released longitudinally with truss elements connecting the joints to capture the effects of the restrainers. A single multiframe model may not be realistic since it cannot account for outofphase movement among the frames and may not have enough nodes to capture all of the significant dynamic modes. ISA shall be performed using expected material properties of modeled members. by pushing them laterally to initiate plastic action. Bridge systems with irregular geometry. shall be used to determine the reliable displacement capacities of a structure or frame as it reaches its limit of structural stability. 5. see Figure 5. Because the analytical model accounts for the redistribution of internal actions as components respond inelastically. including soil effects.2. Structures with appreciable superstructure curvature may require additional models. ISA is an incremental linear analysis. Each increment pushes the frame laterally. in particular curved bridges and skew bridges. ISA is expected to provide a more realistic measure of behavior than can be obtained from elastic analysis procedures. through all possible stages. all of the truss (restrainer) elements are inactivated and the superstructure elements are locked longitudinally to capture structural response modes where the joints close up. which captures the overall nonlinear behavior of the elements. Each multiframe model should be limited to five frames plus a boundary frame or abutment on each end of the model. commonly referred to as “push over” analysis. A massless spring should be attached to the dead end of the boundary frames to represent the stiffness of the remaining structure. and foundations supported by soft soil can exhibit dynamic response characteristics that are not necessarily obvious and may not be captured in a separate subsystem analysis [7]. Adjacent models shall overlap each other by at least one useable frame. Two global dynamic analyses are normally required to capture the assumed nonlinear response of a bridge because it possesses different characteristics in tension versus compression [3]. until the potential collapse mechanism is achieved. In the tension model. Long multiframe bridges shall be analyzed with multiple elastic models. Engineering judgment should be exercised when SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 53 .3 Inelastic Static Analysis (ISA) ISA.1. The structure’s geometry will dictate if both a tension model and a compression model are required. mobilizing the abutments when applicable.
5.1.4.SECTION 5 – ANALYSIS interpreting the deformation results among various sets of frames since the boundary frame method does not fully account for the continuity of the structure [3].4 StandAlone “Local” Analysis Standalone analysis quantifies the strength and ductility capacity of an individual frame. Simplifying the demand and capacity models is not permitted if the structure does not meet the stiffness and period requirements in Sections 7. Standalone analysis shall be performed in both the transverse and longitudinal directions. an overall length greater than 300 feet (90 m) or significant in plane curvature since the controlling displacement occurs when the frame is moving away from the abutment.4.1 Transverse StandAlone Analysis Transverse standalone frame models shall assume lumped mass at the columns. see Figure 5.2 Longitudinal StandAlone Analysis Longitudinal standalone frame models shall include the short side of hinges with a concentrated dead load. 5. Typically the abutment stiffness is ignored in the standalone longitudinal model for structures with more than two frames.1 and 7. A realistic estimate of the abutment stiffness may be incorporated into the standalone analysis for single frame tangent bridges and two frame tangent bridges less than 300 feet (90 m) in length. bent. see Figure 5. The effect of overturning on the column axial load and associated member capacities must be considered in the simplified model.2. Each frame shall meet all SDC requirements in the standalone condition. or column. 5. 5.5 Simplified Analysis The twodimensional plane frame “push over” analysis of a bent or frame can be simplified to a column model (fixedfixed or fixedpinned) if it does not cause a significant loss in accuracy in estimating the displacement demands or the displacement capacities. The transverse displacement demand at each bent in a frame shall include the effects of rigid body rotation around the frame’s center of rigidity.2. The transverse analysis of end frames shall include a realistic estimate of the abutment stiffness consistent with the abutment’s expected performance. Hinge spans shall be modeled as rigid elements with half of their mass lumped at the adjacent column.2. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 54 . and the entire long side of hinges supported by rollers at their ends.1.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.6 5. shall reflect the cracking that occurs before the yield limit state is reached.5 Figure 5.2 StandAlone Analysis 5. Concrete members display nonlinear response before reaching their idealized Yield Limit State.6. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 55 . I eff and J eff shall be used to obtain realistic values for the structure’s period and the seismic demands generated from ESA and EDA analyses. Section properties. flexural rigidity E c I and torsional rigidity G c J .1 Effective Section Properties Effective Section Properties for Seismic Analysis Elastic analysis assumes a linear relationship between stiffness and strength. The effective moments of inertia.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 56 .1.SECTION 5 – ANALYSIS 5. I eff for reinforced concrete box girder sections can be estimated between 0. 5.1.6.75I g . 5. Ieff can be estimated by Figure 5.6. no stiffness reduction is recommended for prestressed concrete box girder sections.1. My E c × I eff = φy (5.1.3 I e f f for Other Superstructure Typ es Reductions to Ig similar to those specified for box girders can be used for other superstructure types and cap beams. The lower bound represents lightly reinforced sections and the upper bound represents heavily reinforced sections.1 Ieff for Ductile Members The cracked flexural stiffness Ieff should be used when modeling ductile elements.3 or the initial slope of the Mφ curve between the origin and the point designating the first reinforcing bar yield as defined by equation 5. Therefore.5I g − 0.2 I e f f for Box Girder Superstructures Ieff in box girder superstructures is dependent on the extent of cracking and the effect of the cracking on the element’s stiffness.1) M y = Moment capacity of the section at first yield of the reinforcing steel. A more refined estimate of Ieff based on Mφ analysis may be warranted for lightly reinforced girders and precast elements.6. The location of the prestressing steel’s centroid and the direction of bending have a significant impact on how cracking affects the stiffness of prestressed members. Multimodal elastic analysis is incapable of capturing the variations in stiffness caused by moment reversal.
5 Figure 5.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.3 Effective Stiffness Of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Sections [7] SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 57 .
7 Effective Member Properties for NonSeismic Loading Temperature and shortening loads calculated with gross section properties may control the column size and strength capacity often penalizing seismic performance. J eff = 0. the temperature or shortening forces should be recalculated based on the effective moment of inertia for the columns.2 Effective Torsional Moment of Inertia A reduction of the torsional moment of inertia is not required for bridge superstructures that meet the Ordinary Bridge requirements in Section 1. The torsional stiffness of concrete members can be greatly reduced after the onset of cracking. If this is the case. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 58 .2) 5.SECTION 5 – ANALYSIS 5.2.6.2 × J g (5. The torsional moment of inertia for columns shall be reduced according to equation 5.1 and do not have a high degree of inplane curvature [7].
it does result in increased relative displacement demand between adjacent bridge frames.1 Site Assessment Ground Shaking Generally.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. seismic demand can also vary from seismic waves arriving at different bents at different times (i.ca. In cases with either varying soil profile or extended bridge length. Design Spectrum Development. Methodology for development of the Design Response Spectrum is described in detail in Appendix B. SEISMICITY AND FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE 6. special analysis that considers soilpile/shaft kinematic interaction is required and will be addressed by the geoprofessional on a project specific basis.2 Liquefaction Preliminary investigation performed by Geotechnical Services will include an assessment of liquefaction potential within the project site per MTD 2014 and MTD 2015. the response spectrum at the ground surface may not reflect the motion of the pile cap or shaft. complex wave scattering contributes to incoherence between different bridge bents. the geoprofessional must work in close collaboration with the structural engineer to ensure the bridge can withstand the demands resulting from incoherent loading. In these instances. Soil profiles can vary significantly along the length of bridges resulting in the need to develop multiple Design Spectra. When bridges are founded on either stiff pile foundations or pile shafts and extend through soft soil.gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/SDC/ 6.. particularly at higher frequencies. In the case of bridges with lengths greater than 1000 feet.e. phase lag). and/or structural modification SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 61 .dot.1.1 6.5 http://www. This spectrum reflects the shaking hazard at or near the ground surface. the geoprofessional will provide recommendations that include a discussion of the following: • • • Need for additional site investigation and soil testing Possible consequences of liquefaction including potential horizontal and vertical ground displacements and resulting structural impacts Possible remediation strategies including ground improvement. 6. avoidance. ground shaking hazard is characterized for design by the Design Response Spectrum. When locations are identified as being susceptible to liquefaction. Furthermore. While incoherence in seismic loading is generally thought to reduce seismic demands overall.1.
1 6.1.1.1. In such cases.2.1. per MTD 2010. and will be addressed by GS if applicable to the location: • • • Potential for slope instability and rockfall resulting from earthquakes Loss of bearing capacity/differential settlement Tsunami/seiche 6.3 Fault Rupture Hazard Preliminary investigation of fault rupture hazard includes the identification of nearby active surface faults that may cross beneath a bridge or proposed bridge. If a fault trace underlies a structure or the structure falls within the specified fault zone.Deleted Site Specific ARS Curves – Deleted 6.2.2 Foundation Design 6.2 Standard ARS Curves . the exact location of a fault will not be known because it is concealed by a relatively recent manmade or geologic material or the site is located in a region of complex fault structure.2. a geologist will recommend a fault zone with dimensions based on professional judgment.1.4 Location and orientation of fault traces or zones with respect to structures Expected horizontal and vertical displacements Description of additional evaluations or investigations that could refine the above information Strategies to address ground rupture including avoidance (preferred) and structural design Additional Seismic Hazards The following seismic hazards may also exist at a site. Foundation Performance • • Bridge foundations shall be designed to respond to seismic loading in accordance with the seismic performance objectives outlined in MTD 201 The capacity of the foundations and their individual components to resist MCE seismic demands shall be based on ultimate structural and soil capacities SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 62 . In some instances. then Geotechnical Services (GS) will provide the following recommendations: • • • • 6.SECTION 6 – SEISMICITY AND FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE 6.
e. or marginal as described in Section 6. upper layer (010 ft. and poor. 03 m) N = 20 (Granular soils) (Granular soils) (Cohesive soils) • • • • Standard penetration. lateral spreading. & (C). (B). and their impact on dynamic response. Good indicators that a soil is capable of producing competent foundation performance include the following: • Standard penetration. marginal. piles. Previous practice essentially divided soil into two classifications based on standard penetration. The marginal classification recognizes that it is more difficult to assess intermediate soils. The SDC development team recognizes that predicting the soil and foundation response with a few selected geotechnical parameters is simplistic and may not adequately capture soilstructure interaction (SSI) in all situations. The designer must exercise engineering judgement when assessing the impact of marginal soils on the overall dynamic response of a bridge. s u > 1500 psf Shear wave velocity. The SDC includes three soil classifications: competent. Foundations in competent soil can be analyzed and designed using a simple model that is based on assumptions consistent with observed response of similar foundations during past earthquakes. 39 m) N = 30 Undrained shear strength.2.2. This type of performance characterizes a stiff foundation subsystem that usually has an insignificant impact on the overall dynamic response of the bridge and is typically ignored in the demand and capacity assessment. compared to the soils on the extreme ends of the soil spectrum (i. footings.5 6. ν s > 600 ft sec (72 KPa ) (180 m sec ) Low potential for liquefaction. Typically. Soil can be classified as competent. poor.Barrel Sampling of Soil Section 6.2 (A). very soft or very firm). or scour N = The uncorrected blow count from the Standard Test Method for Penetration Test and Split. The Caltrans’ foundation design policy is currently under review. 6.2 Soil Classification 6 The soil surrounding and supporting a foundation combined with the structural components (i. pile caps & drilled shafts) and the seismic input loading determines the dynamic response of the foundation subsystem.2(A) Competent Soil Foundations surrounded by competent soil are capable of resisting MCE level forces while experiencing small deformations. the soil response has a significant effect on the overall foundation response.e.2 contains interim recommendations. and should consult with SFB and OSD senior staff if they do not have the experience and/or the information required to make the determination themselves.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. Therefore. we can characterize the foundation subsystem response based on the quality of the surrounding soil. lower layer (1030 ft.2. Lateral foundation design was required in soft soil defined by N ≤ 10. Contact the Project Geologist/Geotechnical Engineer if it is uncertain which soil classification pertains to a particular bridge site. 6 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 63 .
2. 6. 6.2(B) Poor Soil Poor soil has traditionally been characterized as having a standard penetration. dynamic settlement. where the foundation may be designed for M p in lieu of M o .2.3. The course of action for bridges in marginal soil will be determined on a projectbyproject basis.2. vertical. N<10. SSI mechanisms that should be addressed in the project criteria include earth pressure generated by lateral ground displacement.1 and the associated plastic shear Vo 7. The presence of poor soil classifies a bridge as nonstandard. The assumptions that simplify the assessment of foundation performance in competent soil cannot be applied to poor soil because the lateral and vertical forcedeformation response of the soil has a significant effect on the foundation response and subsequently on the overall response of the bridge.2. 7 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 64 . Designing for a smaller column capacity is justified because of additional capacity inherent to these types of foundation systems that is not typically included in the foundation capacity assessment. and determine the analytical sophistication required to reasonably capture the dynamic response of the foundation as well as the overall dynamic response of the bridge.SECTION 6 – SEISMICITY AND FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE 6.2(C) Marginal Soil Marginal defines the range of soil that cannot readily be classified as either competent or poor.7 for additional foundation design guidelines. thereby requiring projectspecific design criteria that address soil structure interaction (SSI) related phenomena. the bridge engineer and foundation designer shall jointly select the appropriate foundation type. If a soil is classified as marginal.2 Foundation Flexibility The demand and capacity analyses shall incorporate the expected foundation stiffness if the bridge is sensitive to variations in rotational. See Section 7. and the effect of foundation flexibility on the response of the entire bridge.3. An exception is permitted for pile cap and spread footing foundations in competent soil.2.1 Foundation Strength All foundations shall be designed to resist the plastic hinging overstrength capacity of the column or pier wall.3 Foundation Design Criteria 6.3. or lateral stiffness. 6. determine the impact of SSI. M o defined in Section 4.
DESIGN 7. 7.1b) k ie ke j ≥ 0. Constant Width Frames Variable Width Frames kie ke j ≥ 0.5 http://www.2a) k mi e i ke j mj ≥ 0.2(b).1 Balanced Stiffness It is strongly recommended that the ratio of effective stiffness between any two bents within a frame or between any two columns within a bent satisfy Equation 7.1(b) & 7.1a) kie mi ke j mj ≥ 0.1(a) & 7.2b) k ie = The smaller effective bent or column stiffness ke j = The larger effective bent or column stiffness mi = Tributary mass of column or bent i mj = Tributary mass of column or bent j The following considerations shall be taken into account when calculating effective stiffness: framing SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 71 .75 (7.1. An increase in superstructure mass along the length of the frame should be accompanied by a reasonable increase in column stiffness.1(b) are satisfied.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.ca. The simplified analytical technique for calculating frame capacity described in Section 5. Irregularities in geometry increase the likelihood of complex nonlinear response that cannot be accurately predicted by elastic modeling or plane frame inelastic static modeling.5 (7.1 Frame Design The best way to increase a structure’s likelihood of responding to seismic attack in its fundamental mode of vibration is to balance its stiffness and mass distribution.2(a) or 7.5 (7.5 is only permitted if either 7.1(b) and 7.75 (7.2.dot. It is strongly recommended that the ratio of effective stiffness between adjacent bents within a frame or between adjacent columns within a bent satisfy Equation 7.gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/SDC/ 7. For variable width frames the tributary mass supported by each bent or column shall be included in the stiffness comparisons as specified by Equation 7.1.
SECTION 7 – DESIGN
effects, end conditions, column height, percentage of longitudinal and transverse column steel, column diameter, and foundation flexibility. Some of the consequences of not meeting the relative stiffness recommendations defined by Equations 7.1 and 7.2 include: • • •
7.1.2
Increased damage in the stiffer elements An unbalanced distribution of inelastic response throughout the structure Increased column torsion generated by rigid body rotation of the superstructure
Balanced Frame Geometry
It is strongly recommend that the ratio of fundamental periods of vibration for adjacent frames in the longitudinal and transverse direction satisfy Equation 7.3.
Ti
Tj
≥ 0.7
(7.3)
Ti = Natural period of the less flexible frame Tj = Natural period of the more flexible frame The consequences of not meeting the fundamental period requirements of Equation 7.3 include a greater likelihood of outofphase response between adjacent frames leading to large relative displacements that increase the probability of longitudinal unseating and collision between frames at the expansion joints. The collision and relative transverse translation of adjacent frames will transfer the seismic demand from one frame to the next, which can be detrimental to the standalone capacity of the frame receiving the additional seismic demand.
7.1.3 Adjusting Dynamic Characteristics
The following list of techniques should be considered for adjusting the fundamental period of vibration and/or stiffness to satisfy Equations 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3. Refer to MTD 61 for additional information on optimizing performance of bridge frames. • • • • • • • • Oversized pile shafts Adjust effective column lengths (i.e. lower footings, isolation casing) Modified end fixities Reduce/redistribute superstructure mass Vary the column cross section and longitudinal reinforcement ratios Add or relocate columns Modify the hinge/expansion joint layout Incorporate isolation bearings or dampers
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SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5
FRAME 1
FRAME 2
BENT 2 BENT 3 BENT 4 BENT 5
BENT 6
T1 m2 k2 k3 k4 k5 m3 m4 m5
T2 m6 k6
k2
k1
BENT 3
Figure 7.1 Balanced Stiffness
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SECTION 7 – DESIGN
A careful evaluation of the local ductility demands and capacities is required if project constraints make it impractical to satisfy the stiffness and structure period requirements in Equations 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3.
7.1.4 End Span Considerations
The influence of the superstructure on the transverse stiffness of columns near the abutment, particularly when calculating shear demand, shall be considered.
7.2 7.2.1
7.2.1.1
Superstructure Girders
Effective Superstructure Width
The effective width of superstructure resisting longitudinal seismic moments is defined by Equation 7.4. The effective width for open soffit structures (e.g. TBeams & I Girders) is reduced because they offer less resistance to the torsional rotation of the bent cap. The effective superstructure width can be increased at a 45 o angle as you move away from the bent cap until the full section becomes effective. On skewed bridges, the effective width shall be projected normal to the girders where the centerline of girder intersects the face of the bent cap. See Figure 7.2.
⎧ ⎪ Dc + 2 × D s Box girders & solid superstructures Beff = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ Dc + D s Open soffit superstructures
(7.4)
Additional superstructure width can be considered effective if the designer verifies the torsional capacity of the cap can distribute the rotational demands beyond the effective width stated in Equation 7.4. If the effective width cannot accommodate enough steel to satisfy the overstrength requirements of Section 4.3.1, the following actions may be taken: • • • • • Thicken the soffit and/or deck slabs Increase the resisting section by widening the column* Haunch the superstructure Add additional columns
The benefit of using wider columns must be carefully weighed against the increased joint shear demands and larger plastic hinging capacity.
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74
The superstructure flexural capacity shall be based only on continuous mild reinforcement distributed evenly between the top and bottom slabs.2 Vertical Acceleration If vertical acceleration is considered. up or down. Ds Beff C L of Girder Dc Beff =Dc + Ds Tangent Bridges Ds 45 Typ. The superstructure at seat type abutments is assumed to be pinned in the vertical direction. The continuous steel shall be spliced with “service level” couplers as SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 75 .3.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. see Figure 7. Beff C L of Girder Dc C L of Bent Skewed Bridges Figure 7. The effects of dead load.6.1. a separate analysis of the superstructure’s nominal capacity shall be performed based on a uniformly applied vertical force equal to 25% of the dead load applied upward and downward.2 Effective Superstructure Width Isolated or lightly reinforced flares shall be ignored when calculating the effective superstructure width.5 C L of Bent Beff =Dc + 2xDs 45 Typ.5 for additional information on flare design. per Section 2.2. 7. primary and secondary prestressing shall be ignored. See Section 7.
3.2. and is considered effective in offsetting the mild reinforcement required for other load cases. Recent research has confirmed the viability of SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 76 . which could potentially degrade to a pinned connection in the longitudinal direction under seismic demands.5 Ds beyond the face of the bent cap.SECTION 7 – DESIGN Equivalent Static Positive Vertical Load = (0. shall be capable of resisting 125% of the dead load shear at the bent face by means of shear friction.3.2.1.2 and 7.1. Lap splices equal to two times the standard lap may be substituted for the “service splices. The enhanced side reinforcement shall extend continuously for a minimum of 2. Therefore. to provide stability under longitudinal seismic demands.3. 4.2.3 Equivalent Static Vertical Loads & Moments defined in Section 8.25 x DL) Equivalent Positive Vertical Moment Equivalent Static Negative Vertical Load = (0.25 x DL) Equivalent Negative Vertical Moment Figure 7.” provided the laps are placed away from the critical zones (midspans and near supports). The longitudinal side reinforcement in the girders. if vertical acceleration is considered per Section 2.3 Precast Girders Historically precast girders lacked a direct positive moment connection between the girders and the cap beam. columns shall be fixed at the based unless an integral girder/cap beam connection is provided that is capable of resisting the column over strength demands as outlined in Sections 4.1. 7.
Large relative displacements can develop if the vibrations of the frames are outofphase.4 Slab Bridges Slab bridges shall be designed to meet all the strength and ductility requirements as specified in the SDC.1. Longitudinal Requirements For frames adhering to Section 7. project specific design criteria shall be developed per MTD 2011.2.2.2.4. shrinkage and temperature variations.5 precast spliced girders with integral column/superstructure details that effectively resist longitudinal seismic loads.2 Transverse Hinge Performance Typically hinges are expected to transmit the lateral shear forces generated by small earthquakes and service loads.2. Forces generated with EDA should not be used to size shear keys.5.5.5.2.1. Sufficient seat width must be provided to prevent unseating. Determining the earthquake force demand on shear keys is difficult since the magnitude is dependent on how much relative displacement occurs between the frames.2 All frames including balanced frames or frames with small differences in mass and/or stiffness will exhibit some outofphase response.2.2. In the interim. creep.3 Frames Meeting the Requirements of Section 7. 7.1.5 Hinges 7. The required mild reinforcement in the girder bottom to resist positive moment shall be placed during casting of the precast girders while the required top mild steel shall be made continuous and positioned in the top slab. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 77 . The hinge allows each frame to vibrate independently during an earthquake. EDA overestimates the resistance provided by the bents and may predict force demands on the shear keys that differ significantly from the actual forces.2 and expected to be exposed to synchronous ground motion.5. If continuity of the bottom steel is not required for the longitudinal push analysis of the bridge.2.1 Longitudinal Hinge Performance Intermediate hinges are necessary for accommodating longitudinal expansion and contraction resulting from prestress shortening. 7. 7.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. The objective of meeting the fundamental period recommendations between adjacent frames presented in Section 7.2 is to reduce the relative displacements and associated force demands attributed to outofphase response. This type of system is considered nonstandard until design details and procedures are formally adopted. the minimum longitudinal hinge seat width between adjacent frames shall be determined by Section 7. 7. such steel need not be placed for vertical acceleration at the bent as required in Section 7.
5 but not less than 24 inches (600 mm). An adequate gap shall be provided around the shear keys to eliminate binding of the hinge under service operation and to ensure lateral rotation will occur thereby minimizing moment transfer across the expansion joint. 7.SECTION 7 – DESIGN Transverse Requirements The shear key shall be capable of transferring the shear between adjacent frames if the shear transfer mechanism is included in the demand assessment.4 Hinge Seat Width for Frames Meeting the Requirements of Section 7. Particularly susceptible are: skewed bridges. Additional restraint. should be considered if stability is questionable after the keys are severely damaged. shrinkage.2. The shear keys must have adequate capacity to meet the demands imposed by service loads. The seat width normal to the centerline of bearing shall be calculated by Equation 7. certain structural configurations may be susceptible to lateral instability if the transverse shear keys completely fail. Although large relative displacements are not anticipated for frames with similar periods exposed to synchronous ground motion.5) = Minimum seat width normal to the centerline of bearing = Displacement attributed to prestress shortening Δp / s Δcr + sh = Displacement attributed to creep and shrinkage Δtemp = Displacement attributed to thermal expansion and contraction Δ eq = Relative earthquake displacement demand Δ eq = (Δ ) + (Δ ) 1 2 D 2 2 D (7.1.6) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 78 . prestress shortening. The upper bound for the transverse shear demand at the hinge can be estimated by the sum of the overstrength shear capacity of all the columns in the weaker frame.5.2 Enough hinge seat width shall be available to accommodate the anticipated thermal movement. ⎧ ⎪(Δ p / s + Δcr + sh + Δtemp + Δeq + 4) N ≥⎨ ⎪ ⎩(Δ p / s + Δcr + sh + Δtemp + Δeq + 100 ) N (in) (mm) (7. and the relative longitudinal earthquake displacement demand between the two frames calculated by Equation 7. creep.6. bridges with three or less girders and narrow bridges with significant super elevation. such as XX strong pipe keys.
4 Seat Width Requirements 7. Elastic Analysis. If seat extenders are used they should be isolated transversely to avoid transmitting large lateral shear forces between frames. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 79 . the hinge seat can be sized longitudinally and the shear keys isolated transversely to accommodate the absolute sum of the individual frame displacements determined by ESA. • Isolate adjacent frames longitudinally by providing a large expansion gap to reduce the likelihood of pounding. The following guidelines should be followed when designing and detailing hinges when Equation 7. A more sophisticated analysis such as nonlinear dynamic analysis is required that can capture the directivity and time dependency associated with the relative frame displacements. cannot be used to determine the displacement or force demands at the intermediate expansion joints in multiframe structures.5. or the initial slope of a “push over” analysis. in general.5 i) Δ(D = The larger earthquake displacement demand for each frame calculated by the global or standalone analysis N Δeq Δp/s+Δcr+sh +Δtemp 4” (100mm) Seat ≥ 24 in.2.3.5 Frames Not Meeting the Requirements of Section 7. Care must be taken to isolate unbalanced frames to insure the seismic demands are not transferred between frames. Permanent gapping created by prestress shortening. EDA.2 Frames that are unbalanced relative to each other have a greater likelihood of responding outofphase during earthquakes.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. Limit the transverse shear capacity to prevent large lateral forces from being transferred to the stiffer frame.3 is not met. creep.1. Large relative displacements and forces should be anticipated for frames not meeting Equation 7. (600 mm ) Figure 7. • • Provide enough seat width to reduce the likelihood of unseating. and shrinkage can be considered as part of the isolation between frames. In lieu of nonlinear analysis. The analytical boundary conditions at the hinge should be either released transversely or able to capture the nonlinear shear friction mechanism expected at the shear key.
2.1 for details. Adequate seat shall be provided to prevent unseating as a primary requirement. care must be taken to ensure standalone frame capacity is not adversely affected by the additional demand transmitted between frames through the pipe seat extenders. If the pipe seat extenders are provided as a secondary vertical support system above and beyond what is required to satisfy equation 7.5. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 710 . see MTD 2011.5 then hinge restrainers are still required.SECTION 7 – DESIGN If the hinges are expected to fail. the column shall be designed to accommodate the displacement demand associated with having the hinge released transversely. Restrainers shall be detailed to allow for easy inspection and replacement Restrainer layout shall be symmetrical about the centerline of the superstructure Restrainer systems shall incorporate an adequate gap for expansion Yield indicators are required on all cable restrainers. See MTD 203 for material properties pertaining to high strength rods (ASTM A722 Uncoated HighStrength Steel Bar for Prestressing Concrete) and restrainer cables (ASTM A633 Zinc Coated Steel Structural Wire Rope). hinge restrainers are not required. Bent supported expansion joints need to be approved on a projectbyproject basis. The following guidelines shall be followed when designing and detailing hinge restrainers.6 Hinge Restrainers A satisfactory method for designing the size and number of restrainers required at expansion joints is not currently available.2. 7. • • • • • Restrainers design should not be based on the force demands predicted by EDA analysis A restrainer unit shall be placed in each alternating cell at all hinges (minimum of two restrainer units at each hinge). Pipe seat extenders will substantially increase the shear transfer capacity across expansion joints if significant outofphase displacements are anticipated. One method for isolating unbalanced frames is to support intermediate expansion joints on closely spaced adjacent bents that can support the superstructure by cantilever beam action. If this is the case. 7. see Standard Detail Sheet XS 1257. If the additional support width provided by the pipe seat extender is required to meet Equation 7.7 Pipe Seat Extenders Pipes seat extenders shall be designed for the induced moments under single or double curvature depending on how the pipe is anchored. Hinge restrainers are considered secondary members to prevent unseating. A longitudinal gap is still required to prevent the frames from colliding.
1 Bent Caps Integral Bent Caps Bent caps are considered integral if they terminate at the outside of the exterior girder and respond monolithically with the girder system during dynamic excitation. 7.2. See Figure 7.5.7.3 7. 7. Equalizing bolts shall be detailed so they can be easily inspected for damage and/or replaced after an earthquake.1.8 Equalizing Bolts Equalizing bolts are designed for service loads and are considered sacrificial during an earthquake.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 7. Beff = B cap +(12 × t ) t = Thickness of the top or bottom slab (7.3.5 Effective Bent Cap Width SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 711 . Equalizing bolts shall be designed so they will not transfer seismic demand between frames or inhibit the performance of the hinge restrainers.7) Beff 6 x ttop ttop Bcap Ds tbot 6 x tbot Figure 7.1 Effective Bent Cap Width The integral cap width considered effective for resisting flexural demands from plastic hinging in the columns shall be determined by Equation 7.3.
The minimum seat width for nonintegral bent caps shall be determined by Equation 7.3 7.2.SECTION 7 – DESIGN 7. Nonintegral caps must satisfy all the SDC requirements for frames in the transverse direction. Principal compression: pc ≤ 0.8 and 7.0 × f c′ (MPa ) (7.9) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 712 . 7.1 for the numerical definition of principal stress.4.2 NonIntegral Bent Caps Superstructure members supported on nonintegral bent caps shall be simply supported at the bent cap or span continuously with a separation detail such as an elastomeric pad or isolation bearing between the bent cap and the superstructure. See Section 7.2 regarding anchoring column reinforcement into the bent cap.2 Joint Proportioning All superstructure/column moment resisting joints shall be proportioned so the principal stresses satisfy Equations 7.4. 7.3.9.1 Superstructure Joint Design Joint Performance Moment resisting connections between the superstructure and the column shall be designed to transmit the col maximum forces produced when the column has reached its overstrength capacity M o including the effects of overstrength shear Vocol .4.5. Continuity devices such as rigid restrainers or web plates may be used to ensure unseating does not occur but shall not be used in lieu of adequate bent cap width.3.3.25 × f c′ Principal tension: pt ≤ 12 × f c′ (psi) pt ≤ 1.4 Deleted Bent Cap Depth Every effort should be made to provide enough cap depth to develop the column longitudinal reinforcement without hooks.8) (7. 7.4 7.1 Minimum Bent Cap Seat Width Drop caps supporting superstructures with expansion joints at the cap shall have sufficient width to prevent unseating.3.4. See Section 8. 7.
This lone simplified definition of Ajv may conservatively underestimate the effective joint area for columns with large cross section aspect ratios in longitudinal bending.14 defines the effective joint area in terms of the bent cap width regardless of the direction of bending. Bcap = Dc + 2 (ft) 7.1 Minimum Bent Cap Width The minimum bent cap width required for adequate joint shear transfer is specified in Equation 7.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.11)9 pc = (7. 9 10 Equation 7.4.11 signifies the joint has nominal principal tensile stresses.4.4.4.1 Principal Stress Definition The principal tension and compression stresses in a joint are defined as follows: pt = ( fh + fv ) ⎛ f − fv ⎞ − ⎜ h ⎟ + v2 jv 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( fh + fv ) ⎛ f − fv ⎞ + ⎜ h ⎟ + v2 jv 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ A jv 2 2 (7. A negative result from equation 7.14) 10 (7.13) (7.10) The following types of joints are considered T joints for joint shear analysis: • • • Integral interior joints of multicolumn bents in the transverse direction All column/superstructure joints in the longitudinal direction Exterior column joints for box girder superstructures if the cap beam extends beyond the joint far enough to develop the longitudinal cap reinforcement8 7.2. design criteria shall be developed on a project specific basis.12) (7.10.5 7.4 T Joint Shear Design 7.3 Joint Description Bcap = Dc + 600 ( mm) (7.16) T v jv = c A jv = lac × Bcap fv = Pc A jh A jh = (Dc + Ds ) × Bcap 8 All other exterior joints are considered knee joints in the transverse direction. Larger cap widths may be required to develop the compression strut outside the joint for large diameter columns.15) (7.4. 713 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA . Knee joints are nonstandard elements.
where h is the distance from c.g.g. Cbl fv lft lft Tbr pt vjh vjv Vb fh rght Mb Vb Mb rght pc fh vjv Tbl pc vjh fv Cbr pt Tc Cc Principal Stresses Vo Pc Mo col col Figure 7.17) Where: Ajh = The effective horizontal joint area A jv = The effective vertical joint area Bcap = Bent cap width Dc Ds = Cross–sectional dimension of column in the direction of bending = Depth of superstructure at the bent cap l ac = Length of column reinforcement embedded into the bent cap Pc Pb Tc = The column axial force including the effects of overturning = The beam axial force at the center of the joint including prestressing col = The column tensile force defined as M o /h. of compressive force on the section.SECTION 7 – DESIGN fh = Pb B cap × D s (7. of tensile force to c. or alternatively Tc may be obtained from the momentcurvature analysis of the cross section.6 Joint Shear Stresses in T Joints SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 714 .
min = 3.5 Note: Unless the prestressing is specifically designed to provide horizontal joint compression.7 shall count towards meeting the requirements of both areas creating the overlap.4. shall be provided. f c′ psi ( 0. This joint shear reinforcement may be provided in the form of column transverse steel continued into the bent cap. No additional joint reinforcement is required.29 × f c′ MPa) the joint shear reinforcement 7.29 × f c′ MPa) the minimum joint shear reinforcement.2 Minimum Joint Shear Reinforcement If the principal tension stress pt does not exceed 3. 7. and 7.18.4. or intersecting spirals or hoops. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 715 . hoops. The volumetric ratio of transverse column reinforcement ρ s continued into the cap shall not be less than the value specified by Equation 7. This horizontal reinforcement Asjh shall be placed within a distance Dc extending from either side of the column centerline.29 × f yh f c′ (MPa ) (7. 7.3 Joint Shear Reinforcement A) Vertical Stirrups: Asjv = 0.19) Vertical stirrups or ties shall be placed transversely within a distance Dc extending from either side of the column centerline.4. The stirrups provided in the overlapping areas shown in Figure 7.3 is required. These stirrups can be used to meet other requirements documented elsewhere including the shear in the bent cap.5 × f c′ psi ( 0.4.8.2 × Ast Ast = Total area of column reinforcement anchored in the joint (7. The vertical stirrup area Asjv is required on each side of the column or pier wall.18.18) The reinforcement shall be in the form of spirals. ρ s .5 × specified in Section 7.4. see Figures 7.7.4.10. fh can typically be ignored without significantly affecting the principal stress calculation.9.5 × f yh f c′ (psi) ρ s . see Figure 7. B) Horizontal Stirrups: Horizontal stirrups or ties shall be placed transversely around the vertical stirrups or ties in two or more intermediate layers spaced vertically at not more than 18 inches (450mm). If the principal tension stress pt exceeds 3.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.min = 0. as specified in Equation 7.
22.8. see Figure 7. F) Main Column Reinforcement The main column reinforcement shall extend into the cap as deep as possible to fully develop the compression strut mechanism in the joint. The Jdowel reinforcement shall be equal to or greater than the area specified in Equation 7. All vertical column bars shall be extended as close as possible to the top bent cap reinforcement.08 × Ast (7.21 and shall be placed near the side faces of the bent cap with a maximum spacing of 12 inches (300mm).4 × Ast 2 l ac (in.23) For interlocking cores ρ s shall be based on area of reinforcement (Ast) of each core.1 × Ast (7. Asj− bar = 0.21) D) JDowels For bents skewed greater than 20°.22) The Jdowels shall be placed within a rectangular region defined by the width of the bent cap and the distance Dc on either side of the centerline of the column.1× Acap ⎪ ⎪ ≥ ⎨or ⎪ bot ⎪0. Jdowels hooked around the longitudinal top deck steel extending alternatively 24 inches (600 mm) and 30 inches (750 mm) into the bent cap are required. E) Transverse Reinforcement Transverse reinforcement in the joint region shall consist of hoops with a minimum reinforcement ratio specified by Equation 7.SECTION 7 – DESIGN Asjh = 0. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 716 . mm) (7.1× Acap ⎩ Assf Acap = Area of bent cap top or bottom flexural steel (7. ρ s = 0.10.20) C) Horizontal Side Reinforcement: The total longitudinal side face reinforcement in the bent cap shall be at least equal to the greater of the areas specified in Equation 7.23. The column confinement reinforcement extended into the bent cap may be used to meet this requirement. top ⎧0. Any side reinforcement placed to meet other requirements shall count towards meeting the requirement in this section. see Figure 7.
However.1 Elastomeric Bearings The lateral shear capacity of elastomeric bearing pads is controlled by either the dynamic friction capacity between the pad and the bearing seat or the shear strain capacity of the pad.5. bearings shall be checked to insure their capacity and mode of failure are consistent with the assumptions made in the seismic analysis.5 Bearings For Ordinary Standard bridges bearings are considered sacrificial elements.5 7.5 Knee Joints Knee joints differ from T joints because the joint response varies with the direction of the moment (opening or closing) applied to the joint. 7.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.7 Location Of Vertical Joint Reinforcement (plan view of bridge) 7. Knee joints require special reinforcing details that are considered nonstandard and shall be included in the project specific seismic design criteria. It may be desirable to pin the top of the column to avoid knee joint requirements. The designer should consider detailing bearings so they can be easily inspected for damage and replaced or repaired after an earthquake. This eliminates the joint shear transfer through the joint and limits the torsion demand transferred to the cap beam. Test results have demonstrated the SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 717 . jv As in each of 1 & 2 jv As in each of 1 2 3 & 4 2 2 CL Bent Dc 1 Bcap CL Bent 3 4 Dc 1 Bcap CL Girder CL Girder Dc/2 Dc/2 Dc/2 Dc/2 SingleColumn Bent MultiColumn Bent Figure 7. Typically bearings are designed and detailed for service loads. the benefits of a pinned exterior joint should be weighed against increased foundation demands and the effect on the frame’s overall performance. However.4.
SECTION 7 – DESIGN dynamic coefficient of friction between concrete and neoprene is 0. Typical friction coefficients for these bearings vary between 0. A common mode of failure for sliding bearings under moderate earthquakes occurs when the PTFE surface slides beyond the limits of the sole plate often damaging the PTFE surface. sliding speed.04 to 0. The maximum shear strain resisted by elastomeric pads prior to failure is estimated at ± 150% .5.35. The sole plate should be extended a reasonable amount to eliminate this mode of failure whenever possible. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 718 .2 Sliding Bearings PTFE spherical bearings and PTFE elastomeric bearings utilize low friction PTFE sheet resin. temperature. Friction values may be as much as 5 to 10 times higher at sliding speeds anticipated under seismic loads compared to the coefficients under thermal expansion.40 and between neoprene and steel is 0.08. 7. and the number of sliding cycles. The friction coefficient is dependent on contact pressure.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 719 . (Detail Applies to Sections Within 2 x Diameter of Column.8 Joint Shear Reinforcement Details 11 11 Figures 7.10 illustrate the general location for joint shear reinforcement in the bent cap.8. 7. Section at Column for Bridges with 0 to 20Degree Skew. (Detail Applies to TBeam and Box Girder Bridges Where Deck Reinforcement is Placed Parallel to Cap). Construction Joint jv As Joint Shear Reinforcement @ 300 through column area @ __ Beyond column area 75 min jh As Horiz.5 Bent Cap Details.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.9 and 7. Cross Ties or sf As L=0.75(skew cap width) 300 mm Typ Transverse Column Reinforcement Dc Figure 7. Centered About CL of Column).
SECTION 7 – DESIGN
Bent Cap Elevation. Horizontal Cross Tie and Jbar Placing Pattern.
CL Column = Line of Symmetry Limits of Jbars Limits of Horiz. Cross ties Vertical Stirrups Jbars. Alternate Vertical Lengths 600 and 700 mm jh As Horiz. Cross Ties or
L=0.75(skew cap width) for skew<20 L=0.75(cap width) for skew>20 Dc Dc/2 Dc/2
Figure 7.9 Location Of Horizontal Joint Shear Steel 12
12
Figures 7.8, 7.9 and 7.10 illustrate the general location for joint shear reinforcement in the bent cap.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
720
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5
Bent Cap Details, Section at Column for Bridges with Skew Larger than 20 Degrees.
(Detail Applies to Sections Within 2 x Diameter of Column, Centered About CL of Column). (Detail Applies to TBeam and Box Girder Bridges Where Deck Reinforcement is Placed Normal or Radial to CL Bridge).
Construction Joint Jbars. Alternate Vertical Lengths 600 and 700 mm
75 min
jv As Joint Shear Reinforcement @ 300 through column area
sf As
@ __ Beyond column area jh As Horiz. Cross Ties or
L=0.75(cap width) 300 mm Typ
Transverse Column Reinforcement
Dc
Figure 7.10 Additional Joint Shear Steel for Skewed Bridges 13
13
Figures 7.8, 7.9 and 7.10 illustrate the general location for joint shear reinforcement in the bent cap.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
721
SECTION 7 – DESIGN
7.6
7.6.1
Columns & Pier Walls
Column Dimensions
Every effort shall be made to limit the column cross sectional dimensions to the depth of the superstructure. This requirement may be difficult to meet on columns with high L D ratios. If the column dimensions exceed the depth of the bent cap it may be difficult to meet the joint shear requirements in Section 7.4.2, the superstructure capacity requirements in Section 4.3.2.1, and the ductility requirements in Section 3.1.4.1. The relationship between column cross section, bent cap depth and footing depth specified in Equations 7.24a and 7.24b are guidelines based on observation. Maintaining these ratios should produce reasonably well proportioned structures.
0.7 ≤
Dc ≤ 1.0 Ds
(7.24a)
0.7 ≤
D ftg Dc
(7.24b)
7.6.2
Analytical Plastic Hinge Length
The analytical plastic hinge length is the equivalent length of column over which the plastic curvature is assumed constant for estimating plastic rotation.
7.6.2 (a) Columns & Type II Shafts:
⎧0.08 L + 0.15 f ye d bl ≥ 0.3 f ye d bl ⎪ Lp = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0.08 L + 0.022 f ye d bl ≥ 0.044 f ye d bl
(in, ksi) (7.25) (mm, MPa)
7.6.2 (b) Horizontally Isolated Flared Columns
⎧G + 0.3 f ye d bl ⎪ Lp = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩G + 0.044 f ye d bl
(in, ksi) (7.26) (mm, MPa)
G = The gap between the isolated flare and the soffit of the bent cap
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
722
7. The minimum gap thickness shall be 2 inches (50 mm).6. If the plastic hinge rotation based on the plastic hinge length specified Section 7. 7.6.4 1.6.2 (b) provides insufficient column displacement capacity. The gap thickness. M col p 0.6.26.25 × (Length of column from the point of maximum moment to the point of contraflexure) MultiColumn Bents The effects of axial load redistribution due to overturning forces shall be considered when calculating the plastic moment capacity for multicolumn bents in the transverse direction.5 times the cross sectional dimension in the direction of bending The region of column where the moment exceeds 75% of the maximum plastic moment. Lpr is defined by the larger of: • • • 7. The gap shall be large enough so that it will not close during a seismic event.26.6. A horizontal gap isolating the flare from the cap beam shall extend over the entire cross section of the flare excluding a core region equivalent to the prismatic column cross section. Laboratory testing is scheduled to validate the plastic hinge length specified in Equation 7.2 (c) Noncased Type I Pile Shafts: L p = D ∗ + 0.08 H o − max D ∗ = Diameter for circular shafts or the least cross section dimension for oblong shafts.6. 14 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 723 . Lpr defines the portion of the column. The horizontal flare isolation detail is easier to construct than a combined horizontal and vertical isolation detail and is preferred wherever possible. or shaft that requires enhanced lateral confinement. minimizing the seismic shear demand on the column.2 for the appropriate plastic hinge length of horizontally isolated flares.6. where G is the length from the bent cap soffit to the bottom of the vertical flare isolation region 14.3 Plastic Hinge Region (7.5. G shall be based on the estimated ductility demand and corresponding plastic hinge rotation capacity. the analytical plastic hinge length shall be taken as the lesser of Lp calculated using Equations 7. Isolating the flare allows the flexural hinge to form at the top of the column. pier.1 Horizontally Isolated Column Flares The preferred method for detailing flares is to horizontally isolate the top of flared sections from the soffit of the cap beam.25 and 7. the designer may elect to add vertical flare isolation.5 7. The added mass and stiffness of the isolated flare typically can be ignored in the dynamic analysis.5 Column Flares 7.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. See Section 7.27) The plastic hinge region. When vertical flare isolation is used.
Steel pipe sections may be used in lieu of reinforcing steel to relieve congestion and reduce the moment generated within the key.SECTION 7 – DESIGN 7. The flare geometry shall be kept as slender as possible. 7. Lightly reinforced integral flares shall only be used when required for service load design or aesthetic considerations and the peak rock acceleration is less than 0. The key reinforcement shall be located as close to the center moment M o of the column as possible to minimize developing a force couple within the key reinforcement.6. However.1 Foundations Footing Design 7.1. superstructure and footing.1 Pile Foundations in Competent Soil The lateral. see Section 7.28 and 7. and axial loads and the moment demand induced by the column plastic hinging mechanism.29 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 724 .7. Equations 7. The higher plastic hinging forces must be considered in the design of the column. Any appreciable moment generated by the key steel should be considered in the footing design. vertical.6.7 Column Key Design Column shear keys shall be designed for the axial and shear forces associated with the column’s overstrength col including the effects of overturning. 7.6.5.6. The large difference in stiffness between the strong and weak axis of pier walls leads to complex foundation behavior.5.7. and to remain essentially elastic in the transverse direction (about the strong axis). and rotational capacity of the foundation shall exceed the respective demands.7.3 Flare Reinforcement Column flares shall be nominally reinforced outside the confined column core to prevent the flare concrete from completely separating from the column at high ductility levels.2 Lightly Reinforced Column Flares Column flares that are integrally connected to the bent cap soffit should be avoided whenever possible.6 Pier Walls Pier walls shall be designed to perform in a ductile manner longitudinally (about the weak axis). integral flares require higher shear forces and moments to form the plastic hinge at the top of column compared to isolated flares.7 7. 7. The column section at the base of the flare must have adequate capacity to insure the plastic hinge will form at the top of column. The size and number of piles and the pile group layout shall be designed to resist service level moments. 7. Test results have shown that slender lightly reinforced flares perform adequately after cracking has developed in the flare concrete. shears. essentially separating the flare from the confined column core.5g.
and the pile loads can be calculated from the static equations of equilibrium. • • • The pile cap is infinitely rigid. see Figure 7. The pile group’s nominal moment resistance is limited to the capacity available when any individual pile reaches its nominal axial resistance. Vocol − ∑V pile (i ) − Rs = 0 (7. typically pile axial resistance exceeds the designed nominal resistance and axial load redistributes to adjacent piles when an individual pile’s geotechnical capacity is exceeded.11.12 is based on the following assumptions. A more sophisticated analysis may be warranted if project specific parameters invalidate any of these assumptions: • The passive resistance of the soil along the leading edge of the footing and upper 4 to 8 pile diameters combined with the friction along the sides and bottom of the pile cap is sufficient to resist the column overstrength shear Vocol . SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 725 . The simplified foundation model illustrated in Figure 7. Group effects for pile footings surrounded by competent soil and a minimum of three diameters centertocenter pile spacing are relatively small and can be ignored.28) col Mo + Vocol × D ftg + ∑M pile (i ) − R s × ( D ftg − D Rs ) − ∑ (C pile (i ) × c (i ) ) − ∑ (T pile (i ) × c (i ) ) = 0 (7. For example. its width is entirely effective.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 define lateral shear and moment equilibrium in the foundation when the column reaches its overstrength capacity.29) where: c (i ) = Distance from pile (i) to the center of gravity of the pile group in the X or Y direction Axial compression demand on pile (i) C(pile i) = D ftg = Depth of footing D Rs = Depth of resultant soil resistance measured from the top of footing pile M (pile i ) = The moment demand generated in pile (i). M ( i ) = 0 if the piles are pinned to the footing R s = Estimated resultant soil resistance on the end of the footing T( ipile ) = Axial tension demand on pile (i) V ( ipile ) = Lateral shear resistance provided by pile (i) The design of pile foundations in competent soil can be greatly simplified if we rely on inherent capacity that is not directly incorporated in the foundation assessment.
g . ( y ) = ∑n×c 2 y (i ) I p. col col ⎫ Pp M p × c x ( i ) M p( x ) × c y ( i ) C (pile i) ⎪ ( y) ± ± ⎬= N I I p. ) ⎪ ( y ) ⎭ (7.g.11 Footing Force Equilibrium • • Piles designed with a pinned connection to the pile cap will not transfer significant moment to the pile cap.31) Where: Ip.SECTION 7 – DESIGN Pcol C L Column Vo col Mo col Dftg V(1) M(1) c(2) T(i ) pile pile pile pile pile DRs Rs V(2) M(3) pile pile V(i ) M(i ) pile pile T(2) C(1) C(2) c(3) c(i ) pile C(3) pile C(i ) pile c.30 defines the axial demand on an individual pile when the column reaches its plastic hinging capacity based on force equilibrium in conjunction with the previously stated assumptions. Pile groups designed with the simplified foundation model can be sized to resist the plastic moment of the column Mp in lieu of Mo. ( x ) = The component of the column plastic moment capacity about the X or Y axis SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 726 . ( x ) T( ipile p .31 M col p( y ). A similar model can be used to analyze and design spread footing foundations that are surrounded by competent soil. pile group Pile shears and moments shown on right side only.30) I p. = Moment of inertia of the pile group defined by Equation 7. left side similar Effects of footing weight and soil overburden not shown Figure 7.( x ) = ∑n×c 2 x (i ) (7.g. g . g . Equation 7. g .
and overburden soil weight SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 727 .12 Simplified Pile Model For Foundations In Competent Soil Np n Pp = Total number of piles in the pile group = The total number of piles at distance c(i) from the centroid of the pile group = The total axial load on the pile group including column axial load (dead load+EQ load due to any overturning effects).5 Pcol C L Column Mp col Dftg c(1) c(2) pile T(i ) pile T(1) t(1) t(i) pile C(1) C(2) pile C(3) pile C(i ) pile c(3) C(i ) C L Column Mp(y) Pile (i ) cx(i ) cy(i ) Mp(x) C L Bent (X axis) C L Column (Y axis) Figure 7. footing weight.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.
7.32) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 728 . the piles must be capable of resisting the entire lateral demand without exceeding the force or deformation capacity of the piles. contact the Project Geologist/Geotechnical Engineer to obtain force deformation relationships for the soil that will be mobilized against the footing. moment.7. including the pile’s capability of maintaining axial load capacity at the expected lateral displacement.2 7.1. possibly leading to significant lateral displacements.7. • Deepen the footing/pile cap to increase passive resistance • Increase the amount of fixity at the pile/footing connection and strengthen the upper portion of the pile • Use a more ductile pile type that can develop soil resistance at larger pile deflections • Add additional piles 7.3 Rigid Footing Response The length to thickness ratio along the principal axes of the footing must satisfy Equation 7.32 if rigid footing behavior and the associated linear distribution of pile forces and deflections are assumed.2 Lateral Capacity of Fixed Head Piles The lateral capacity assessment of fixed head piles requires a project specific design which considers the effects of shear. Alternatively.2.7.2 (7. In this situation. and stability.1.3 Passive Earth Resistance for Pile Caps in Marginal Soil Assessing the passive resistance of the soil surrounding pile caps under dynamic loading is complex. L ftg D ftg ≤ 2.7. soil capacity.1. The designer may conservatively elect to ignore the soil’s contribution in resisting lateral loads. The designer shall verify that the lateral capacity of the foundation exceeds the lateral demand transmitted by the column. The following methods are commonly used to increase lateral foundation capacity. as is expected in competent soil.SECTION 7 – DESIGN 7.1.1 Pile Foundations in Marginal Soil Lateral Design In marginal soils the pile cap may not dominate the lateral stiffness of the foundation.7. axial load. stiffness.2. The designer should select the most cost effective strategy for increasing the lateral resistance of the foundation when required. The designer should bear in mind that significant displacement may be associated with the soil’s ultimate passive resistance. 7.2.1.
7. 7.13) T jv = Tc − ∑T pile (i ) (7.35) f ⎛ f ⎞ pc = v + ⎜ v ⎟ + v 2 jv 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 (7. ⎧ ⎪ 2 × Dc ftg Beff =⎨ ⎪ ⎩ Bc + Dc Circular Column Rectangular Column (7.0 × f c′ (MPa ) (7.5 Lftg = The cantilever length of the pile cap measured from the face of the column to the edge of the footing.33) Principal tension: ⎧12 × f c′ (psi) ⎪ pt ≤ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩1.36) v jv = T jv ftg Beff × D ftg (7.37) (see Figure 7.38) col Tc = Column tensile force associated with M o pile ∑ T( i ) = Summation of the hold down force in the tension piles.25 × f c′ (7.39) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 729 .1.34) Where: f ⎛f ⎞ pt = v − ⎜ v ⎟ + v 2 jv 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 (7.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.4 Footing Joint Shear All footing/column moment resisting joints shall be proportioned so the principal stresses meet the following criteria: Principal compression: pc ≤ 0.
1. Bc = Dc For rectangular columns.1.4 the entire width of the footing can be considered effective in resisting the column overstrength flexure and the associated shear.SECTION 7 – DESIGN fv = Pcol ftg A jh (7. Bc = the other column crosssectional dimension. Beff Pcol Mo Dc Beff 45 Bc Dftg Dc fv Beff 45 Beff Figure 7. For circular or square columns.3 and 7.1.41) ftg is the effective horizontal area at middepth of the footing.13.7.40) (see Figure 7.13 Assumed Effective Dimensions for Footing Joint Stress Calculation 7.7. Dc = column cross section dimension in the dimension of interest . SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 730 .7. assuming a 45° spread away from Where: A jh the boundary of the column in all directions. see Figure 7.5 Effective Footing Width for Flexure If the footing is proportioned according to Sections 7.13) Pcol = Column axial force including the effects of overturning ftg A jh = {(Dc + D ftg )× ( Bc + D ftg ) (7.
it is not economical to design pier wall pile foundations to resist the transverse seismic shear.1. otherwise use a “T” head at the bottom of the stirrup in place of the 90degree hook.29 f c' (MPa) [ 3.7 Use of “T” Headed Stirrups and Bars in Footings Use of Theaded stirrups in footings depends on the column fixity condition and the level of principal tensile stress.7. The region around the column bounded by a distance of Dc 2 from the face of the column is recommended for the stirrup placement (See Figure in BDD 76).1.1. use the same detail as in the pinnedcolumn footing. The designer needs to check for development of main bars near the footing edges and provide a 90degree hook or “T” head. The following guidelines are recommended to assist engineers in regards to the choice of Thead versus 90degree hook stirrup in footings.7.5 f c' (psi)].29 f c' (MPa) [ 3. to account for joint shear effects. use stirrups with 180degree hooks at the top and 90degree hooks at the bottom (See Figure in BDD 77) • For fixedcolumn footings. In addition. most likely near the pile head/pile cap connection.7. 7.7.6 Effects of Large Capacity Piles On Footing Design The designer shall insure the footing has sufficient strength to resist localized pile punching failure for piles exceeding nominal resistance of 400 kips (1800kN). The designer may avoid the use of “T” heads by increasing the depth of the footing and reducing the principal stress demand below 0.5 f c' (psi)].SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. Methods for reducing the inelastic damage in pier wall pile foundations include: • Utilizing ductile pile head details SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 731 . The bar size in the footing mats along with the principal tensile stress level and the spacing of the mat are all critical factors in the choice of the stirrup bar size. If this occurs. if development of the bar is needed.2 Pier Wall Pile Foundations Typically.4) and compare it to the threshold value of 0. 7. Use of #18 (Metric #57) bars in footings needs a careful review as it affects the choice of the stirrup bar and hook detailing to fit the mat. calculate the principal tensile stress demand in the footing (Section 7.29 f c' (MPa) [ 3.5 7.5 f c' (psi)]. a sufficient amount of the flexure reinforcement in the top and bottom mat must be developed beyond the exterior piles to insure tensile capacity is available to resist the horizontal component of the shearresisting mechanism for the exterior piles. Essentially elastic response of the wall in the strong direction will induce large foundation demands that may cause inelastic response in the foundation. piles will incur some damage from transverse demands. • For Pinnedcolumn footings. If the demand is less than 0.
7. This needs to be considered and may require iteration to achieve the specified overstrength.2. 7.42.SECTION 7 – DESIGN • Pinning the pier wallfooting connection in the weak direction to reduce the weak axis demand on the piles that may be damaged by transverse demands • • Pinning the pier wallsoffit connection. Increasing the pile shaft’s capacity to meet the overstrength requirement will affect the moment demand in the shaft.7.1 Shear Demand on Type I Pile Shafts Overestimating the equivalent cantilever length of pile shafts will underestimate the shear load corresponding to the plastic capacity of the shaft.25 times the moment demand generated by the overstrength moment applied at the base of the column. The seismic shear force for Type I pile shafts shall be taken as the larger of either the shear reported from the soil/pile interaction analysis when the inground plastic hinges form. This factor also accommodates the uncertainty associated with estimates on soil properties and stiffness.7.3. 7. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 732 . or the shear calculated by dividing the overstrength moment capacity of the pile shaft by Hs defined as specified in Equation 7.1 Pier Wall Spread Footing Foundations If sliding of the pier wall foundation is anticipated. thereby limiting the demands imparted to the substructure Use a ductile system in lieu of the traditional pier wall. To ensure the formation of plastic hinges in columns and to minimize the damage to type II shafts a factor of safety of 1.2 Flexure Demand/Capacity Requirements for Type II Pile Shafts The distribution of moment along a pile shaft is dependent upon the geotechnical properties of the surrounding soil and the stiffness of the shaft.25 shall be used in the design of Type II shafts.7. the capacity of the pier wall and foundation must be designed for 130% of a realistic estimate of the sliding resistance at the bottom of the footing. columns or pile extensions with isolated shear walls The method selected to account for or mitigate inelastic behavior in the pier wall foundations shall be discussed at the Type Selection Meeting.3. The typeII expected nominal moment capacity M ne .42) 7. For example. must be at least 1. ⎧ H '+(2 × Dc ) ⎪ H s ≤ ⎨ Length of the column / shaft from the po int of max imum moment ⎪in the shaft to the po int of contraflexure in the column ⎩ (7.3 Pile Shafts 7. at any location along the shaft.
3. Based on passive earth pressure tests and the force deflection results from largescale abutment testing at the University of California. and 1 foot (300 mm) larger for each piece of telescoping casing.4 Minimum Pile Shaft Length Pile shafts must have sufficient length to ensure stable loaddeflection characteristics. units (7. 7. 7.43. Keff that accounts for expansion gaps.5 7. 7. units K abut 15 This proportionality may be revised in future as more data becomes available. as documented in Equation 7.7. Davis (UCD).SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.3.5 Enlarged Pile Shafts Type II shafts typically are enlarged relative to the column diameter to contain the inelastic action to the column.7 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ U. ⎧ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎟ ⎪Ki × w × ⎜ ⎝ 5 .7.43) S.1 ABUTMENTS Longitudinal Abutment Response The linear elastic demand model shall include an effective abutment stiffness. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 733 . The effect of oversized shafts on the foundation’s performance should be considered. Enlarged shafts shall be at least 24 inches larger than the column diameter and the reinforcement shall satisfy the clearance requirements for CIP piling specified in Bridge Design Details 1322. Pile shafts diameters are commonly 6 inches (150 mm) larger than specified when straight casing is used.1.8. The abutment embankment fill stiffness is nonlinear and is dependent upon the material properties of the abutment backfill.S.3.7.4 Pile Extensions Pile extensions must perform in a ductile manner and meet the ductility requirements of column elements specified in Section 4.5 ).3 Pile Shaft Diameter Pile shaft construction practice often requires the use of temporary casing (straight or telescoping) especially in the upper 20 feet (6 m). the initial embankment fill stiffness is K i ≈ 20 kip in ft kN mm m (11.I.7. 7.5 ⎠ ⎪ =⎨ ⎪ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎪ K i × w × ⎜ 1. and incorporates a realistic value for the embankment fill response. The initial stiffness 15 shall be adjusted proportional to the backwall/diaphragm height.8 7.
For seat abutments the backwall is typically designed to break off in order to protect the foundation from inelastic action. h 5. The maximum passive pressure of 5. above and below the soffit. ⎞ 1995]. presented in Equation 7.14B).0 ksf (239 kPa). The passive pressure resisting the movement at the abutment increases linearly with the displacement. as shown in Figure 7. ⎧ ⎪hbw × wbw Seat Abutments Ae = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩hdia × wdia Diaphragm Abutments (7. If the diaphragm has not been designed to resist the passive earth pressure exerted by the abutment backfill. w is the width of the backwall or the diaphragm for seat and diaphragm abutments.5 Pbw or Pdia = ⎨ ⎪ A × 239 kPa × ( hbw or hdia ) e ⎪ 1. the effective abutment area is limited to the portion of the diaphragm above the soffit of the girders.44) (m.0 ksf × ( ⎪ 5. kN ) The effective abutment area for calculating the ultimate longitudinal force capacity of an abutment is presented in Equation 7.44 is based on the ultimate static force developed in the full scale abutment testing conducted at UCD [Maroney.SECTION 7 – DESIGN where. hbw or hdia ⎧ ) ⎪ Ae × 5.5 ft (1. the effective abutment area is equal to the entire area of the diaphragm. is typically designed to engage the backfill immediately when the bridge is displaced longitudinally.7 m ⎟ is based on the height of the UCD abutment specimen ⎝ ⎠ of 5.14A. The height proportionality factor. For diaphragm abutments the entire diaphragm.45.7 m). SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 734 . kip) (7.7 ⎩ ( ft. respectively.5 ft ⎛ ⎜ h 1. Therefore. The area considered effective for mobilizing the backfill longitudinally is equal to the area of the backwall.45) hdia= hdia* = Effective height if the diaphragm is not designed for full soil pressure (see Figure 7.
14A Effective Abutment Stiffness w bw w dia h bw h dia * h dia ** Seat Abutment Diaphragm Abutment Figure 7.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.14C Effective Abutment Width For Skewed Bridges SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 735 .5 Force P bw K eff K abut Force P dia K abut =K eff Δ gap Δ eff Seat Abutm ents Deflection Δ eff Deflection Diaphragm Abutm ents Figure 7.14B Effective Abutment Area w abut Figure 7.
wingwalls. The residual spring has no relevance to the actual stiffness provided by the failed backwall or diaphragm but should suppress unrealistic response modes associated with a completely released end condition. The elastic analysis shall be repeated to obtain revised column displacements.SECTION 7 – DESIGN The abutment displacement coefficient RA shall be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of the abutment. Reasonable transverse displacement of superstructure SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 736 . K res ≈ 0. 7. and the elastic analysis shall be repeated for revised column displacements. The abutment stiffness is large relative to the stiffness of the bents or piers. The column displacement demands generated by the linear elastic model can be used directly to determine the displacement demand and capacity assessment of the bents or piers. RA = ΔD Δeff where: ΔD = The longitudinal displacement demand at the abutment from elastic analysis. The bents and piers will sustain significant deformation. The lateral capacity of seat abutments should not be considered effective for the MCE unless the designer can demonstrate the forcedeflection characteristics and stiffness for each element that contributes to the transverse resistance. The magnitude of the transverse abutment stiffness and the resulting displacement is most critical in the design of the adjacent bent. If RA ≥ 4 The elastic model is insensitive to the abutment stiffness. not the abutment itself. Typically seat abutments cannot be elastically designed to resist MCE demands because linear analysis cannot capture the inelastic response of the shear keys. The effective abutment stiffness Keff in the elastic model shall be reduced to a minimum residual stiffness Kres. The abutment contribution to the overall bridge response is small and the abutments are insignificant to the longitudinal seismic performance.2 Transverse Abutment Response Seat type abutments are designed to resist transverse service load and moderate earthquake demands elastically.1 * K eff If 2 < RA < 4 The abutment stiffness in the elastic model shall be adjusted by interpolating effective abutment stiffness between Keff and the residual stiffness Kres based on the RA value. or piles. = The effective longitudinal abutment displacement at idealized yield.8. Δeff If RA ≤ 2 The elastic response is dominated by the abutments.
5 relative to the abutment seat can easily be accommodated without catastrophic consequences.8. prestress shortening. Diaphragm type abutments supported on standard piles surrounded by dense material can conservatively be estimated. shrinkage.0 7. ⎧ Δ p / s + Δcr + sh + Δtemp + Δeq + 4 ⎪ NA ≥ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ Δ p / s + Δcr + sh + Δtemp + Δeq + 100 NA ( ( ) (in) ) (7. Knom equal to 50% of the transverse stiffness of the adjacent bent shall be used in the elastic demand assessment models. Any additional element. shall be included in the transverse analysis with a characteristic forcedeflection curve. The seat width normal to the centerline of bearing shall be calculated by Equation 7. creep. such as pile shafts (used for transverse ductility). ignoring the wingwalls. The nominal spring has no relevance to the actual residual stiffness provided by the failed shear key but should suppress unrealistic response modes associated with a completely released end condition.46 but not less than 30 inches (760 mm).SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. This approach is consistent with the standalone push analysis design of the adjacent bent and it is conservative since larger amounts of lateral resistance at the abutments that are not captured by the nominal spring will only reduce the transverse displacement demands at the bents. A nominal transverse spring. Sufficient abutment seat width shall be available to accommodate the anticipated thermal movement. and the relative longitudinal earthquake displacement.46) (mm) = Abutment seat width normal to the centerline of bearing = Displacement attributed to prestress shortening Δp / s Δcr + sh = Displacement attributed to creep and shrinkage Δtemp = Displacement attributed to thermal expansion and contraction Δ eq = The largest relative earthquake displacement between the superstructure and the abutment calculated by the global or standalone analysis The “Seat Width” requirements due to the service load considerations (Caltrans Bridge Design Specifications and AASHTO requirements) shall also be met. The initial slope of the forcedeflection curve shall be included in the elastic demand assessment model. as 40 kips/in ( 7. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 737 .3 Abutment Seat Width kN mm ) per pile.
Shear key capacity for seat abutments shall be limited to the smaller of the following: ⎧ ⎪. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 738 . Wide bridges may require internal shear keys to insure adequate lateral resistance is available for service load and moderate earthquakes. The forces generated with elastic demand assessment models should not be used to size the abutment shear keys.8.4 Abutment Shear Key Design Typically abutment shear keys are expected to transmit the lateral shear forces generated by small earthquakes and service loads.SECTION 7 – DESIGN C L Brg. Internal shear keys should be avoided whenever possible because of maintenance problems associated with premature failure caused by binding due to the superstructure rotation or shortening. (760 mm) Figure 7. Δ p/s+Δ cr+sh+ Δ temp NA Δ eq 4" (100mm) Seat ≥ 30 in.3Pdl .47) sup Note that the shear keys for abutments supported on spread footings are only designed to 0.75 × ∑ V Fsk ≤ ⎨ sup ⎪ ⎩0.15 Abutment Seat Width Requirements 7.3 × Pdl pile ∑V pile = Sum of the lateral pile capacity sup Pdl = Axial dead load reaction at the abutment (7. Determining the earthquake force demand on shear keys is difficult.
2 Development of Longitudinal Column Reinforcement Refer to Chapter 8 in the Bridge Design Specifications for the development requirements for all reinforcement not addressed in this section.1. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 81 . and enlarged pile shafts. 8.1. 8.6. Splicing of spiral reinforcement is not permitted in the “no splice” regions of ductile components as defined in Section 8.dot.4 Hoop and Spiral Reinforcement Splices Ultimate splices are required for all spiral and hoop reinforcement in ductile components. 8. Spiral splicing outside the “no splice” regions of ductile components shall meet the ultimate splice requirements.1. footings.gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/SDC/ 8.3 Reinforcement Spliced in Capacity Protected Members Reinforcing steel splices designed to meet the SDC requirements in capacity protected components shall meet the “service splice” requirements identified in MTD 209. These locations are usually found in elements that are critical to ductile performance such as bent caps.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. SEISMIC DETAILING 8.2 Reinforcement Spliced in Ductile Components & Components Expected to Accept Damage Reinforcing steel splices in ductile components outside of the “no splice” region shall meet the “ultimate splice” performance requirements identified in MTD 209.1 Splices in Reinforcing Steel No Splice Regions in Ductile Components Splicing of flexural reinforcement is not permitted in critical locations of ductile elements. The designer in consultation with the Seismic Specialist may choose to upgrade the splice capacity from service level to ultimate level in capacity protected components where the reinforcing steel strains are expected to significantly exceed yield.ca.1.1. 8.5 http://www.1 8.3 or the portion of the column where the moment demand exceeds My. The “no splice” region shall be the greater of: The length of the plastic hinge region as defined in Section 7. A “no splice” region shall be clearly identified on the plans for both hinge locations of fixedfixed columns.1.
2 Anchorage of Bundled Bars in Ductile Components The anchorage length of individual column bars within a bundle anchored into a cap beam shall be increased by twenty percent for a twobar bundle and fifty percent for a threebar bundle.2. [7] ' ' SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 82 . If the joint region is not confined by solid adjacent members or prestressing. the volumetric ratio of the confinement along lac shall not be less than the value specified by Equation 8.2.SECTION 8 – SEISMIC DETAILING 8.3 Flexural Bond Requirements for Columns 8. f c rather than f ce is used in Equation 8.3. 8. Fourbar bundles are not permitted in ductile elements.1) The anchorage length calculated in equation 8.21 are met. The column reinforcement shall be confined along the development length lac by transverse hoops or spirals with the same volumetric ratio as required at the top of the column.6 × ρ l × D c l ac (8.2.1 Maximum Bar Diameter The nominal diameter of longitudinal reinforcement in columns shall not exceed the value specified by Equation 8. d bl = 25 × f c′ × Lb (in. If the joint shear reinforcement prescribed in Section 7. MPa) (8. the anchorage for longitudinal column bars developed into the cap beam for seismic loads shall not be less than the length specified in Equation 8.4.1 cannot be reduced by adding hooks or mechanical anchorage devices.2.2. psi) f ye d bl = 2.1[1]: lac = 24dbl (in. or mm) (8.1 × f c′ × Lb f ye (mm. ρs = 0 . and the minimum bar spacing requirements in BDS 8.3) 16 16 To ensure conservative results.3. The reinforcing development requirements in other Caltrans documents must be met for all load cases other than seismic.2.4.3.2) 8.1 Minimum Development Length of Reinforcing Steel for Seismic Loads Column longitudinal reinforcement shall be extended into footings and cap beams as close as practically possible to the opposite face of the footing or cap beam.
and l d is the development length in tension of the column longitudinal bars.5 × Dc L = Length of column from the point of maximum moment to the point of contraflexure (8.1 by the compounded modification factors of 0.4 Development Length for Column Reinforcement Extended Into Enlarged Type II Shafts Column longitudinal reinforcement shall be extended into Type II (enlarged) shafts in a staggered manner with the minimum recommended embedment lengths of ( Dc .4) Where longitudinal bars in columns are bundled.3 shall apply to the nominal effective diameter dbb of the bundle.bar bundles.6 for epoxycoated and non epoxycoated reinforcement.2.9 and 0. max + 2 × l d ) . 8.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 × d bl for threebar bundles. 8.2. where Dc.max + l d ) and ( Dc . Nominal values of f y = 68 ksi and f c' = 5 ksi shall be used in calculating l db . Construction cost increases significantly when embedment lengths exceed 20 feet as the shaft excavations are governed by the more stringent CalOSHA requirements for tunneling and mining. Equation 8.max is the largest cross section dimension of the column. The development length l d shall be determined by multiplying the basic tension development length l db as specified in AASHTO LRFD Section 5. In addition to ensuring adequate anchorage beyond the plastic hinge penetration into the shaft. this provision will ensure that the embedment lengths for a majority of bridge columns supported on Type II shafts are less than 20 feet.5 Lb = L − 0. respectively. taken as 1.11.5 Maximum Spacing for Lateral Reinforcement The maximum spacing for lateral reinforcement in the plastic end regions shall not exceed the smallest of the following: • • • One fifth of the least dimension of the crosssection for columns and onehalf of the least crosssection dimension of piers Six times the nominal diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement 8 inches (220 mm) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 83 . and 1.2 × d bl for two.2.
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5 APPENDIX A .3) Area of vertical jbar reinforcement required at moment resisting joints with a skew angle >20° (Section 7.1) Area of bent cap side face steel required at moment resisting joints (Section 7.4) Bent cap width (Section 7. mm2) (Section 3.1) Effective width of the footing for calculating average normal stress in the horizontal direction within a footing moment resisting joint (Section 7.4.1) Castindrilledhole pile (Section 1.3) Area of longitudinal column steel anchored in the joint (Section 7.4.4.1) The effective vertical area for a moment resisting footing joint (Section 7.1) Caltrans Bridge Design Details Bridge Design Specifications Effective width of the superstructure for resisting longitudinal seismic moments (Section 7.2) The effective horizontal area of a moment resisting joint (Section 7.4.4.1.1) Effective shear area (Section 3.1.8.2) Castinsteelshell pile (Section 1.4) Area of supplemental nonprestressed tension reinforcement (Section 4.3) Area of vertical joint shear reinforcement required at moment resisting joints (Section 7.7.2) Gross cross section area (in2.2) Column cross sectional dimension in the direction of interest (Section 3.4.4.2.4.7.2.4.1.4.1) The effective horizontal area for a moment resisting footing joint (Section 7.2) Area of horizontal joint shear reinforcement required at moment resisting joints (Section 7.1.7.NOTATIONS & ACRONYMS Ab Ae Ag Ajh = = = = Area of individual reinforcing steel bar (in2.6.7.4.4.3.4.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.4) ftg = A jh Ajv = ftg = A jv As A’s = = Asjh = Asjv = Asj −bar = Assf = Ast Av Bc = ASTM = = Bcap = BDD = BDS = Beff = ftg Beff = C (pile = i) CIDH = CISS = Dc = Axial compression demand on a pile (Section 7.6.1.3) The other crosssectional dimension of a rectangular column (Section 7.1.6.3.3) ARS = 5% damped elastic Acceleration Response Spectrum.4.2) Area of supplemental compression reinforcement (Section 4.4.3) American Society for Testing Materials Area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to flexural tension reinforcement (Section 3. expressed in terms of g (Section 2.4) The effective vertical area for a moment resisting joint (Section 7. mm2) (section 3.2.1) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA A1 .1.2.7.4.
1) Moment of inertia about centroidal axis of the gross section of the member (Section 5.APPENDIX A – NOTATIONS & ACRONYMS Dc.6.1) ISA = = = Keff Ki = = Effective abutment backwall stiffness kip in ( kN mm ) (Section 7.1) Largest cross sectional dimension of the column (Section 8.7.7.3.1) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA A2 .2.3) Equivalent Static Analysis (Section 2. MPa) (Section 5. = Dc.7.1.6.8.3) Effective polar moment of inertia for computing member stiffness (Section 5.2(c)) = Length of column/shaft considered for seismic shear demand on Type I pile shafts (Section 7.1) Depth of resultant soil resistance measured from top of footing (Section 7.1) Geotechnical Services Average height of column supporting bridge deck between expansion joints (Section 7.1) Crosssectional dimension of confined concrete core measured between the centerline of the peripheral hoop or spiral (Section 3.2.6.8.1) Modulus of elasticity of steel (psi.2.6.g.6.1) = = = Moment of inertia of the pile group (Section 7. Ieff Ig Jeff Jg Length of pile shaft/column from point of maximum moment to point of contraflexure above ground considering the base of plastic hinge at the point of maximum moment (Section 7.max = Dftg DRs Ds D’ D * Distance from the top of column to the center of gravity of the superstructure (Section 4.3) Crosssectional dimension of pile shaft in the direction of interest (Section 7.2.1) Depth of superstructure at the bent cap (Section 7.2) Modulus of elasticity of concrete (psi.2.1. MPa) (Section 3.6.max Hs Ic.2.3.8.2) = = = = = = Ec Es Fsk G Gc GS H H’ EDA = = ESA = = = = = = = H o .3) Length of pile shaft/column from ground surface to the point of zero moment above ground (Section 7.4) Depth of footing (Section 7.6.4) The gap between an isolated flare and the soffit of the bent cap (Section 7.6) Elastic Dynamic Analysis (Section 2.g.1) Gross polar moment of inertia about centroidal axis of the gross section of the member (Section 5.1.6.1) Inelastic Static Analysis (Section 5.2) Shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) for concrete (ksi.1) Effective moment of inertia for computing member stiffness (Section 5.1) ft m Initial abutment backwall stiffness (Section 7.2.1) Abutment shear key force capacity (Section 7.1.7.6.8.6.2. MPa) (Section 3.
3.L M eq = = = = Portion of Meqcol distributed to the left or right adjacent superstructure spans (Section 4.7. L M ne = Expected nominal moment capacity of the right and left superstructure spans utilizing expected material properties (Section 4.1) The moment demand generated in pile (i) (Section 7. Mocol (Section 4.8.2.2. Nm) (Section 2. mm) (Section 3.2) R.7.3) Length used for flexural bond requirements (Section 8.1.3.2) Column overstrength moment (Section 2.3) = = = Maximum Credible Earthquake (Section 2.3.1.1) = = Mpcol Mp/s My Mφ MTD = = Moment attributed to secondary prestress effects (Section 4.1) Equivalent analytical plastic hinge length (in.1.3) Memo to Designers SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA A3 .1.1) typeII M ne = col Mo Expected nominal moment capacity of a type II pile shaft (Section 7. Nominal moment capacity based on the expected material properties and a concrete strain.6. mm) (Section 3.3.1) = = Moment curvature analysis (Section 3.3.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.1) Idealized plastic moment capacity of a column calculated by Mφ analysis (kipft.1) Earthquake maximum moment magnitude (Section 2.003 (Section 3.3) Plastic hinge region which defines the region of a column or pier that requires enhanced lateral confinement (Section 7.7.3.3) = = = = Length of bridge deck between adjacent expansion joints (Section 7.2.1.5 L L Lb Lp Lpr Lftg MCE Mdl col M eq = Member length from the point of maximum moment to the point of contraflexure (in.1) The column moment when coupled with any existing Mdl & Mp/s will equal the column’s overstrength moment capacity.6.2. εc = 0.003.1) Moment attributed to dead load (Section 4.3.4) M (pile i) Mmax Mn Mne = sup R .1.2) Moment capacity of a ductile component corresponding to the first reinforcing bar yielding (Section 5.2) = Cantilever length of the footing or pile cap measured from face of column to edge of footing along the principal axis of the footing (Section 7.3.1) Nominal moment capacity based on the nominal concrete and steel strengths when the concrete strain reaches 0.3.
4) Displacement reduction factor for damping ratios exceeding 5% (Section 2.1) Total axial load on the pile group including column axial load (dead load + EQ load due to any overturning effects). and overburden soil weight (Section 7.6.2) Abutment support width normal to centerline of bearing (Section 7.3.6.3. N) (Section 2.1) Axial tension demand on a pile (Section 7.1) The column axial force including the effects of overturning (Section 3.1) Abutment pile shear capacity (Section 7.e.4.2) Overstrength shear associated with the overstrength moment Mo (Section 3.2) Seismic Design Criteria Structure Design Services Natural period of vibration.6.2.8.1.2) SDC = SDS = T Tc = = T(ipile = ) Tjv Vc = = V( ipile ) = Vn = Vnpw = Vo = Vocol = Vpile = V pcol = Vs = Vupw = SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA A4 .2) Total tensile force in column longitudinal reinforcement associated with Mocol (Section 7.4) Column plastic shear.1) Shear demand on a pier wall in the strong direction (Section 3.1. typically defined as Mocol /L (kips.1) Skew angle of abutment (Section 7.1) Column overstrength shear.5) Superstructure axial load resultant at the abutment (Section 7.4) Preliminary Geology Report (Section 2.7.2.6.8.1.7.7.7.8. P/S concrete. typically defined as Mpcol/L (kips.8.6.5) Total resultant expected soil resistance along the end and sides of a footing (Section 7.1.1) Net tension force in moment resisting footing joints (Section 7.6.7. in seconds T = 2π m k (Section 7.1.1.7.4.1) Nominal shear strength (Section 3.1.1) Nominal shear strength of pier wall in the strong direction (Section 3.4. P/S strand) (Section 2.1) Shear demand on a pile (Section 7.1.1) Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement (Section 3.6.2) Axial load attributed to dead load (Section 3.2.2) Nominal shear strength provided by concrete (Section 3.APPENDIX A – NOTATIONS & ACRONYMS N NA Np Pb Pc Pdl = = = Blow count per foot (0.1) Offices of Structure Design (Section 1. footing weight. N) (Section 2.1) OSD = = = = sup = Pdl PGR = Pp = P/S = RD Rs S = = = Prestressed Concrete (i.4.3) Total number of piles in a footing (Section 7.6.6.1) The effective axial force at the center of the joint including prestress (Section 7.3m) for the California Standard Penetration Test (Section 6.
4.1) Tributary mass associated with column or bent (i).2 ft sec 2 (9.4. MPa) (Section 3.1) Average normal stress in the horizontal direction within a moment resisting joint (Section 7.4. 32. m = W/g (kipsec2/ft.2.8. MPa) (Section 3. KPa) (Section 6.2.1) The total number of piles at distance c(i) from the center of gravity of the pile group (Section 7.7.1) A5 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA .2.3.1) Length of column reinforcement embedded into bent cap (Section 7.1) Nominal principal compression stress in a joint (psi. Mpa) (Section = = = = Average normal stress in the vertical direction within a moment resisting joint (Section 7.3.1) Compressive strength of unconfined concrete (Section 3.2) Nominal principal tension stress in a joint (psi.1.1) Expected yield stress for A706 reinforcement (ksi.4.3) Nominal yield stress of transverse column reinforcement (hoops/spirals) (ksi.8.2.1.1) Nominal yield stress for A706 reinforcement (ksi. mm) (Section 3.2) Spacing of shear/transverse reinforcement measured along the longitudinal axis of the structural member (in.2) Top or bottom slab thickness (Section 7.2) Effective diameter of bundled reinforcement (Section 8.81 m sec 2 ) (Section 1.1.2.2) fv fy fye = = = = = Damping ratio (Section 2.1.4.5) Nominal bar diameter of longitudinal column reinforcement (Section 7.5 c (i ) = Distance from pile (i) to the center of gravity of the pile group in the X or Y direction (Section 7.1) Effective stiffness of bent or column (i) (Section 7.2.1) Maximum abutment backwall soil pressure (Section 7.3) Expected minimum tensile strength for A706 reinforcement (ksi. kg) (Section 7.7.1.2.2. MPa) (Section 7.4.1) Acceleration due to gravity.3) f c' ' f cc = ' f ce = g hbw = = k (ei ) = lac lb m(i) n pbw pc pt s su t = = = = = = = = = = Undrained shear strength (psf.6. MPa) (Section 7.1.1) Tensile stress for 270 ksi (1900 MPa) 7 wire low relaxation prestress strand (ksi.5) Expected compressive strength of unconfined concrete (psi.6.1) Abutment backwall height (Section 7. MPa) (section 3.4) = = = Specified minimum tensile strength for A706 reinforcement (ksi.6.2.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. MPa) (Section 3.1) Length used for flexural bond requirements (Section 8.4.2. MPa) (Section 3.6) Confined compression strength of concrete (Section 3.2.2.4.1) c dbl dbb fh fps fu fue fyh 3. MPa) (Section 3.
4.u = εsh εsu = = R ε su = εy εye Δb Δc ΔC Δd ΔD Δeq Δf Δp Δr Δs = = = = Δcol = = Δcr+sh = = = = = = Δp/s = = = The displacement in Type I shafts at the point of maximum moment (Section 4.6.4) Global displacement capacity (Section 3.4) Δtemp = SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA A6 .2) Displacement attributed to the elastic and plastic deformation of the column (Section 2.3) Reduced ultimate tensile strain for A706 reinforcement (Section 3.4) Tensile strain in prestress steel at the essentially elastic limit state (Section 3.2) Global system displacement (Section 2.4) Reduced ultimate tensile strain in prestress steel (Section 3.3) Expected yield tensile strain for A706 reinforcement (Section 3.5.3) Displacement due to beam flexibility (Section 2.3) Displacement due to prestress shortening (Section 7.2.6) Tensile strain for 7wire low relaxation prestress strand (Section 3.2) Shear wave velocity (ft/sec. m/sec) (Section 6.2.5) Local member displacement demand (Section 2.APPENDIX A – NOTATIONS & ACRONYMS vjv vc vs = = = = = = = = = Nominal vertical shear stress in a moment resisting joint (psi.2.5.2.2.2.2.1) Concrete compressive strain at maximum compressive stress of confined concrete (Section 3.2.5) The relative lateral offset between the point of contraflexure and the base of the plastic hinge (Section 4.3) Ultimate tensile strain for A706 reinforcement (Section 3.4.2) Local member plastic displacement capacity (in.1) The average displacement at an expansion joint due to earthquake (Section 7.2.4.6) Ultimate compressive strain (spalling strain)of unconfined concrete (Section 3.4) Displacement due to foundation flexibility (Section 2.4) Tensile strain at the onset of strain hardening for A706 reinforcement (Section 3.2) Displacement due to creep and shrinkage (Section 7.2.EE = R ε ps .6) Concrete compressive strain at maximum compressive stress of unconfined concrete (Section 3.2.5) Ultimate compression strain for confined concrete (Section 3.1) Permissible shear stress carried by concrete (psi.2.2.2) εc εcc εco εsp εcu εps εps.12) Specified concrete compressive strain for essentially elastic members (Section 3.5.2. Appendix Figure B. MPa) (Section 3.2.2.2.2. mm) (Section 3.1.2.2.2.2) The displacement due to temperature variation (Section 7.1.2. MPa) (Section 7.3) Nominal yield tensile strain for A706 reinforcement (Section 3.1.2) Local member displacement capacity (Section 3.2.5.
2.2.6.5.1. mm) (Section 2.1.2) Global displacement ductility demand (Section 2.2) = = = = = Area ratio of transverse reinforcement in column flare (Section 7.3) Local displacement ductility capacity (Section 3.1 and 3.4) Idealized yield displacement of the subsystem at the formation of the plastic hinge (in.2.1) Idealized plastic curvature 1 in ( 1 mm ) (Section 3.6.6.6.1) = = = = Idealized yield curvature (Section 3.5 Δcol = y ΔY θp ρ ρl ρs ρfs φ φp φu φy φY μd μD μc = Idealized yield displacement of the column (Section 2.4) Area ratio of longitudinal column reinforcement (Section 8.1.3) Ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement (Section 4.1.3) Strength reduction factor (Section 3.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.8.4) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA A7 .3) Yield curvature corresponding to the yield of the fist tension reinforcement in a ductile component (Section 5.2.1) Ratio of volume of spiral or hoop reinforcement to the core volume confined by the spiral or hoop reinforcement (measured outtoout) (Sections 3.3) = = = = Plastic rotation capacity (radians) (Section 3.1.3) Ultimate curvature capacity (Section 3.1.6.3) Local displacement ductility demand (Section 3.
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This minimum spectrum is shown for several VS30 values in Figure B.dot. In both regimes. the earthquake magnitude should be set to the maximum moment magnitude MMax. Instructions for the determination of these spectra. the Design Response Spectrum is based on the envelope of a deterministic and probabilistic spectrum. Deterministic Criteria Shallow crustal tectonics (all faults other than Cascadia subduction zone) The deterministic spectrum is calculated as the arithmetic average of median response spectra calculated using the CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) ground motion prediction equations (GMPE’s). Eastern California Shear Zone The Eastern California Shear Zone is a region of distributed shear and complex faulting that makes identification of potential seismic sources challenging. including MMax .ca. To account for this uncertainty. including the application of appropriate adjustment factors. a minimum response spectrum based on a strikeslip mechanism with moment magnitude M 7. In application of these ground motion prediction equations. are provided in the "2007 Fault Database” (http://dap3. an envelope of the spectral values shall be used for the design spectrum.pdf) Multifault Hazard In cases where more than one fault contributes maximum spectral values across the period spectrum.gov/shake_stable/Errata_Report_120309. Updates to these parameters along with additions or deletions to the database of considered faults can be found at "Errata Report" (http://dap3. Recommended fault parameters. The Eastern California Shear Zone is shown in Figure B. with the sole exception of the Cascadia subduction zone along California’s northern coastline.0 or greater. as recommended by California Geological Survey (1997.2.2 miles) is imposed. 2005).SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.gov/ shake_stable/references/2007_Fault_Database_120309.DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT California Seismic Hazard Seismic hazard in California is governed by shallow crustal tectonics.000 years (late Quaternary age) and capable of producing a moment magnitude earthquake of 6. are provided in the sections below.6 and a distance to the vertical rupture plane of 10 km (6. These equations are applied to all faults in or near California considered to be active in the last 700.dot.xls).ca.1. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B1 .5 APPENDIX B .
This adjustment factor.5 miles). the deterministic spectrum for the Cascadia subduction zone is defined by the median spectrum from the Youngs et al. Minimum Deterministic Spectrum In recognition of the potential for earthquakes to occur on previously unknown faults.3. Spectrum Adjustment Factors The design spectrum may need to be modified to account for seismological effects related to being in close proximity to a rupturing fault and/or placement on top of a deep sedimentary basin. 2008) for the 5% in 50 years probability of exceedance (or 975 year return period). application of this factor to the minimum spectrum is NOT recommended. Since the USGS Seismic Hazard Map spectral values are published only for VS30 = 760m/s. While this scenario establishes the minimum spectrum. Probabilistic Criteria The probabilistic spectrum is obtained from the (2008) USGS Seismic Hazard Map (Petersen. NearFault Factor Sites located near a rupturing fault may experience elevated levels of shaking at periods longer than 0. shown in Figure B.5second due to phenomena such as constructive wave interference. (1997) ground motion prediction equation. the spectrum is intended to represent the possibility of a wide range of magnitudedistance scenarios. The site amplification factors shall be based on an average of those derived from the BooreAtkinson (2008). As a practical matter. is fully applied at locations with a site to rupture plane B2 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA . an arithmetic average of the Youngs et al. spectrum is less than the average of the CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) models (both without the hanging wall term applied). CampbellBozorgnia (2008). and CBCY average is used. radiation pattern effects. Although a rupture distance of 12 km strictly meets the criteria for application of a directivity adjustment factor.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT Cascadia Subduction Zone Following the general approach of the USGS (Frankel. soil amplification factors must be applied for other site conditions. a minimum deterministic spectrum is imposed statewide. This minimum spectrum is defined as the average of the median predictions of CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) for a scenario M 6. with the added criterion that where the Youngs et al. and ChiouYoungs (2008) ground motion prediction models (the same models used for the development of the USGS map). These adjustments are discussed in the following sections. 2002). these phenomena are commonly combined into a single “nearfault” adjustment factor. and static fault offset (fling).5 vertical strikeslip event occurring at a distance of 12 km (7.
a deaggregation of the site hazard should be performed to determine whether the “probabilistic” distance is less than 25 km. The adjustment consists of a 20% increase in spectral values with corresponding period longer than one second. The “probabilistic” distance shall be calculated as the smaller of the mean distance and the mode distance (from the peak R.0 and Z2. This latter requirement reflects the intention not to apply a nearfault adjustment factor to a background seismic source used in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis.5 second).5) and ChiouYoungs using a depth to 1. Basin Factor Both the CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) ground motion prediction models include a depth to rock (Z) parameter that allows each model to better predict ground motion in regions with deep sedimentary structure.5 Figures B.0 < 40 m). and heightened 1D soil amplification due to a greater depth of soil.0 data are generally unavailable at nonbasin locations.0 larger than 400 m. It should be noted that both models predict a decrease in long period energy for cases of shallow rock (Z2.5 distance (RRup) of 15 km (9. In Northern California. Since Z2. implementation of the basin amplification factors is restricted to locations with Z2.5 km/s shear wave velocity (Z2. In Southern California.4. Since neither the CampbellBozorgnia nor ChiouYoungs models consider these phenomena explicitly.4 miles) or less and linearly tapered to zero adjustment at 25 km (15.5second.0 and Z2. with CampbellBozorgnia using a depth to 2. but not less than the site to rupture plane distance corresponding to the nearest fault in the Caltrans Fault Database. However.5 < 1 km or Z1.6 miles). This increase is linearly tapered to zero at a period of 0. since sites with large depth to rock are located in basin structures the term “basin effect” is commonly used.5 for regions with sufficient depth to rock to trigger basin amplification.5 contour map was generated using tomography data by Thurber (2009) and a generalized velocity profile by Brocher (2005). the Z2.data. M bin).scec. these maps were generated using data from the Community Velocity Model (CVM) Version 4 (http://www. Numerical models suggest that ground shaking in sedimentary basins is impacted by phenomena such as trapped surface waves. For application to a probabilistic spectrum.5 through B. Details of the contour map development are provided in the "Deterministic PGA Map and ARS SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B3 . Amplification factors for the two models are shown for various depths to rock in Figure B. it is more accurate to refer to predicted amplification due to the Z parameter as a “depth to rock” effect instead of a basin effect.org/3Dvelocity/). constructive and destructive interference. amplifications at the basin edge.5 and Z1. The two models use different reference velocities for rock. These plots assume a VS30 of 270 m/s (typical for many basin locations) but are suitable for other VS30 values as well since the basin effect is only slightly sensitive to VS30 (primarily at periods less than 0. Maps of Z1.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 larger than 3 km or Z1.0).0 km/s shear wave velocity (Z1.11 show contour maps of Z1.
The maximum response spectrum. is approximately 15% to 25% larger than the equally probable spectrum calculated using the procedures described above.gov/shake_stable/references/Deterministic_PGA_Map_and_ARS_Online_ Report_071409. correlations to available parameters such as undrained shear strength. occurring at a specific but unpredictable orientation.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT Online Report" (http://dap3. A Z1. Both the deterministic and probabilistic spectra defined above reflect a spectrum that is equally probable in all orientations. + n V1 V2 Vn where Dn represents the thickness of layer n (ft). or. or standard penetration test blow counts be utilized. the equally probable component spectrum is used for design. then VS30 can be calculated as follows: Vs 30 = 100 ft D D1 D2 + + . determines the estimated site amplification in each of the above models. Selection of V S 3 0 for Site Amplification The CampbellBozorgnia (2008). It is recommended that direct shear wave velocity measurements be used.ca. and BooreAtkinson (2008) ground motion prediction models (the latter is included for application to the probabilistic spectrum) use the parameter VS30 to characterize near surface soil stiffness as well as infer broader site characteristics. This parameter.. Since a narrow range of directional orientations typically define the critical loading direction for bridge structures. Vn represents the shear wave velocity of layer n (fps). the corresponding response spectrum changes as well.dot. along with the level of ground shaking.0 contour map could not be created in Northern California due to insufficient data. cone penetration tip resistance. and the sum of the layer depths equals 100 feet.. ChiouYoungs (2008). Additional recommendations pertaining to determination of VS30 for development of the preliminary and final design SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B4 . VS30 represents the average small strain shear wave velocity in the upper 100 feet (30 meters) of the soil column. Directional Orientation of Design Spectrum When recorded horizontal components of earthquake ground motion are mathematically rotated to different orientations. in the absence of available field measurements.pdf). For Northern California locations only the CampbellBozorgnia basin amplification factor is applied. Application of the models For Southern California locations an average of the CampbellBozorgnia and ChiouYoungs basin amplification factors is applied to both the deterministic and probabilistic spectra. If the shear wave velocity (VS) is known (or estimated) for discrete soil layers.
24. Soc.12 provides a profile classification system that is published in Applied Technology Council–32 (1996) and was adopted in previous versions of SDC. This table includes general guidance on average shear wave velocity that may be useful for development of a preliminary design spectrum..dot. California. For cases where either (1) VS30 is less than 150 m/s. Improved Seismic Design Criteria for California Bridges: Resource Document. C.pdf) Figure B. Type E spectra will significantly exceed spectra developed using site response analysis methods. Acceleration and displacement response spectra at VS30 values corresponding to the center of the velocity ranges designated for soil profile types B.01 s and 10. The CampbellBozorgnia and ChiouYoungs ground motion prediction equations are applicable for VS30 ranging from 150 m/s (500 fps) to 1500 m/s (5000 fps). a site response analysis is required for both preliminary and final design.0 s: Earthquake Spectra.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. a sitespecific response analysis is required for determination of the final design spectrum.. 2005. Redwood City. or (3) the profile conforms to Soil Profile Type E criteria per Figure B. • Boore. T. References • Applied Technology Council.dot. and 5%damped PSA at spectral periods between 0. • Brocher. originally presented in ATC32. A regional view of urban sedimentary basins in Northern California based on oil industry compressionalwave velocity and density logs: Bull. D..24.25B. 2008. G. For cases where VS30 exceeds 1500 m/s (very rare in California).gov/shake_stable/references/ Preliminary_Spectral_Curves_Data_073009. 20932114. Am. For this reason it is preferred that a site response analysis be performed for the determination of the preliminary design spectrum in Type E soils. M.5 spectrum are given in "Geotechnical Services Design Manual” (http://dap3. The data for these curves can be found in the "Preliminary Spectral Curves Data" spreadsheet (http://dap3. PGV. 1996.ca. a value of 1500 m/s should be used.xls). and Atkinson. Publication 321.95. In most cases.27.12).13B. Groundmotion prediction equations for the average horizontal component of PGA. Seism. however. For cases where the site meets the criteria prescribed for Soil Profile Type E.. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B5 . pp. When a soil profile meets the criteria prescribed for Soil Profile Type F (in Figure B. Vol. the response spectra presented in Figures B. and D are provided at several magnitudes in Figures B.12. (2) one or more layers of at least five (5) feet thickness has a shear wave velocity less than 120 m/s.99138. v.gov/shake_stable/references/GS_Design_Manual _081209.ca. can be used for development of a preliminary design spectrum.
Nicolas..ca.. • Chiou. K..H. Rukstales.S..pdf • Southern California Basin Models (Community Velocity Model V..L.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT • California Geological Survey (CGS). M. and R. and 5% damped linear elastic response spectra for periods ranging from 0. 2008. Wills.01 to 10 s.Wheeler. An NGA model for the average horizontal component of peak ground motion and response spectra: Earthquake Spectra. Silva. R. Res. Mueller. 1. Stephen C.0 (July 2005): http://www. Wheeler.V. PGV. C. 1997 (rev. http://www. Frankel. Res.scec. • Shantz.S. Kathleen M. E. A.. Seism.ca... Brocher. • Magistrale. Mueller. 2002..24. Geological Survey OpenFile Report2002–420. Humphrey (1997).. 2005. Luco. pp. C..4) http://www.data.J. Field.gov/shake_stable/references/Deterministic_PGA_Map_and_ARS_Online_Report_071 409. B01304. http://dap3. and Rukstales. 61 p.. T.. S.. 90 (6B). Graves. v. The SCEC Southern California reference threedimensional seismic velocity model version 2. Day. Petersen.D.2008). 2009. M. Zeng.gov/cgs/shzp/webdocs/Documents/sp117.htm • California Geological Survey (CGS). PGD.L. Wesson. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B6 . Haller. and J.. Kenneth S.gov/CGS/information/publications/QuaternaryFaults_ver2. Guidelines for evaluating and mitigating seismic hazards in California: Special Publication 117. and Youngs. (compiler).A.R. T. Harmsen.R. Leyendecker. 74 pp. Oliver S.S. Mark D. Documentation for the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps: U. 39 p.. 5873. Cramer. 2009. 114.173216 • Frankel. and Bozorgnia. B.. Zhang. 2000..S.S. H. Version 2. Regional threedimensional seismic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of northern California: J. Letts. S.D.139172.usgs.. Robert L. Haller. Wesson. D.M.. NGA ground motion model for the geometric mean horizontal component of PGA. Geophys. David M.dot. Chiou. H.. W.gov/research/hazmaps/ • Youngs. Development of the Caltrans Deterministic PGA Map and Caltrans ARS Online.consrv... Boyd. 68... Charles S. Geological Survey OpenFile Report 2008–1128. Digital Database of Quaternary and Younger Faults from the Fault Activity Map of California. R. W. Arthur D... Merriam.ca. Russell L. pp. C.. V.conservation. Vol.. K. S65S76..pp.pdf • Campbell. 2008.. pp. Chris J. R.. Edward H.J.Clayton. and Langenheim..C.org/3Dvelocity/ • Thurber. Perkins. no. Bryant... Bulletin Seismological Society of America. K. • USGS Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis http://earthquake. Y. Vol. R. Harmsen. Yuehua. 2008..M..24. • Petersen. Perkins. R.Documentation for the 2002 update of the National SeismicHazard Maps: U.: Earthquake Spectra. Strong ground motion attenuation relationships for subduction zone earthquakes.
53.5 0. and 270 m/s) (35. 115.2 0 0 1 2 Period (s) 3 4 Figure B.1 Minimum response spectrum for Eastern Shear Zone (VS30 = 760.25.46.26) (35. 115.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.88) (35. 116. 118.60.82) Figure B.6 B/C Soil (Vs30=760m/s) C Soil (Vs30=560 m/s) D Soil (Vs30=270 m/s) 0. Coordinates in decimal degrees (Lat.80.82) (33. 116. Long) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B7 .4 0.2 Boundaries of Eastern Shear Zone. 560.05) (34.8 Spectral Acceleration (g) 0.
2 1.4 600 m 4 km 1.3 Amplification (for 15km or less) 1.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT NearFault Factor with Respect to Distance 1.6 Z1.2 1. The distance measure is based on the closest distance to any point on the fault plane.1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Period (s) Amplification 1.8 Z2.0 = 1000 m 900 m 800 m 700 m 1.4 Basin amplification factors for the CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) ground motion prediction equations.3 NearFault adjustment factor as a function of distance and spectral period.4 4.2 1. 1.1 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Distance (km) Figure B.3 NearFault Factor w ith Respect to Period 1. Curves may be slightly conservative at periods less than 0.8 Amplification Factor 5 km Amplification Factor 1. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B8 .5 km 400 m 1 0 1 2 3 Period (s) 4 3 km 1 0 1 2 3 Period (s) 4 5 5 Figure B.6 1.5 km 1.5 = 6 km 5.2 500 m 3.5 km 1.5 seconds.
4 118.2 60 0 34.5 Los Angeles Basin Z1.8 33.0) in the Los Angeles Basin.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B9 .2 118.4 117.6 34.8 34.6 118.0 60 700 0 80 0 Latitude (deg) 40 0 50 0 33.0 50 0 34.0 33.2 118.8 33.6 33.8 Figure B.4 118.5 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 1 km/s (Z1.2 Longitude (deg) 118.0 118.4 118.0 117.6 33.
6 33.8 33.7 118.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT Los Angeles Basin Z2.5) in the Los Angeles Basin.5 km/s (Z2.4 Figure B.0 Longitude (deg) 117.6 117.6 34.6 118. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B10 .8 117.2 118.0 117.0 Latitude (deg) 3500 00 60 33.4 118.4 34.1 118.9 35 00 0 00 50 400 00 30 33.7 117.4 118.2 118.9 33.8 33.0 34.5 118.8 117.6 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 2.1 3500 34.
2 34.5 34.4 34.2 119.2 119.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B11 .4 700 34.0 118.0) in the Ventura Basin.1 119.6 34.4 0 6 0 00 8 0 10 0 34.8 34.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. 600 119.1 118.0 119.2 Figure B.5 Ventura Basin Z1.8 118.4 Latitude (deg) 34.3 34.3 50 0 34.5 119.0 Longitude (deg) 118.7 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 1 km/s (Z1.
1 119.3 34.8 118.5) in the Ventura Basin.2 119.1 118.4 00 60 00 50 0 40 0 00 30 34.6 119.4 119.5 Latitude (deg) 34.2 119.3 34.8 34.5 km/s (Z2.8 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 2.4 119.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT Ventura Basin Z2.2 34.5 119.6 Figure B. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B12 .4 34.6 119.6 34.0 118.6 34.0 Longitude (deg) 118.2 34.5 34.6 34.
0 115.6 114.0 116.2 Latitude (deg) 33.6 400 700 33.5 116.5 Salton Basin Z1.5 Longitude (deg) 115.8 32.2 700 400 700 32.4 700 32.0) in the Salton Basin (Imperial Valley).0 34.0 116.0 32.5 115.0 117.6 400 33.6 117.5 114.0 115.4 400 32.5 31.0 34.8 400 700 400 400 32.0 33.0 114.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B13 .0 31.0 114.0 Figure B.9 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 1 km/s (Z1.5 116.
8 Figure B.2 3500 32.0 115. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B14 .0 33.4 34.0 115.6 35 00 3000 33.2 3500 3000 4000 33.0 116.8 34.4 00 50 0 40 32.0 114.4 00 30 0 32.0 116.8 32.10 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 2.6 Longitude (deg) 115.5 km/s (Z2.6 Latitude (deg) 33.8 300 0 32.5) in the Salton Basin (Imperial Valley).2 32.4 116.2 114.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT Salton Basin Z2.5 116.6 115.
8 Figure B.5 km/s (Z2.5 122.5 Northern California Z2.5 122.5 120.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.11 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 2.5 39.8 40.0 121.0 4000 00 35 00 30 38.5) in Northern California.5 00 35 Latitude (deg) 39.5 40 00 3500 38.4 122.8 40. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B15 .0 39.2 120.0 3000 300 0 37.6 Longitude (deg) 121.4 122.6 121.5 38.0 00 30 39.0 121.0 35 00 38.0 122.2 37.8 122.
12 Soil profile types (after Applied Technology Council321.e.000 psf (100 kPa) Stiff soil with shear wave velocity 600 < vS30 < 1.500 < vS30 < 5000 ft/s (760m/s < vS30 < 1. collapsible weaklycemented soils Peat and/or highly organic clay layers more than 10 ft (3 m) thick Very highplasticity clay (PI > 75) layers more than 25 ft (8 m) thick Softtomedium clay layers more than 120 ft (36 m) thick F 2. i. quick and highly sensitive clays. B16 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA . water content w ≥ 40 percent.500 ft/s (360m/s < vS30 < 760 m/s) or with either standard penetration resistance N > 50 or undrained shear strength su ≥ 2. and undrained shear strength su < 500 psf (25 kPa) D E Soil requiring sitespecific evaluation: 1.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT Soil Profile Type A Soil Profile Description n Hard rock with measured shear wave velocity vS30 > 5000 ft/s (1.500 m/s) B Rock with shear wave velocity 2. Figure B.000 < su < 2. 4. 1996 ) n The soil profile types shall be established through properly substantiated geotechnical data. 3.000 psf (50 < su < 100 kPa) A soil profile with shear wave velocity vS30 < 600 ft/s (180 m/s) or any profile with more than 10 ft (3 m) of soft clay.200 < vS30 < 2.500 m/s) C Very dense soil and soft rock with shear wave velocity 1. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading.200 ft/s (180 m/s < vS30 < 360 m/s) or with either standard penetration resistance 15 ≤ N ≤ 50 or undrained shear strength 1. defined as soil with plasticity index PI > 20. liquefiable soils.
1g to 0. Where the 0. the strikeslip curve is used.5g PGA) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.2 0. 1.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.6 1.6 to 0.8 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.13 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 760 m/s (M = 6.5 Vs30 = 760 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.5) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B17 .5 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 6.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.
2 0.14 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 560 m/s (M = 6. 1.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.6 1.8 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 6.6 to 0.5 Vs30 = 560 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.5) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B18 .8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves. Where the 0. the strikeslip curve is used.1g to 0.
5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. the strikeslip curve is used.5 Vs30 = 270 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.15 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 270 m/s (M = 6.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.5 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 6.6 1.5) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B19 .6 to 0.8 0. Where the 0.1g to 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0. 1.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.2 0.
5g PGA) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.6 to 0.0 Vs30 = 760 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.0) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B20 .6 1.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.16 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 760 m/s (M = 7. 1. Where the 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.2 0.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT 2 Spectral ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 7. the strikeslip curve is used.1g to 0.8 0.
6 1.2 0.0 Vs30 = 560 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.6 to 0.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture. 1.5 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 7.1g to 0.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.8 0. the strikeslip curve is used.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture. Where the 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.0) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B21 .17 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 560 m/s (M = 7.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.
2 0.6 1.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.18 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 270 m/s (M = 7.6 to 0.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture. Where the 0.0) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B22 .APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT 2 Spectral ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 7.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.1g to 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.0 Vs30 = 270 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0. the strikeslip curve is used. 1.8 0.
the strikeslip curve is used.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.2 0.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.5g PGA) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.6 to 0.19 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 760 m/s (M = 7. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.8 0.5 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 7.1g to 0. Where the 0.5) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B23 .6 1. 1.5 Vs30 = 760 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.
4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.5) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B24 .6 1. the strikeslip curve is used. 1. Where the 0.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.6 to 0.1g to 0.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 7. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.8 0.20 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 560 m/s (M = 7.2 0.5 Vs30 = 560 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.
Where the 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.5 Vs30 = 270 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.8 0.6 to 0.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.21 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 270 m/s (M = 7.2 0.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves. 1.5) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B25 . the strikeslip curve is used.1g to 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.5 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 7.6 1.
1.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 8.0 Vs30 = 760 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.8 0. Where the 0.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.5g PGA) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.2 0.6 to 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.6 1. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.1g to 0.0) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B26 . the strikeslip curve is used.22 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 760 m/s (M = 8.
2 0.1g to 0.5 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 8.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.6 1.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.0) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B27 .8 0. the strikeslip curve is used.0 Vs30 = 560 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0. 1.6 to 0.23 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 560 m/s (M = 8.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture. Where the 0.
1g to 0.0 Vs30 = 270 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.0) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B28 . The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0. the strikeslip curve is used.APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT 2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 8.8 0.24 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 270 m/s (M = 8.6 1. Where the 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.2 0. 1.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.6 to 0.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 Figure B.25 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Soil Profile E (M = 6.25) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B29 .5±0.
APPENDIX B – DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT Figure B.25±0.26 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Soil Profile E (M = 7.25) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B30 .
25) SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA B31 .0±0.27 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Soil Profile E (M = 8.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1.5 Figure B.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. Vol.. Park. Priestley. SeyedMahan. 2. Caltrans Division of Structures. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA C1 .. Sacramento. and R. M. 4.6978. 8. 1975. University of California San Diego. New York. Seible. Housner.J. “Development of New Site Coefficient of Building Codes.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. “Seismic Assessment and Retrofit of Bridges. 1994 “The Continuing Challenge. Seismic Design Criteria Retrofit of the West Approach to the San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge Draft #14. California. R. Release II Draft. Sacramento. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Caltrans (various dates). 9.” Structural Systems Research Project. CA. New York. Priestley. Seible. Paulay. 7. California.W. California Department of Transportation on the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. Sacramento. 6. Applied Technology Council. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. California. R. 8. 5. (Chairman.” NCEER Bulletin. 3. New York. 1996. California Department of Transportation. III. Improved Seismic Design Criteria for California Bridges: Provisional Recommendations. 1994. Sacramento.5 APPENDIX C . G.N. California Department of Transportation.E. Buffalo. Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges. ATC. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. M. Calvi. Seismic Advisory Board. no. “Earthquake Site Response and Seismic Code Provisions. NY. M.. 10. G. ATC32. Reinforced Concrete Structures. Rinne. M. 1994.N. 1997. California. Oakland. Procedures in Seismic Analysis and Design of Bridge Structures. California. and T. E. California. California Department of Transportation. Dobry. Report ATC32. 1996. 1996. and F.” Proceedings of the Fifth U. Bridge Memo To Designers (MTD).. F. pp.J. John Wiley & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. Martin. and G. Report SSRP91/03. Caltrans.” Report to the Director. NY. 4. 1991. Redwood City. vol. Seismic Advisory Board).S.
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA C2 . 14. NEHRP Provisions. B. Davis. Large Scale Abutment Tests to Determine Stiffness and Ultimate Strength under seismic Loading. LFD Version.. Ph. Maroney. California.C. Sacramento. California Department of Transportation.H. University of California. Caltrans. 12. 1994 Edition. Dissertation. 1996. Seimic Hazard Map. Caltrans. 2000.SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA • SEPTEMBER 2009 • VERSION 1. Building Seismic Safety Council. Washington D. 1995. California Department of Transportation.D. California. Sacramento. Bridge Design Specifications. 1994.5 11. BSSC. 13.
7.3 7. 6.1.1 ′ Symbol correction: f c′ changed to f ce Change in the definition of “Minimum Lateral Strength” New material on Ground Shaking and Design Spectrum New material on Liquefaction New SDC Section: “Fault Rupture Hazard” New SDC Section: “Additional Seismic Hazards” Symbol correction: A jv changed to Asjv Equation (7.1 3.27 Correction to Equation 7.1.1 1.2.3 3.2 and Appendix B.1.5 Section Table of Contents Revision New captions for Sections 2.3.1.4 3.2. Units added to symbol definitions Correction to value of Es (prestressing steel) in Figure 3.3 7.1.4 Appendix A Appendix B .1.5 6.2.3 and 6.1.1.1.1 6.4 7.1 2.4.4.1.4 to SDC 1.2 2.5 8.2 (c) 7.2 6. Minor Repagination Updated definition of an ordinary standard bridge Updated definition of types of components addressed in the SDC Major revision on “Ground Motion Representation” Major revision – new material on “Design Spectrum” Major revision in the definition of Curvature capacity φ u .1. New Sections 6.Table of Revisions from SDC 1.1.1.5 1.24) augmented to include guideline on Footing DepthtoColumn Depth ratio Correction of typographical error in Equation 7.6.32 Correction in the definition of Type II pile shafts Major revision on “Development length for column reinforcement extended into enlarged Type II shafts” Minor revision Major revision – New material: “Design Spectrum Development” 7.1.6 3.3 6. 6.4 added.6.7.
5 2.3.3 … … … Shear Demand For Capacity Protected Members 6.1.1 DEMANDS ON STRUCTURE COMPONENTS Ground Motion Representation Design Spectrum Horizontal Ground Motion Vertical Ground Motion Vertical/Horizontal Load Combination Damping Displacement Demand Estimated Displacement Global Structure Displacement And Local Member Displacement Displacement Ductility Demand Target Displacement Ductility Demand Force Demand Moment Demand Shear Demand 21 21 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2.2.2.2.1 Deleted .3.1. 1.1 6.3.3 2.3 1.1 2.3.1.2 1.3 2.3.1.4 INTRODUCTION Definition Of An Ordinary Standard Bridge Type Of Components Addressed In the SDC Bridge Systems Local And Global Behavior 11 12 12 13 2.4 2.2 2.2 SEISMICITY AND FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE Site Assessment Ground Shaking Liquefaction 61 61 61 61 6.2 2.1 1.2 Pier Wall Shear Demand 2.1.1 2.2 2.2.1.2.4 2.2 2.1.2.1.1 6.Table Of Contents 1.1 2.2.3 2.1 Column Shear Demand 2. 2. 6.
3.2.2 Foundation Design 6.2.2(B) 6.2.2.1.2 Deleted 6.6.2.1.1 6.3.1 6.2(C) 6.2 Foundation Performance Soil Classification Competent Soil Poor Soil Marginal Soil 62 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 6.1.4 Additional Seismic Hazards 6.3 Footing Design Criteria Foundation Strength Foundation Flexibility 6.2(A) 6.2.2.3 Fault Rupture Hazard 6.2.2 … … … APPENDICES Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Notations & Acronyms Design Spectrum Development Bibliography A1A7 B1B33 C1 .2.
outrigger bents. and offset columns are nonstandard components Foundations supported on spread footing. pin connected.1. or scour Bridge systems with a fundamental period greater than or equal to 0. lateral spreading.7 seconds in the transverse and longitudinal directions of the bridge . Cbents. or supported on conventional bearings. or pile shafts Soil that is not susceptible to liquefaction. pile cap w/piles. and column or pier elements Horizontal members either rigidly connected.1 Definition Of An Ordinary Standard Bridge A structure must meet all of the following requirements to be classified as an Ordinary Standard bridge: • • • • • • • Span lengths less than 300 feet (90 m) Constructed with normal weight concrete girder. Isolation bearings and dampers are considered nonstandard components Dropped bent caps or integral bent caps terminating inside the exterior girder.
Seismic criteria for structural steel bridges are being developed independently and will be incorporated into the future releases of the SDC.2 Types Of Components Addressed In The SDC The SDC is focused on concrete bridges. Table 1 ABUTMENTS Diaphragm Short Seat High Cantilever SUBSTRUCTURE SUPPORT SYSTEMS Single Column MultiColumn Pier Walls Pile Extensions SUPERSTRUCTURES CastInPlace iReinforced Concrete iPosttensioned concrete Precast iReinforced Concrete iPretensioned Concrete iPosttensioned Concrete FOUNDATIONS Spread Footing Driven Piles iSteel H/HP and Pipe iPrecast P/S iCISS Drilled Shafts iCIDH iLarge Diameter Types I and II Proprietary . The SDC includes seismic design criteria for Ordinary Standard bridges constructed with the types of components listed in Table 1.1. inquiries regarding the seismic performance of structural steel components shall be directed to the Structural Steel Technical Specialist and the Structural Steel Committee. In the interim.
1 Ground Motion Representation For structural applications.5 earthquake on a strikeslip fault located 12 kilometers from the bridge site. .2. A detailed discussion of the development of both the probabilistic and deterministic design spectra as well as possible adjustment factors is given in Appendix B. (2) a deterministic spectrum based on the largest median response resulting from the maximum rupture (corresponding to Mmax) of any fault in the vicinity of the bridge site. In general. the Design Spectrum (DS) is defined as the greater of: (1) a probabilistic spectrum based on a 5% in 50 years probability of exceedance (or 975year return period). or (3) a statewide minimum spectrum defined as the median spectrum generated by a magnitude 6. seismic demand is represented using an elastic 5% damped response spectrum.
php.160.gov/shake_stable/references/2007_Fault_Database_120309.gov/shake_stable/references/Preliminary_Spectral_Curves_Data_073009.13 – B.dot.xls) • Recommended fault parameters for California faults meeting criteria specified in Appendix B (http://dap3.dot.gov/shake_stable/references/Deterministic_Response_Spectrum_072809.1. internet: http://dap3.ca.ca.dot.173.gov/shake_stable/) • USGS Earthquake Hazards Program website (http://earthquake. These tools include the following: • Deterministic PGA map (http://dap3.ca.27) • Spreadsheet with preliminary spectral curve data (http://dap3.usgs. Figures B.gov/shake_stable/references/Probabilistic_Response_Spectrum_080409.2.gov/research/hazmaps/index.ca.dot.php) .dot.xls) • Deterministic Response Spectrum spreadsheet (http://dap3.1 Design Spectrum Several aspects of design spectrum development require special knowledge related to the determination of fault location (utilization of original source mapping where appropriate) and interpretation of the site profile and geologic setting for incorporation of site effects.gov/shake_stable/references/Deterministic_PGA_Map_81209.xls) • Probabilistic Response Spectrum spreadsheet (http://dap3. Geotechnical Services or a qualified geoprofessional is responsible for providing final design spectrum recommendations.178/shake2/shake_index2.pdf) • Preliminary spectral curves for several magnitudes and soil classes (Appendix B.ca.ca. Several design tools are available to the engineer for use in preliminary and final specification of the design spectrum.xls) • Caltrans ARS Online (Caltrans intranet: http://10.dot. Consequently.
which in turn is based on its curvature capacity.3.5) (3. The local displacement capacity Δc of any column may be idealized as one or two cantilever segments presented in Equations 3. θ p 2 = L p 2 × φ p 2 φ p1 = φ u1 − φY 1 .13.1a) (3.1.7 (rad/in) Idealized plastic curvature capacity (assumed constant over Lp) (rad/in) Curvature capacity at the Failure Limit State.5 and 3.3.1 and 3. respectively.1.2 (in) Idealized plastic displacement capacity due to rotation of the plastic hinge (in) Δp col = The idealized yield displacement of the column at the formation of the plastic hinge (in) ΔY φY φp = Idealized yield curvature defined by an elasticperfectlyplastic representation of the cross section’s Mφ curve. see Section 3.2 for details.1) (3. Δ col Y2 L2 = 2 × φY 2 3 Δ p1 = θ p1 × ⎜ ⎜ L1 − ⎝ ⎛ L p1 ⎞ Lp2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ L Δ θ . defined as the concrete strain reaching εcu or the longitudinal reinforcing steel reaching the reduced ultimate strain εsuR (rad/in) Plastic rotation capacity (radian) = = φu θp = .5a) θ p1 = L p1 × φ p1 . Δc 2 = ΔY 1 + Δ p1 2 + Δp2 2 L1 = × φY 1 3 Δ col Y1 .4a) (3. = × − p2 p2 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (3.6.2) (3. The curvature capacity shall be determined by Mφ analysis.3) (3. φ p 2 = φ u 2 − φY 2 Where: L LP = = = Distance from the point of maximum moment to the point of contraflexure (in) Equivalent analytical plastic hinge length as defined in Section 7. col Δc = ΔY + Δp (3.3 Local Member Displacement Capacity The local displacement capacity of a member is based on its rotation capacity. See Figures 3.3a) (3. see Figure 3.2a) col ΔY = L2 × φY 3 Lp ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ L Δp =θp ×⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ θ p = Lp ×φ p φ p = φ u − φY col col Δc1 = ΔY .5a.1a3.4) (3.
3. The minimum displacement ductility capacity μc = 3 may be difficult to achieve for columns and Type I pile shafts with large diameters Dc > 10 ft (3m) or components with large L/D ratios. Local displacement ductility capacity less than 3 requires approval as specified in MTD 2011.4.1 Minimum Local Displacement Ductility Capacity Each ductile member shall have a minimum local displacement ductility capacity of μc = 3 to ensure dependable rotational capacity in the plastic hinge regions regardless of the displacement demand imparted to that member.1. . The local displacement ductility capacity shall be calculated for an equivalent member that approximates a fixed base cantilever element as defined in Figure 3.3.
5 Prestressing Strand Stress Strain Model .010 0.005 0.500 MPa) 250 (1725) 270 ksi (1860 MPa) 230 (1585) 250 ksi (1725 Mpa) 210 (1450) 190 (1310) 170 (1170) 150 (1035) 0 0.020 0.025 0.270 (1860) E s=28.015 0.500 ksi (196.030 Strain ε ps Figure 3.
For w = 143.043 × w1.2 ⎧1.6.11 results in the form presented in other Caltrans documents.002 (3. E c = 0.3 × f c′ ⎪ ′ = the greater of: ⎨ or Expected concrete compressive strength f ce ⎪5000 (psi) 34.2.5 (MPa ) ⎩ Unconfined concrete compressive strain at the maximum compressive stress Ultimate unconfined compression (spalling) strain Confined compressive strain Ultimate compression strain for confined concrete ε c 0 = 0.6 Normal Weight Portland Cement Concrete Properties Modulus of Elasticity. see Figure 3. Shear Modulus Gc = Ec 2 × (1 + v c ) (3. . Equation 3.96 lb/ft3 (2286. E c = 33 × w1.5 × ′ f ce (MPa ) (3.11) Where w = unit weight of concrete in lb/ft3 and kg/m3.13) ε sp = 0.05 kg/m3).005 ε cc = * ε cu = * * Defined by the constitutive stress strain model for confined concrete.3.5 × ′ f ce (psi) . respectively.12) Poisson’s Ratio νc = 0.
. where Pdl is the tributary dead load applied at the center of gravity of the superstructure.3.1 × Pdl .5 Minimum Lateral Strength Each bent shall have a minimum lateral flexural capacity (based on expected material properties) to resist a lateral force of 0.
the response spectrum at the ground surface may not reflect the motion of the pile cap or shaft. When bridges are founded on either stiff pile foundations or pile shafts and extend through soft soil.6. This spectrum reflects the shaking hazard at or near the ground surface.1. In the case of bridges with lengths greater than 1000 feet.1 Ground Shaking Generally. complex wave scattering contributes to incoherence between different bridge bents. 6. Furthermore. special analysis that considers soilpile/shaft kinematic interaction is required and will be addressed by the geoprofessional on a project specific basis.e. In cases with either varying soil profile or extended bridge length. it does result in increased relative displacement demand between adjacent bridge frames. In these instances. Design Spectrum Development.1. phase lag). the geoprofessional will provide recommendations that include a discussion of the following: • need for additional site investigation and soil testing • possible consequences of liquefaction including potential horizontal and vertical ground displacements and resulting structural impacts • possible remediation strategies including ground improvement. When locations are identified as being susceptible to liquefaction. While incoherence in seismic loading is generally thought to reduce seismic demands overall. avoidance. seismic demand can also vary from seismic waves arriving at different bents at different times (i. Soil profiles can vary significantly along the length of bridges resulting in the need to develop multiple Design Spectra. and/or structural modification . Methodology for development of the Design Response Spectrum is described in detail in Appendix B..2 Liquefaction Preliminary investigation performed by Geotechnical Services will include an assessment of liquefaction potential within the project site per MTD 2014 and 2015. the geoprofessional must work in close collaboration with the structural engineer to ensure the bridge can withstand the demands resulting from incoherent loading. particularly at higher frequencies. ground shaking hazard is characterized for design by the Design Response Spectrum.
3 Fault Rupture Hazard Preliminary investigation of fault rupture hazard includes the identification of nearby active surface faults that may cross beneath a bridge or proposed bridge. In some instances.1.4 Additional Seismic Hazards The following seismic hazards may also exist at a site. In such cases. and will be addressed by Geotechnical Services if applicable to the location: • potential for slope instability and rockfall resulting from earthquakes • loss of bearing capacity/differential settlement • tsunami/seiche . a geologist will recommend a fault zone with dimensions based on professional judgment.6. the exact location of a fault will not be known because it is concealed by a relatively recent manmade or geologic material or the site is located in a region of complex fault structure. per MTD 2010. then Geotechnical Services will provide the following recommendations: • location and orientation of fault traces or zones with respect to structures • expected horizontal and vertical displacements • description of additional evaluations or investigations that could refine the above information • strategies to address ground rupture including avoidance (preferred) and structural design 6. If a fault trace underlies a structure or the structure falls within the specified fault zone.1.
These stirrups can be used to meet other requirements documented elsewhere including the shear in the bent cap.4. and 7. The continuous steel shall be spliced with “service level” couplers as defined in Section 8. The superstructure at seat type abutments is assumed to be pinned in the vertical direction. 7. Asjv is required on each side of the column or pier wall.10.4. see Figure 7. The superstructure flexural capacity shall be based only on continuous mild reinforcement distributed evenly between the top and bottom slabs.2. per Section 2.7.” provided the laps are placed away from the critical zones (midspans and near supports). see Figures 7.2 × Ast Ast = Total area of column reinforcement anchored in the joint (7.1. and is considered effective in offsetting the mild reinforcement required for other load cases.2 Vertical Acceleration If vertical acceleration is considered.3.7. a separate analysis of the superstructure’s nominal capacity shall be performed based on a uniformly applied vertical force equal to 25% of the dead load applied upward and downward. The vertical stirrup area.3.1. . 7.7 shall count towards meeting the requirements of both areas creating the overlap. primary and secondary prestressing shall be ignored. Lap splices equal to two times the standard lap may be substituted for the “service splices. up or down.8. The stirrups provided in the overlapping areas shown in Figure 7. The effects of dead load.19) Vertical stirrups or ties shall be placed transversely within a distance Dc extending from either side of the column centerline.3 Joint Shear Reinforcement A) Vertical Stirrups: Asjv = 0.
Maintaining these ratios should produce reasonably well proportioned structures.1 Column Dimensions Every effort shall be made to limit the column cross sectional dimensions to the depth of the superstructure.7.1. the superstructure capacity requirements in Section 4.2.24a and 7.08H o −max (7.4.24a) (7.6.2 (c) Noncased Type I Pile Shafts: L p = D ∗ + 0.7 ≤ Dc ≤ 1.24b) 7.4.1.24b are guidelines based on observation.2. This requirement may be difficult to meet on columns with high L D ratios.1. bent cap depth and footing depth specified in equations 7. If the column dimensions exceed the depth of the bent cap it may be difficult to meet the joint shear requirements in Section 7.3. The relationship between column cross section.7 ≤ 0.0 Ds D ftg Dc (7. and the ductility requirements in Section 3. .6.27) D ∗ = Diameter for circular shafts or the least cross section dimension for oblong shafts. 0.
3 Rigid Footing Response The length to thickness ratio along the principal axes of the footing must satisfy equation 7. .7.32 if rigid footing behavior and the associated linear distribution of pile forces and deflections is assumed.3. Enlarged shafts shall be at least 24 inches larger than the column diameter and the reinforcement shall satisfy the clearance requirements for CIP piling specified in Bridge Design Details 1322.7.32) Lftg = The cantilever length of the pile cap measured from the face of the column to the edge of the footing.1.2 (7. L ftg D ftg ≤ 2.5 Enlarged Pile Shafts Type II shafts typically are enlarged relative to the column diameter to contain the inelastic action to the column. 7.7.
max is the largest cross section dimension of the column.1 by the compounded modification factors of 0. respectively.2. where Dc. .max + l d ) and ( Dc .6 for epoxycoated and non epoxycoated reinforcement.11.2. The development length l d shall be determined by multiplying the basic tension development length l db as specified in AASHTO LRFD Section 5. and l d is the development length in tension of the column longitudinal bars.4 Development Length For Column Reinforcement Extended Into Enlarged Type II Shafts Column longitudinal reinforcement shall be extended into Type II (enlarged) shafts in a staggered manner with the minimum recommended embedment lengths of ( Dc .9 and 0. In addition to ensuring adequate anchorage beyond the plastic hinge penetration into the shaft. max + 2 × l d ) . Nominal values of f y = 68 ksi and f c' = 5 ksi shall be used in calculating l db . this provision will ensure that the embedment lengths for a majority of bridge columns supported on Type II shafts are less than 20 ft. Construction cost increases significantly when embedment lengths exceed 20 ft as the shaft excavations are governed by the more stringent CalOSHA requirements for tunneling and mining.8.
5.2.3) Mm = Earthquake moment magnitude (Section 6.2.1) Δeq ρs vs = Shear wave velocity (ft/sec.2) Mmax = Earthquake maximum moment magnitude (Section 2.1. Appendix B17) = The average displacement at an expansion joint due to earthquake (Section 7. m/sec) (Section 6.4.1) L Lp Notations & Acronyms = Member length from the point of maximum moment to the point of contraflexure (in.Appendix A.2. ρ s = 4 × Ab (D ′ × s ) for circular cross sections (Sections 3.3) = Equivalent analytical plastic hinge length (in.2. mm) (Section 3. Appendix B17) .1.2) = Undrained shear strength (psf. mm) (Section 3.4) = Ratio of volume of spiral or hoop reinforcement to the core volume confined by the spiral or hoop reinforcement (measured outtoout). Appendix B17) T su = Natural period of vibration.2. Bcap = Bent cap width (Section 7.2 and 3. in seconds T = 2π m k (Section 7.8.6.1) N = Blow count per foot (0.2.1.3 m) for the California Standard Penetration Test (Section 6.1.2.2.2. KPa) (Section 6.
4 Appendix B is to be replaced with the following Appendix B.Note to Technical Publications For this publication of SDC.5.1. . version 1.e. i. the entire SDC v.
In application of these ground motion prediction equations. These equations are applied to all faults in or near California considered to be active in the last 700.dot. The Eastern California Shear Zone is shown in Figure B. Deterministic Criteria Shallow crustal tectonics (all faults other than Cascadia subduction zone) The deterministic spectrum is calculated as the arithmetic average of median response spectra calculated using the CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) ground motion prediction equations (GMPE’s).gov/ shake_stable/references/2007_Fault_Database_120309.2 miles) is imposed. are provided in the "2007 Fault Database” (http://dap3. are provided in the sections below. Recommended fault parameters.1.ca. an envelope of the spectral values shall be used for the design spectrum.ca. In both regimes. the Design Response Spectrum is based on the envelope of a deterministic and probabilistic spectrum. including the application of appropriate adjustment factors. To account for this uncertainty. the earthquake magnitude should be set to the maximum moment magnitude MMax. 2005). with the sole exception of the Cascadia subduction zone along California’s northern coastline. Eastern California Shear Zone The Eastern California Shear Zone is a region of distributed shear and complex faulting that makes identification of potential seismic sources challenging.2.dot.DESIGN SPECTRUM DEVELOPMENT California Seismic Hazard Seismic hazard in California is governed by shallow crustal tectonics.000 years (late Quaternary age) and capable of producing a moment magnitude earthquake of 6.xls). including MMax .6 and a distance to the vertical rupture plane of 10 km (6. This minimum spectrum is shown for several VS30 values in Figure B. a minimum response spectrum based on a strikeslip mechanism with moment magnitude M 7.pdf) Multifault Hazard In cases where more than one fault contributes maximum spectral values across the period spectrum. Instructions for the determination of these spectra. Updates to these parameters along with additions or deletions to the database of considered faults can be found at "Errata Report" (http://dap3. .0 or greater.gov/shake_stable/Errata_Report_120309. as recommended by California Geological Survey (1997.APPENDIX B .
and CBCY average is used. is fully applied at locations with a site to rupture plane distance (RRup) of 15 km (9. and ChiouYoungs (2008) ground motion prediction models (the same models used for the development of the USGS map).5 miles).3. The adjustment consists of a 20% increase in spectral values with corresponding period longer than 1second. These adjustments are discussed in the following sections. spectrum is less than the average of the CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) models (both without the hanging wall term applied). 2008) for the 5% in 50 years probability of exceedance (or 975 year return period). Since the USGS Seismic Hazard Map spectral values are published only for VS30 = 760m/s. radiation pattern effects. the spectrum is intended to represent the possibility of a wide range of magnitudedistance scenarios.6 miles). soil amplification factors must be applied for other site conditions. This minimum spectrum is defined as the average of the median predictions of CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) for a scenario M 6.Cascadia Subduction Zone Following the general approach of the USGS (Frankel. This adjustment factor. with the added criterion that where the Youngs et al.5second due to phenomena such as constructive wave interference. . This increase is linearly tapered to zero at a period of 0.5second. CampbellBozorgnia (2008). Probabilistic Criteria The probabilistic spectrum is obtained from the (2008) USGS Seismic Hazard Map (Petersen. Minimum Deterministic Spectrum In recognition of the potential for earthquakes to occur on previously unknown faults. Spectrum Adjustment Factors The design spectrum may need to be modified to account for seismological effects related to being in close proximity to a rupturing fault and/or placement on top of a deep sedimentary basin. these phenomena are commonly combined into a single “nearfault” adjustment factor. While this scenario establishes the minimum spectrum. the deterministic spectrum for the Cascadia subduction zone is defined by the median spectrum from the Youngs et al. The site amplification factors shall be based on an average of those derived from the BooreAtkinson (2008). 2002). a minimum deterministic spectrum is imposed statewide. NearFault Factor Sites located near a rupturing fault may experience elevated levels of shaking at periods longer than 0. application of this factor to the minimum spectrum is NOT recommended. As a practical matter.5 vertical strikeslip event occurring at a distance of 12 km (7. (1997) ground motion prediction equation. shown in Figure B. an arithmetic average of the Youngs et al. and static fault offset (fling).4 miles) or less and linearly tapered to zero adjustment at 25 km (15. Although a rupture distance of 12 km strictly meets the criteria for application of a directivity adjustment factor.
gov/shake_stable/references/Deterministic_PGA_Map_and_ARS_Online_ .5 second). constructive and destructive interference. In Northern California. since sites with large depth to rock are located in basin structures the term “basin effect” is commonly used.0 and Z2. it is more accurate to refer to predicted amplification due to the Z parameter as a “depth to rock” effect instead of a basin effect.0 data are generally unavailable at nonbasin locations. but not less than the site to rupture plane distance corresponding to the nearest fault in the Caltrans Fault Database. This latter requirement reflects the intention not to apply a nearfault adjustment factor to a background seismic source used in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis.5 < 1 km or Z1. Amplification factors for the two models are shown for various depths to rock in Figure B. Since neither the CampbellBozorgnia nor ChiouYoungs models consider these phenomena explicitly.org/3Dvelocity/). these maps were generated using data from the Community Velocity Model (CVM) Version 4 (http://www.scec.5 and Z1.data. Since Z2.0).5 through B.0 km/s shear wave velocity (Z1. Basin Factor Both the CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) ground motion prediction models include a depth to rock (Z) parameter that allows each model to better predict ground motion in regions with deep sedimentary structure. It should be noted that both models predict a decrease in long period energy for cases of shallow rock (Z2.dot. Details of the contour map development are provided in the "Deterministic PGA Map and ARS Online Report" (http://dap3. the Z2. a deaggregation of the site hazard should be performed to determine whether the “probabilistic” distance is less than 25 km.For application to a probabilistic spectrum.0 larger than 400 m. with CampbellBozorgnia using a depth to 2. implementation of the basin amplification factors is restricted to locations with Z2. Numerical models suggest that ground shaking in sedimentary basins is impacted by phenomena such as trapped surface waves.ca.0 and Z2. These plots assume a VS30 of 270 m/s (typical for many basin locations) but are suitable for other VS30 values as well since the basin effect is only slightly sensitive to VS30 (primarily at periods less than 0. The two models use different reference velocities for rock. and heightened 1D soil amplification due to a greater depth of soil. The “probabilistic” distance shall be calculated as the smaller of the mean distance and the mode distance (from the peak R.5 Figures B.5 contour map was generated using tomography data by Thurber (2009) and a generalized velocity profile by Brocher (2005).5 km/s shear wave velocity (Z2.11 show contour maps of Z1.4. Maps of Z1.5 for regions with sufficient depth to rock to trigger basin amplification. However. In Southern California.5 larger than 3 km or Z1.0 < 40 m). M bin).5) and ChiouYoungs using a depth to 1. amplifications at the basin edge.
For Northern California locations only the CampbellBozorgnia basin amplification factor is applied. A Z1. Vn represents the shear wave velocity of layer n (fps). Both the deterministic and probabilistic spectra defined above reflect a spectrum that is equally probable in all orientations. and BooreAtkinson (2008) ground motion prediction models (the latter is included for application to the probabilistic spectrum) use the parameter VS30 to characterize near surface soil stiffness as well as infer broader site characteristics. Additional recommendations pertaining to determination of VS30 for development of the preliminary and final design spectrum are given in "Geotechnical Services Design Manual” (http://dap3. Application of the models For Southern California locations an average of the CampbellBozorgnia and ChiouYoungs basin amplification factors is applied to both the deterministic and probabilistic spectra.Report_071409. then VS30 can be calculated as Vs 30 = 100 ft D D1 D2 + + . correlations to available parameters such as undrained shear strength. It is recommended that direct shear wave velocity measurements be used. the corresponding response spectrum changes as well. or standard penetration test blow counts be utilized.gov/shake_stable/references/GS_Design_Manual _081209. and the sum of the layer depths equals 100 feet. If the shear wave velocity (VS) is known (or estimated) for discrete soil layers. + n V1 V2 Vn where Dn represents the thickness of layer n (ft). is approximately 15% to 25% larger than the equally probable spectrum calculated using the procedures described above. along with the level of ground shaking.. occurring at a specific but unpredictable orientation. VS30 represents the average small strain shear wave velocity in the upper 100 feet (30 meters) of the soil column. the equally probable component spectrum is used for design.0 contour map could not be created in Northern California due to insufficient data.pdf).ca. Since a narrow range of directional orientations typically define the critical loading direction for bridge structures.dot.. Directional Orientation of Design Spectrum When recorded horizontal components of earthquake ground motion are mathematically rotated to different orientations. in the absence of available field measurements. The maximum response spectrum. determines the estimated site amplification in each of the above models. or. ChiouYoungs (2008). cone penetration tip resistance. This parameter.pdf) . Selection of V S 3 0 for Site Amplification The CampbellBozorgnia (2008).
Soc. A regional view of urban sedimentary basins in Northern California based on oil industry compressionalwave velocity and density logs: Bull. http://www. C. PGV. v. (2) one or more layers of at least 5 feet thickness has a shear wave velocity less than 120 m/s.12 provides a profile classification system that is published in Applied Technology Council–32 (1996) and was adopted in previous versions of SDC. 74 pp.. 2005.ca.ca. Improved Seismic Design Criteria for California Bridges: Resource Document.. and 5%damped PSA at spectral periods between 0. 20932114.27.gov/shake_stable/references/ Preliminary_Spectral_Curves_Data_073009. M.htm California Geological Survey (CGS). Type E spectra will significantly exceed spectra developed using site response analysis methods. a sitespecific response analysis is required for determination of the final design spectrum.A. the response spectra presented in Figures B. Digital Database of Quaternary and Younger Faults from the Fault Activity Map of California. In most cases.0 s: Earthquake Spectra. Bryant.2008). or (3) the profile conforms to Soil Profile Type E criteria per Figure B.conservation. pp. The data for these curves can be found in the "Preliminary Spectral Curves Data" spreadsheet (http://dap3. 2008. California Geological Survey (CGS). Redwood City. Vol.24.12.95. however. For this reason it is preferred that a site response analysis be performed for the determination of the preliminary design spectrum in Type E soils. Seism.Figure B.01 s and 10. For cases where either (1) VS30 is less than 150 m/s. a value of 1500 m/s should be used.25B. The CampbellBozorgnia and ChiouYoungs ground motion prediction equations are applicable for VS30 ranging from 150 m/s (500 fps) to 1500 m/s (5000 fps).24. G. 2005. This table includes general guidance on average shear wave velocity that may be useful for development of a preliminary design spectrum.pdf . Brocher. Publication 321. California.13B.99138. Am.. originally presented in ATC32. Acceleration and displacement response spectra at VS30 values corresponding to the center of the velocity ranges designated for soil profile types B.ca.dot. and D are provided at several magnitudes in Figures B. For cases where VS30 exceeds 1500 m/s (very rare in California)..gov/cgs/shzp/webdocs/Documents/sp117. and Atkinson.12).consrv. a site response analysis is required for both preliminary and final design. For cases where the site meets the criteria prescribed for Soil Profile Type E. Guidelines for evaluating and mitigating seismic hazards in California: Special Publication 117. (compiler). 1997 (rev. can be used for development of a preliminary design spectrum.0 (July 2005): http://www. References Applied Technology Council. W. D. Version 2.gov/CGS/information/publications/QuaternaryFaults_ver2. T. When a soil profile meets the criteria prescribed for Soil Profile Type F (in Figure B. 1996. Boore.xls). Groundmotion prediction equations for the average horizontal component of PGA.
01 to 10 s. Oliver S. and Bozorgnia. Southern California Basin Models (Community Velocity Model V. Harmsen.: Earthquake Spectra. Mueller.ca.H...S. V.Documentation for the 2002 update of the National SeismicHazard Maps: U. R. and J. Field..pp. M... 114.. 2002. Stephen C. T. Perkins. K. Mark D.Campbell. Magistrale..173216 Frankel. 61 p.gov/research/hazmaps/ Youngs. Development of the Caltrans Deterministic PGA Map and Caltrans ARS Online. S65S76. H. and R.. .R. PGV.usgs. Chiou. Arthur D.. 2009. Wesson. and 5% damped linear elastic response spectra for periods ranging from 0. Shantz. NGA ground motion model for the geometric mean horizontal component of PGA. Luco.. Chiou. Frankel. and Langenheim. Graves.S. Nicolas. B. Day.. v. no.pdf. Bulletin Seismological Society of America. K.scec..S. Kenneth S. 1.V. Merriam. Petersen.dot.. Res. Wills.. R.C. Y. 2009.. Chris J. W. USGS Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis http://earthquake. Cramer.S. Wheeler.L.4) http://www. An NGA model for the average horizontal component of peak ground motion and response spectra: Earthquake Spectra. Vol. Silva.. Zhang. Vol. R. Zeng. Perkins. Petersen. R. A. The SCEC Southern California reference threedimensional seismic velocity model version 2. Humphrey (1997).Clayton. D. and Youngs. PGD.. pp. 2000. S.S..139172...R. C... Rukstales.. Brocher. Geophys... Seism.. Res. S. Mueller. H. http://dap3. Charles S.D. 39 p.M. 2008. Haller.. Letts. Robert L. Harmsen.org/3Dvelocity/ Thurber. Regional threedimensional seismic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of northern California: J. Russell L..Wheeler..24. Strong ground motion attenuation relationships for subduction zone earthquakes.. Documentation for the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps: U. 2008... 5873. and Rukstales. pp.. C. Edward H.D.C. R.J. pp. David M. Leyendecker.. E. 68. M. 90 (6B).data. T..gov/shake_stable/references/Deterministic_PGA_Map_and_ARS_Online_Report_071409..J.M. Geological Survey OpenFile Report2002–420. 2008.. K. Wesson. Geological Survey OpenFile Report 2008–1128. Boyd.24. Kathleen M. Yuehua.L. Haller. B01304.
53. Coordinates in decimal degrees (Lat. 116. 115. and 270 m/s) (35.2 0 0 1 2 Pe riod (s) 3 4 Figure B. 116.05) (34. 560.60. 118.0.88) (35.46.1 Minimum response spectrum for Eastern Shear Zone (VS30 = 760.8 Spectral Acceleration (g) 0.2 Boundaries of Eastern Shear Zone.4 0. 115.82) Figure B.6 B/C Soil (Vs30=760m/s) C Soil (Vs30=560 m/s) D Soil (Vs30=270 m/s) 0.25. Long) .26) (35.80.82) (33.
1 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Distance (km) Figure B.3 NearFault Factor w ith Respect to Period 1.3 Amplification (for 15km or less) 1.3 NearFault adjustment factor as a function of distance and spectral period.1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Period (s) Amplification 1.2 1. .2 1.NearFault Factor with Respect to Distance 1. The distance measure is based on the closest distance to any point on the fault plane.
2 1.5 km 1.5 = 6 km 5.5 km 1.2 500 m 3.5 km 400 m 1 0 1 2 3 Period (s) 4 3 km 1 0 1 2 3 Period (s) 4 5 5 Figure B. Curves may be slightly conservative at periods less than 0.6 1.8 Z2.4 Basin amplification factors for the CampbellBozorgnia (2008) and ChiouYoungs (2008) ground motion prediction equations.8 Amplification Factor 5 km Amplification Factor 1.0 = 1000 m 900 m 800 m 700 m 1.1. .4 4.4 600 m 4 km 1.5 seconds.6 Z1.
.0) in the Los Angeles basin.4 117.2 60 0 34.8 33.5 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 1 km/s (Z1.2 118.6 34.6 33.0 60 700 0 80 0 Latitude (deg) 40 0 50 0 33.6 33.Los Angeles Basin Z1.8 Figure B.0 50 0 34.4 118.0 33.4 118.6 118.8 34.2 118.4 118.0 118.2 Longitude (deg) 118.0 117.8 33.
5 km/s (Z2.6 118.9 33.8 33.6 33.9 35 00 0 00 50 400 00 30 33.8 117.7 118.8 33.2 118.Los Angeles Basin Z2.0 Latitude (deg) 3500 00 60 33.2 118. .5 118.1 3500 34.6 117.4 118.4 118.0 Longitude (deg) 117.1 118.4 Figure B.6 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 2.6 34.4 34.7 117.0 117.0 34.8 117.5) in the Los Angeles basin.
5 119.3 50 0 34.7 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 1 km/s (Z1.0 118.2 119.4 700 34.6 34.8 34.6 .Ventura Basin Z1.4 0 6 0 00 8 0 10 0 34.2 Figure B.5 34.0 Longitude (deg) 118.8 118.3 34.1 119.4 Latitude (deg) 34. 600 119.2 34.4 34.1 118.0 119.0) in the Ventura basin.2 119.
2 34.8 34.6 34.0 Longitude (deg) 118.6 34.6 119.8 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 2.2 34.2 119.5) in the Ventura basin.1 119.4 00 60 00 50 0 40 0 00 30 34.5 34.0 118.Ventura Basin Z2.5 km/s (Z2.2 119.1 118.8 118.6 Figure B.6 34.3 34.5 Latitude (deg) 34. .6 119.5 119.3 34.4 34.4 119.4 119.
Salton Basin Z1.0 117.0 34.0 116.5 115.5 116.8 32.8 400 700 400 400 32.0) in the Salton basin (Imperial Valley).0 34.2 700 400 700 32.0 115.5 114.6 400 33.6 117.4 400 32.0 115.0 32.5 Longitude (deg) 115.2 Latitude (deg) 33.9 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 1 km/s (Z1.5 116.4 700 32.0 114.0 116.0 114.5 31.0 Figure B. .0 33.6 400 700 33.0 31.6 114.
5) in the Salton basin (Imperial Valley).0 115.8 34.8 Figure B.0 116.8 300 0 32. .8 32.0 116.6 Latitude (deg) 33.4 00 30 0 32.2 32.0 33.6 Longitude (deg) 115.5 km/s (Z2.0 114.5 116.4 116.10 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 2.2 3500 32.6 115.0 115.4 00 50 0 40 32.Salton Basin Z2.2 114.2 3500 3000 4000 33.4 34.6 35 00 3000 33.
5 122.5 120.5 00 35 Latitude (deg) 39.2 120.8 40.5 122.Northern California Z2.0 122.5 39.0 121.0 35 00 38.8 122.5 km/s (Z2.0 39.6 121.8 Figure B.11 Contours of depth (meters) to shear wave velocity 2.5 40 00 3500 38.0 121.4 122. .4 122.5 38.6 Longitude (deg) 121.0 00 30 39.2 37.0 3000 300 0 37.5) in Northern California.8 40.0 4000 00 35 00 30 38.
200 ft/s (180 m/s < vS30 < 360 m/s) or with either standard penetration resistance 15 ≤ N ≤ 50 or undrained shear strength 1.500 m/s) Rock with shear wave velocity 2.500 m/s) B C Very dense soil and soft rock with shear wave velocity 1. and undrained shear strength su < 500 psf (25 kPa) Soil requiring sitespecific evaluation: 1. water content w ≥ 40 percent. 3.200 < vS30 < 2. Figure B.000 psf (50 < su < 100 kPa) E A soil profile with shear wave velocity vS30 < 600 ft/s (180 m/s) or any profile with more than 10 ft (3 m) of soft clay.000 < su < 2. defined as soil with plasticity index PI > 20.Soil Profile Type A Soil Profile Description a Hard rock with measured shear wave velocity vS30 > 5000 ft/s (1. collapsible weaklycemented soils Peat and/or highly organic clay layers more than 10 ft (3 m) thick Very highplasticity clay (PI > 75) layers more than 25 ft (8 m) thick Softtomedium clay layers more than 120 ft (36 m) thick F 2.000 psf (100 kPa) D Stiff soil with shear wave velocity 600 < vS30 < 1.500 ft/s (360m/s < vS30 < 760 m/s) or with either standard penetration resistance N > 50 or undrained shear strength su ≥ 2. liquefiable soils. 4.500 < vS30 < 5000 ft/s (760m/s < vS30 < 1.12 Soil profile types (after Applied Technology Council321. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading. 1996 ) a The soil profile types shall be established through properly substantiated geotechnical data.e. . quick and highly sensitive clays. i.
6 to 0.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 6. 1.5 Vs30 = 760 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0. Where the 0.5) .13 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 760 m/s (M = 6.8 0.5g PGA) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.2 0. the strikeslip curve is used.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.6 1.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.1g to 0.
2 0. Where the 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.5 Vs30 = 560 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.14 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 560 m/s (M = 6.6 1.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.5) .5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture. the strikeslip curve is used.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 6. 1.6 to 0.1g to 0.8 0.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.
The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 6.6 to 0. Where the 0.8 0.5 Vs30 = 270 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.15 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 270 m/s (M = 6.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.6 1. the strikeslip curve is used.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.1g to 0.2 0.5) . 1.
the strikeslip curve is used.0) . Where the 0.1g to 0.2 Spectral ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 7. 1.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.6 to 0.6 1.2 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.8 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.5g PGA) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.16 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 760 m/s (M = 7.0 Vs30 = 760 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.
6 1.8 0.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.2 0.6 to 0. 1. Where the 0.1g to 0.17 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 560 m/s (M = 7. the strikeslip curve is used.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 7.0 Vs30 = 560 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.0) .
5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves. the strikeslip curve is used. 1.8 0.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.0 Vs30 = 270 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.2 Spectral ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude 7.6 1.0) . Where the 0.18 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 270 m/s (M = 7.1g to 0.6 to 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.2 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.
6 1.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.1g to 0.5) .5g PGA) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture. 1.5 Vs30 = 760 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves. the strikeslip curve is used.19 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 760 m/s (M = 7.6 to 0.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 7.2 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B. Where the 0.8 0.
5 Vs30 = 560 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.5) .4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 7.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.1g to 0.6 1. Where the 0.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture. 1.20 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 560 m/s (M = 7. the strikeslip curve is used. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.8 0.6 to 0.2 0.
6 1. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0. Where the 0. the strikeslip curve is used.5) .5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture. 1.1g to 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.21 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 270 m/s (M = 7.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 7.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.5 Vs30 = 270 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.2 0.6 to 0.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.8 0.
8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.6 to 0. 1.0) . the strikeslip curve is used.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 8.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.8 0.6 1. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.0 Vs30 = 760 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.5g PGA) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.2 0.22 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 760 m/s (M = 8. Where the 0.1g to 0.
0 Vs30 = 560 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0. Where the 0.6 to 0.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture.6 1.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B. 1.5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.0) .1g to 0.2 0. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 8. the strikeslip curve is used.8 0.23 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 560 m/s (M = 8.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.
6 to 0.0) .5g PGA strikeslip curve exceeds the reverse fault curves.5g PGA at VS30=760 m/s) are based on a vertical strikeslip surface rupture.24 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Vs30 = 270 m/s (M = 8.1g to 0.0 Vs30 = 270 m/s Note: The 5 lowest curves (corresponding to 0.2 SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (g) Magnitude: 8.8 0.4 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 50 SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT (in) 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 PERIOD (sec) 3 4 Figure B.2 0.6 1. Where the 0. the strikeslip curve is used.8g PGA) are based on a 45degree dipping reverse surface rupture. 1. The highest 3 curves (corresponding to 0.
25 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Soil Profile E (M = 6.25) .5±0.Figure B.
25±0.Figure B.25) .26 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Soil Profile E (M = 7.
Figure B.25) .0±0.27 Spectral Acceleration and Displacement for Soil Profile E (M = 8.
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