You are on page 1of 57

Estimation of

TAMIL NADU’S CARBON FOOTPRINT
(for stakeholder consultation)

2012

Disclaimer © 2012
All rights reserved This report is part of Confederation of Indian Industry, CII – Godrej GBC’s effort to assist the Government of Tamil Nadu to attain low carbon growth for the future. Several organizations, namely Gamesa Wind Turbines Private Limited, Michelin India TamilNadu Tyres Pvt. Ltd. and Saint-Gobain Glass India Limited have supported in pursuing this project. Such commitment indicates these organisations’ intrest in creating a cleaner and greener environment. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission from CII – Sohrabji Green Business Centre, Hyderabad. While every care has been taken in compiling this report, CII-Godrej GBC and the supporting organizations accept no claim for any kind of compensation, if any entry is wrong, abbreviated, omitted or inserted incorrectly either as to the wording space or position in the booklet. The report is only an attempt to highlight the emission pattern of Tamil Nadu and suggest the available opportunities for the state to attain low carbon future.

Confederation of Indian Industry

Published by Confederation of Indian Industry CII – Sohrabji Green Business Centre Survey # 64, Kothaguda Post, RR District, Hyderabad – 500 084, India

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6 7 Executive Summary India Greenhouse Gas Emission Report 2007 Tamil Nadu at a Glance What is a State Carbon Footprint? 4.1 Why Complete GHG Inventory? 4.2 How will the state Carbon Footprint help Tamil Nadu Government? 4.3 What are the immediate benefits to Tamil Nadu? 4.4 Approach for calculating GHG Inventory GHG Emission Inventorisation Methodology 5.1 GHG Emission Estimation Approach 5.2 Baseline Year 5.3 Greenhouse Gases 5.4 Global Warming Potential 5.5 Activity Data 5.6 Choice of Emission Factors Tamil Nadu GHG Emissions Overview Energy 7.1 Introduction to Tamil Nadu Energy Sector 7.2 Overview of GHG Emissions from Energy Sector 7.3 Electricity Generation 7.4 Transport 7.5 Residential/Commercial 7.6 Fugitive Emissions 7.7 GHG Emissions Summary – Energy Sector 07 10 13 15

17

20 24

Continued...

3

8 9 10

Agriculture 8.1 Overview of GHG Emission from Agriculture Sector 8.2 Enteric Fermentation 8.3 Manure Management 8.4 Rice Cultivation 8.5 Agricultural Soils 8.6 Burning of Crop Residues 8.7 GHG Emission Summary – Agriculture Sector Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry 9.1 GHG Estimation Methodology – GPG Approach 9.2 GHG Estimation – Carbon Stock Changes 9.3 Inventory Estimation 9.4 Land Use Matrix 9.5 Tamil Nadu Forest at a Glance 9.6 Fuel Wood 9.7 CO2 Emissions and removal from Non-Forest Categories 9.8 GHG Emissions Summary – Land Use, Land Use Change & Forestry Waste 10.1 Municipal Solid Waste 10.2 Waste Water Treatment & Disposal 10.2.1 Domestic Waste Water 10.2.2 Industrial Waste Water 10.3 GHG Emission Summary - Waste

29

34

39

11 Industries 11.1 Summary of GHG Emissions from Industry Sector 12 Strategies to Pursue Low Carbon Growth Rate by 2020 12.1 Energy 12.2 Transport 12.3 Industry 12.4 Buildings 12.5 Agriculture 12.6 Land Use, Land Use Change & Forestry

42

43

GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS

52 54

ABBREVATIONS

4

Acknowledgement
Several organizations have contributed directly to this project by providing data either during one-to-one meeting or through their publications. For this support, we would like to express gratitude to the following departments : • Animal Husbandry Department, Government of Tamil Nadu, Chennai • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, Chennai • Cement Manufacturers Association • Central Electricity Authority • Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai • Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi • Central Statistical Organization • Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited • Coal India Limited, Chennai • Department of Economics & Statistics, Chennai • Department of Environment, Chennai • Environmental Protection Training and Research Institute, Hyderabad • Forest Survey of India, Dehradun • Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Chennai • Independent Power Producers, Tamil Nadu • Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Government of Tamil Nadu, Chennai • National Environment Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited, Neyveli • Public Works Department, Chennai • Regional Meteorological Centre, Chennai • Tamil Nadu Agricultural Department, Chennai • Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore • Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Chennai • Tamil Nadu Forest Department, Chennai • Tamil Nadu Horticulture Department, Chennai • Tamil Nadu Industries Department, Chennai • Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board, Chennai • Tamil Nadu Transport Department, Chennai • Tamil Nadu Water Supply & Drainage Board, Chennai

5

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Prime Minister of India has released India‘s National Action Plan on Climate Change in June 2008 (NAPCC, 2008) addressing India’s climate change concerns, areas of priority and a specific & well defined action plan for addressing the same. While the NAPCC provides a roadmap that can guide states to prioritize a set of strategies for the state, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has also developed a common framework that can facilitate the States to prepare their State Action Plans in line with the broad objectives of the NAPCC. Tamil Nadu, the fourth largest state in India in terms of Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), is an industrialized and fast growing state. At current prices, the GSDP of Tamil Nadu was about USD 98.8 Billion in the baseline year of 2009-10. The GSDP of the state increased at a CAGR of 14.9% between 2004-05 and 2009-10. In the base year 2009-10, state per capita GSDP was USD 1,464.3 as compared to USD 757.1 in 2004-05, representing a CAGR of 14.1%. A state carbon footprint (or greenhouse gas inventory of a state) is an accounting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted to (or removed from) the atmosphere in the baseline year. State government policy makers can use GHG inventories to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends, developing enabling policies & strategies for GHG emission mitigation, and assessing progress on a regular basis. The GHG Emission Inventorisation in Tamil Nadu was carried out based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories by various sources and removal sinks which fall under state boundaries. The “India Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report 2007” has been taken as reference to define the GHG inventorisation boundaries for the state. This approach has been adopted to avoid uncertanities and to ensure that the report on GHG Inventorisation for Tamil Nadu state is aligned with the “India Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report 2007”. The emission factors used in this study were a mix of country / state specific emission factors and default factors from IPCC. Default factors were used only in the absence of country specific factors. Tamil Nadu Carbon Footprint study carried out by CII indicates a total GHG Emission from the state during the baseline year 2009-10 as 111.86 million tons. With a state population during this period at 70.3 million, the state per capita GHG emission stands as 1.59 Tons of CO2 per citizen of Tamil Nadu. The break-up of emission estimated is as under: Summary of Emissions in Tamil Nadu, 2009-10

Emission Source
Energy Agriculture Waste Industry Sector LULUCF Total Population

Total Emissions (MT)
84,721,082.1 16,424,465.4 2,205,323.2 18,125,505.6 -9,614,084.1 111,862,292.2

Per Capita Emission
1.20 0.23 0.03 0.25 -0.13 1.59 70,299,535*

Share of Emissions, %
75.73 14.95 2.01 16.07 -8.75

* India census report & CAGR Based

7

Emission Profile of Tamil Nadu, 2009-10

Emission Source
Energy Power Generation Transport Residential/Commercial Other Energy Fugitive Emissions Agriculture Enteric Fermentation Manure Management Rice Cultivation Agricultural Soils Burning of crop residue Waste Municipal Solid Waste Domestic Waste Water Industrial Waste Water LULUCF Forest Land Crop Land Grass Land Settlements Fuel wood usage Industrial Sector Industries Total Emissions in baseline year 2009-10 Note: NE - Not Estimated

CO2 Eq. (MT)
51,422,878 20,113,210 5,582,110 6,364,407 1,238,477 9,770,196 439,587 3,655,652 2,253,272 305,758 1,241,741 481,405 482,177 -3,474,664 -8,816,247 110,161 NE 2,566,667 18,125,505 111,862,292

The overall strategy of Tamil Nadu should be to pursue an aggressive emission reduction target. In line with the national commitment of reducing emission intensity by 20-25% of 2005 levels by 2020, this study explored possible options to help the state of Tamil Nadu achieve similar emission intensity reduction. Based on the mitigation options identified, an emission intensity reduction of 20-25% by 2020 for the state of Tamil Nadu looks feasible. Some of the key recommendations : 1. Adopting voluntary Renewable Power Obligation (RPO) targets, significantly exceeding any mandatory values central government may impose. RPO in Tamil Nadu should be gradually increased from the current levels of about 10% to 25% by 2020 2. Creation of ‘Green Fund’ and supporting the state’s climate mitigation efforts. Green Fund, raised from larger emission sources, could be a viable alternative to resolve environmental concerns without compromising state’s expenditure on other fundamental priorities

8

3. Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) can significantly act as a carbon sink in the state’s efforts to minimize its overall carbon footprint. 4. The government of Tamil Nadu has embarked on a target of meeting 25% of its power demand through RE sources by the year 2020. This target should be aggressively pursued and results achieved to aid significant reduction in carbon emission intensity. 5. Establishing a ‘Power Plant Refurbishment Fund’ to create a fund source for TNEB to gradually refurbish & modernize its power stations. Proposed to allocate Rs. 0.10 per kWh - either from existing electricity duty / tariff or additional levy from industrial and commercial consumers. 6. Charging a fuel cess of Rs 0.25 per Litre on both diesel and petrol and utilizing it for funding bio fuel research and supporting technology absorption. Based on baseline year data, proposed fuel cess (at the rate of Rs 0.25 per Litre) will result in funding of about Rs. 180 Crores annually to fund research and implementation of low carbon fuels. 7 Consider a ‘Green Cess’ to support public tranportation system. This Green Cess will be supported by allocation from existing road tax collection during purchase / toll collection during utilization. 8. Consider clean energy cess (marginally higher were Rs. 50/Ton already collected by Goverment of India) to promote non fossil fuel based energy such as energy plantations, bio mass, waste to energy, etc. 9. Co-processing of industrial, municipal and other combustible wastes in cement kilns could be another viable alternate for addressing dual needs of meeting partially cement industries’ energy requirements and addressing the waste management issues of the state. 10. Cleaner Production and Industry Symbiosis can improve the productive use of energy, materials and water, reduce the generation of waste and emissions (including GHGs) and strengthen the sound management of chemicals for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). 11. Promoting adoption of green buildings in residential & commercial space. Government of Tamil Nadu to lead by example. 12. Demand side management in agricultural pumpsets, water & crop management and Systemic Rice Intensification (SRI) technique to be explored as potential emission reduction opportunities in agricultural sector.

CONCLUSION The study on carbon footprint would assist Tamil Nadu Government in carrying out resilient action for the future and also in developing the state as strong green investment destination in the country. This report has estimated the baseline emissions for Tamil Nadu in the year 2009-10 and has highlighted broad opportunities for emission reduction and achieving low carbon growth for the state. This report, now open for stakeholder consultation, will be finalized based on comments / suggestions received. The final report can serve as a reference document for the government of Tamil Nadu during the development of its State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC).

9

2. INDIA GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION REPORT 2007
The Prime Minister of India has released India‘s National Action Plan on Climate Change in June 2008 (NAPCC, 2008) addressing India’s climate change concerns, areas of priority and a specific & well defined action plan for addressing the same. The Action Plan outlined eight missions that are envisaged to mitigate climate change and undertake adaptation actions without compromising on the economic growth required to meet the developmental aspirations of its population. The eight different National Missions formulated within the NAPCC include: National Solar Mission – Aims to increase the share of solar energy in the total energy mix and to undertake R & D in the lookout for better and affordable technologies National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency – Aims to save 10,000 MW of energy by the end of XI Five Year Plan in 2012 and to enhance energy efficiency in industries and residential applications National Mission on Sustainable Habitat – Aims to make habitats sustainable through improvements in energy efficiency in building, management of solid waste and model shift to public transport National Water Mission – Aims to improve water use efficiency by 20% with respect to the current scenario and to ensure integrated water resource management helping to conserve water, minimize wastage and ensure more equitable distribution both across and within states National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem – Aims to evolve management measures for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan glacier and mountain eco-system. National Mission for a “Green India” – Aims to increase the forest cover from the present 23% to 33% in order to preserve ecological balance and biodiversity National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture – Aims to devise strategies to make Indian agriculture more resilient to climate change National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change – Aims to develop a better understanding of climate science impacts and challenges. While the NAPCC provides a roadmap that can guide states to prioritize a set of strategies for the state, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has also developed a common framework that can facilitate the states to prepare their State Action Plans in line with the broad objectives of the NAPCC, and it includes the following steps: • Conduct scientific assessment of climate observations and projections, sectoral impacts and vulnerabilities, and prepare an inventory of greenhouse emissions in the state in order to identify vulnerable regions, sectors and communities for targeted adaptation and mitigation action • Identify adaptation/mitigation options based on the Missions identified under the NAPCC, consideration of ongoing programmes and projects in the state, and identification of additional strategies that may not be covered directly under the eight National Missions • Prioritize adaptation/mitigation options by taking into account the national policies, sectoral strategies under the National Missions and state level priorities, through multi-stakeholder consultations and interactions • Identify financial needs and sources to implement selected Adaptation/Mitigation options (MoEF 2010).

10

India is the first non Annex I country to publish GHG estimates. India Greenhouse Gas Emissions Summary Report released during 2010, highlighted the GHG emission from various sectors viz Energy, Industry, Agriculture, Waste and LULUCF

Summary of India GHG Emissions 2007*

*

India GHG Emissions Report 2007, MoEF, 2010

11

Summary of India GHG Emissions 2007 (Contd.,)

12

3. TAMILNADU AT A GLANCE
Tamil Nadu, the southern-most state of India, is among the most industrialized states in the country. Over the last several decades, governments in Tamil Nadu have consciously worked to create a favorable investment climate in the state on all fronts. The state today offers several strategic advantages, preparing it for further growth in years to come: Large industrial base: The state today has a right blend of industrial base, comprising of large & medium scale industries and a combination of manufacturing (automobile, auto components, textile, cement, power, light engineering, chemicals, etc) and service (information technology, banking, IT enabled services, etc) sectors. Large FDI inflows: Over the last 1 decade, the state has attracted cumulative FDI inflows of over USD 7.3 billion, one of the highest amongst FDI attracting states in India. Rich labour pool: Standard of education and quality of educational institutions in the state is among the highest in the country. Well qualified, productivity-oriented and English speaking workforce makes the state one of the preferred investment destination High economic growth and facilitating infrastructure: The state’s GSDP grew at a CAGR of about 15% between 2004-05 and 2009-10. This steady and high economic growth is coupled with well developed social and industrial infrastructure; physical infrastructure such as power, roads and railways complements the state’s commitment towards creating a progressive business environment.

Parameters
Capital Geographical area (sq km) Administrative districts (No) Population density (persons per sq km)* Total population (million)* Male population (million)* Female population (million)* Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males)* Literacy rate (%)*

Tamil Nadu
Chennai 130,058 32 555 72.13 36.15 35.98 995 80.3

Source: www.tn.gov.in *Provisional data – Census 2011

13

Parameter
Economy GSDP as a percentage of all states’ GSDP Average GSDP growth rate (%)* Per capita GSDP (US$) Physical Infrastructure Installed power capacity (MW) National Highway length (km) Major and minor ports (Nos.) Airports (Nos.) Social Indicators Literacy rate (%) Birth rate (per 1,000 population) Investment FDI equity inflows (US$ billion) Outstanding Investments (US$ billion) Industrial Infrastructure PPP projects (Nos.) SEZ (Nos.)

Tamil Nadu
8.0 16.1 1,464.3

All-States
100 15.5 1,302.4

Source
CMIE, as of 2009-10, current prices CMIE, 2004-05 to 2009-10, current prices CMIE, as of 2009-10, current prices Central Electricity Authority, as of March 2011 Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Annual Report 2010-11 Indian Ports Association Airport Authority of India Provisional Data – Census 2011 SRS Bulletin, 2009 Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, April 2000 to April 2011 CMIE (2009-10) www.pppindiadatabase.com Notified as of October 2011, www.sezindia.nic.in
* including Pondicherry

15,515.4 4,832 3 + 15 6 80.3 16.3

173,626.4 70,934 12 + 187 133 74.0 22.5

7.3* 549.0 52 57

132.9 7449.3 808 380

14

4. WHAT IS A ‘STATE CARBON FOOTPRINT’ ?
A state carbon footprint (or greenhouse gas inventory of a state) is an accounting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted to (or removed from) the atmosphere in the baseline year. State government policy makers can use GHG inventories to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends, developing enabling policies & strategies for GHG emission mitigation, and assessing progress on a regular basis. A carbon footprint study is usually the first step taken by state governments that want to reduce their GHG emissions. An inventory can help state governments: • Identify the greatest sources of GHG emissions within their boundary • Understand emission trends • Quantify the benefits of measures that reduce emissions • Establish a basis for developing policies & tracking progress on actions taken • Set goals and targets for future reductions

4.1 WHY COMPLETE A GHG INVENTORY?
Estimating GHG emissions will enable the state of Tamil Nadu to create an emissions baseline and assess the relative contributions of emission sources. This will help the state government evolve enabling policies and mitigation strategies based on the footprint data and monitor its progress at frequent intervals. Hence, it is essential for the Tamil Nadu state government to complete its state carbon footprint study before evolving its comprehensive SAPCC.

4.2 HOW WILL THE STATE CARBON FOOTPRINT HELP TAMILNADU GOVERNMENT?
• Identify major sources of GHG emissions within their jurisdiction • Understand historic emission trends • Quantify benefits of activities that reduce emissions • Establish basis for developing a local action plan • Track progress in reducing emissions • Set goals & targets for future reductions

4.3 WHAT ARE THE IMMEDIATE BENEFITS TO TAMIL NADU?
The benefits of developing GHG Inventory are numerous and varied. It includes the following : • Readiness for a carbon constrained future • Recognition as an Environmental Leader – making Tamil Nadu as one of the first few states to take up this initiative • Making the state an attractive ‘Green’ Investment destination • Help the state policy makers address inefficiencies; facilitate in evolving cost-economic options to address increasing GHG Emissions • Risk Management • Stakeholder Education: Serves as an excellent opportunity to engage with all segments of society

15

4.4 APPROACH FOR CALCULATING STATE GHG INVENTORY
While carrying out carbon footprint studies for entities, either of the two approaches for collecting activity related data could be adopted: Top down approach or bottom up approach In the Top-down approach, inventories rely on data collected and aggregated by state, national and international agencies. This would take into account all data collected at state level and in many cases, several data would be available at a single source (eg., statistics department, etc). Bottom-up approach involves collecting and aggregating data from local end users, such as utilities, industry, etc. Depending on the size of state & data available, the approach should be chosen. While estimating the carbon footprint for Tamil Nadu, a hybrid approach was adopted. This approach involved a combination of top-down and bottom-up approach wherein all macro level data were collected at state level and industry/emission specific data were collected from individual/local end users. The process that was used for carrying out carbon footprint for Tamil Nadu is described in the diagram below:

16

5. GHG EMISSION INVENTORISATION METHODOLOGY
The GHG Emission Inventorisation in Tamil Nadu was carried out based on the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories by various sources and removal sinks which fall under provincial boundaries. The India Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report 20071 has been taken as the reference to define the GHG inventorisation boundaries for the state. This approach has been adopted to avoid uncertainties, as well as to ensure that the Report on GHG Inventorisation for Tamil Nadu state is aligned with the India Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report.

5.1 GHG EMISSION ESTIMATION APPROACH
GHG emissions could be estimated by adopting two different approaches, namely absolute basis and scoping basis. Each of these methods are unique and advantages in its own way. Absolute Basis approach covers emissions that fall within the geopolitical boundary irrespective of the influence from source outside the boundary. Inherent advantage of this approach is that the method eliminates double counting of emission sources in all possible ways. In addition, this method provides opportunity for every state to align their emission inventory with the future national inventory. Hence, this absolute method would be the preferred approach for a study at national or state level. It should be noted here that emissions under this methodology will be indicated in terms CO2 equivalent. The Scoping Basis approach is considered to be relatively simpler than absolute basis. Under scoping study, emission sources are categorized as direct (Scope 1) emissions and indirect (scope 2 and scope 3) emissions based on the control of the state on operations. When employing this approach, it should be understood beforehand that there are always possibilities to avoid certain emission categories when they are considered to be insignificant in comparison to total emission levels. For this study, “Absolute Approach” has been adopted to estimate the GHG emissions for Tamil Nadu. The most prominent rationality for choice was that this approach provides reasonable amount of flexibility for other states to calculate emissions from their sources without double counting. Secondly, it enables the nation to quantify emissions through summation of the GHG inventories of all states in the country. Finally, this approach would align the state’s report with India Greenhouse Gas Emission Report 2007.

5.2 BASELINE YEAR
The choice of baseline year becomes crucial for any study of this kind, since accuracy is a critical factor for estimating GHG emissions. To meticulously analyze the state’s inventory, the baseline period of 2009-10 was chosen. Many of the government departments of Tamil Nadu were in the process of data consolidation post 2009-10 and vast amounts of key data required to estimate GHG emissions were not updated after 2009-10 is also the year for which the most complete and most accurate data is available.

5.3 GREENHOUSE GASES
De-minimis criteria (2%): All known GHG emission sources of the state are included in this inventory. Wherever GHG sources are excluded, the exclusions would still fall within the “De minimis Criteria”. GHG emission sources that are not accounted were found to be cumulatively responsible for less than or equal to 2% of total emissions from the state. Data availability from such smaller emission sources is either not available or not within reasonable levels of accuracy.

1

India: Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2007, MoEF (May 2010)

17

Internationally, all local government inventories assess emissions of all six internationally recognized greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. For completeness of the GHG Inventory for the state of Tamil Nadu, all the 6 greenhouse gases have been accounted separately and emissions have been reported in metric tons of each gas and metric tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2Eq).

GHG regulated under Kyoto Protocol Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulphur Hexaflouride (SF6)

5.4 GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL & INCREASE IN CONCENTRATION LEVELS2
Sl. No
1 2 3 4 5 6

GHG
CO2 CH4 N2O CFC 12 HFC 134a SF6

Unit
ppm ppb ppb ppt ppt ppt

1750
280 700 270 0 0 0

2007
384 1857 321 541 49 6.4

GWP
1 23 310 10900 1430 22800

Non-CO2 gases are converted to CO2 using internationally recognized global warming potential (GWP) factors. GWPs were developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to represent the heat-trapping ability of each GHG relative to that of CO2.

5.5 ACTIVITY DATA
Activity data, according to the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, is defined as data on the magnitude of human activity resulting in emissions or removals taking place during a given period of time. Activity data collection was the most challenging task during the course of this study. To ensure completeness in data collection, key source points have been categorized into two major areas: Primary sources are Tamil Nadu State Department of Economics & Statistics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural Department, Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Tamil Nadu Horticulture Department and Tamil Nadu Animal Husbandry Department Secondary sources are Nationally available data published by Planning commission, RBI3, Ministry of Power, Ministry of Finance, etc To increase accuracy of data collected in GHG data, primary and secondary data were matched with one another. If any deviations occurred, it was discussed with government officials and experts for normalization. Data pertaining to population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP)4 and Compound annual growth rate (CAGR)5 were obtained from publicly available national data. Following the data collection process, activity data were cross verified with several government department officials and industry experts. Additionally, data was also verified against secondary sources for eg., data published by Central Electricity Authority, India Census report and GDP forecast etc. Similarly, orders of magnitude of the final emission figures were also cross verified with macro economic indicators of the state.

3 4 5

Reserve Bank of India Gross Domestic Product Compound Annual Growth Rate

18

5.6 CHOICE OF EMISSION FACTORS
The emission factors used in this study were a mix of country specific factors and default factors from IPCC. Default factors were used only in the absence of country specific emission factors. IPCC has outlined a three-tier system for estimating GHG emissions from various sources. These tiers are described in the table below. Tier 1 is the simplest approach, while Tier 3 provides the most accurate emissions estimates.

Tiers of GHG approach
Tier I approach employs activity data that are relatively coarse, such as nationally or globally available estimates of deforestation rates, agricultural production statistics and global land cover maps Tier 2 uses the same methodological approach as Tier 1 but applies emission factors and activity data that are defined by the country Tier 3 approach uses higher order methods are used including models and inventory measurement systems tailored to address national circumstances, repeated over time, and driven by disaggregated levels

5.6.1 EMISSION FACTORS OF FUELS
Emission factor of fuels6 (Kg of GHG/TJ)

Fuel Type
Coal Diesel Naphtha Natural Gas Motor Spirit Aviation Gasoline LPG Furnace Oil Superior Kerosene Oil Aviation Turbine Fuel Lignite Pet Coke

CO2
96100 74100 73300 56100 69300 71500 63100 77400 71900 71500 101000 97500

CH4
1 3 3 5 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 1

N2O
1.5 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.5 0.6

6

IPCC Emission Factors

19

6. TAMILNADU GHG EMISSIONS OVERVIEW
The GHG Emission Inventorisation in Tamil Nadu was carried out based on the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories by various sources and removal sinks which fall under provincial boundaries. The India Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report 2007 has been taken as reference to define the GHG inventorisation boundaries for the state. This approach has been adopted to avoid uncertainties and to ensure that the report on GHG Inventorisation for Tamil Nadu state is aligned with the India Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report. The emission factors used in this study were a mix of country specific emission factors and default factors from IPCC. Default factors were used only in the absence of country specific factors. Study on estimating carbon footprint for Tamil Nadu State estimates the emissions of Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide. The sectors covered under this study are Energy, Agriculture, Industry, Agriculture, Land Use Land Use Change & Forestry. Summary of Emissions in Tamil Nadu, 2009-10

Emission Source
Energy Agriculture Waste Industry Sector LULUCF Total Population

Total Emissions (MT)
84,721,082 16,424,465 2,205,323 18,125,505 -9,614,084 111,862,292

Per Capita Emission
1.20 0.23 0.03 0.25 -0.13 1.59 70,299,535*

Share of Emissions, %
75.73 14.95 2.01 16.07 -8.75

* India census report & CAGR Based

20

Emission Profile of Tamil Nadu, 2009-10

Emission Source
Energy Power Generation Transport Residential/Commercial Other Energy Fugitive Emissions Agriculture Enteric Fermentation Manure Management Rice Cultivation Agricultural Soils Burning of crop residue Waste Municipal Solid Waste Domestic Waste Water Industrial Waste Water LULUCF Forest Land Crop Land Grass Land Settlements Fuel wood usage Industrial Sector Industries Total Emissions in baseline year 2009-10 Note: NE - Not Estimated

CO2 Eq. (MT)
51,422,878 20,113,210 5,582,110 6,364,407 1,238,477 9,770,196 439,587 3,655,652 2,253,272 305,758 1,241,741 481,405 482,177 -3,474,664 -8,816,247 110,161 NE 2,566,667 18,125,505 111,862,292

In 2009-10, the Energy Sector emitted 84.72 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. Out of these 51.42 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from Power Generation, 20.11 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from Transport, 5.58 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. from Residential/ Commercial, 6.36 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. from Other energy and 1.23 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. from Fugitive emissions. Agriculture Sector emitted 16.42 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. Out of these 9.7 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from Enteric Fermentation, 3.6 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from Rice Cultivation, 2.2 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from Agricultural Soils, 0.4 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from Manure Management and 0.3 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. from Burning of crop residue. Waste Sector emitted 2.2 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. Out of these 1.2 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from Municipal Solid Waste, 0.4 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from Domestic Waste Water and 0.4 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from industrial waste water.

21

Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) estimation of carbon stock changes,CO2 emissions and removals and Non-CO2 GHG emission were estimated to be 8.8 Million Tons of CO2 sequestered from Crop Land & 3.4 Million Tons of CO2 sequestered from Forest Land. Emissions from fuel wood usage were 2.5 Million Tons of CO2 and grass Land emissions were 0.1 Million Tons of CO2. Industry Sector emitted 18.1 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. Out of these Cement sector alone emitted 12.0 Million Tons of CO2 Eq., 1.1 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. from Paper Sector, 3.0 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. from Steel sector and 1.9 Million Tons of CO2 Eq. emitted from other industrial sectors. GHG Emissions Overview (CO2 Eq. in million tons)
120.0 100.0 84.7 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 Energy -20.0 Agriculture Waste Industries LULUCF -9.6 Total 16.4 2.2 18.1 111.9

22

A schematic representation of the sectors, source categories and gases are included in the table below.

Sector

Source
Electricity Generation Other Energy Industries Transport Residential/Commercial Commercial/Institutional Fugitive Enteric Fermentation Manure Management

Gas
CO2, CH4 & N2O CO2, CH4 & N2O CO2, CH4 & N2O CO2, CH4 & N2O CO2, CH4 & N2O CH4 CO2, CH4 & N2O CO2, CH4 & N2O CH4 N2O CH4 & N2O CO2, CH4& N2O CO2, CH4 & N2O CO2, CH4 & N2O CO2, CH4 & N2O CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CH4 & N2O CH4 & N2O

Energy

Agriculture

Rice Cultivation Agricultural Soils Burning of Crop Residue Minerals Metals Chemicals Other Industries Forest Land

Industries

Land Use, Land Change & Forestry

Crop Land Grass Land Settlements Municipal Solid Waste Waste Water

Waste

23

7. ENERGY
7.1 Introduction to the Tamil Nadu Energy Sector
The energy requirements of Tamil Nadu are fulfilled by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). Tamil Nadu Electricity Board has a total installed capacity of 10,214 MW which includes the state and central shares as well as the share from independent power producers. The erstwhile TNEB has been reorganized as TNEB Ltd., the Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Ltd. (TANGEDCO) & the Tamil Nadu Transmission Corporation Ltd. (TANTRANSCO). Installed Capacity Details7
2% 9% 2%

23%

4%

43%

17%

Thermal

Gas

Hydro

Central Share

IPP

External Assistance

Others

TANGEDCO power generation is primarily from coal based thermal power stations and gas based power plants. Coal based thermal power plants have an installed capacity of 2,970 MW, installed capacity of gas based generation is 516 MW, hydro generation installed capacity is 2,187, and wind generation installed capacity is 18 MW. Apart from these, central stations contribute an installed capacity of 2,825 MW, and independent power projects contribute an installed capacity of 1,180 MW; external assistance has an installed capacity share of 305 MW. Tamil Nadu State Power Generation During the year 2009-10, power generated by Hydro, Thermal, Wind & Gas Power station was 27,860 million units. Energy imported & purchased from the centre was around 45,027 million units (this includes Neyveli I & II, MAPP, NTPC, Manali & others). Overall gross energy consumption during 2009-10 was 72,887 million units.

7

Tamil Nadu Electricity Board – Statistics at a Glance 2009-10

24

Power consumption of Tamil Nadu State8

3%

22%

27%

10% 33% 2% 3%

Domestic Cottage Industries Misc. Sales

Commercial Industries

Public lighting & water works Agriculture

Industrial sector is the largest consumer of power in Tamil Nadu state, consuming around 33% power from overall generation. Domestic sector consumes around 27%, agriculture consumes 22% and the commercial sector consumes 10%. Public lighting, water works, cottage industries etc. consume less than 3% of overall power consumption. TNEB has taken several initiatives to avoid transmission & distribution (T&D) losses, and, as a consequence, Tamil Nadu has an estimated T&D loss of around 18%9, lower than many other states. CII would like to congratulate Tamil Nadu Electricity Board & Tamil Nadu Government for their excellent initiatives towards energy conservation, some of which are: Domestic Sector • Bachat Lamp Yojana (BLY): Incandescent bulbs were replaced by energy efficient CFL’s for 13.5 million domestic consumers. • Energy conservation day/week celebrations • Displaying energy conservation tips for domestic, industrial and agricultural sector Industrial Sector • Energy Audit program for HT industrial and commercial establishments, due to this savings in energy consumption of 221.62 million units was achieved up to May 2007 • State Designated Agency has identified 154 designated consumers that includes TNEB Thermal Stations and Gas Turbine stations for conducting mandatory energy audit

8 9

Tamil Nadu Electricity Board – Statistics at a Glance 2009-10 Central Electricity Authority

25

Government Buildings • Energy conservation measures taken in all government buildings, offices, local bodies and public sector undertakings to bring down energy consumption by 20% within 6 months Carbon Credits: • TNEB is the forerunner (in India) in availing benefits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as defined by the UNFCCC. • Under Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) scheme, verification is under progress for Valuthur Phase II – Gas turbine project. On successful issuance, the project would fetch revenue of Rs. 3.14 Crores per annum Apart from the initiatives mentioned above, TNEB is the first electricity board in India to introduce the following activities; • Completed “all village electrification” in India • Commissioned the highest head hydro turbine at Pykara • Introduced “Power Line Carrier Communication” (PLCC) in grid operation • Introduced “Wireless Phone” (VHF) system to attend “Fuse of call” in metro cities • Commissioned distribution control central with “SCADA” in Chennai in 2000

7.2 OVERVIEW OF GHG EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY SECTOR
In 2009-10, the energy sector in Tamil Nadu emitted 84.74 million tons of CO2 Eq. Out of these, 51.42 million tons were emitted by the electricity sector, followed by the transportation sector which was responsible for 20.9 million tons of CO2 Eq. Combustion from residential sector resulted in 6.6% of the total CO2 Eq. emissions, and fugitive and other emissions together caused 8% of the total emissions. This section discusses the emissions from energy sector. Sources analyzed in this discussion are • Power Generation • Transport • Residential/Commercial • Other Energy • Fugitive Emissions GHG Emission distribution of energy sector in percentage wise (CO2 Eq.)
1% 8% 7%

24% 60%

Power Generation

Transport

Residential/Commercial

Other Energy

Fugitive Emission

26

7.3 ELECTRICITY GENERATION
In Tamil Nadu, electricity is generated from a wide variety of fossil fuel sources such as coal, natural gas, lignite, naptha and diesel. Of all these sources, coal combustion is the major contributor towards GHG emissions. A GHG emission from electricity generation includes TNEB owned power stations, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Captive Power Plants & Independent Power Producers. Total GHG emissions from electricity generation was about 51.4 Million tons of CO2 Eq. which accounts for 61% of overall energy emissions TNEB Power plants covered under this study

Sl. No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Name of the Power Plant
Ennore Thermal Power Station Tuticorin Thermal Power Station Mettur Thermal Power Station North Chennai Thermal Power Station Basin Bridge Gas Thermal Power Station Kuttalam Gas Thermal Power Station Valuthur Gas Thermal Power Station Thirumakottai (Kovilkalappal) Gas Thermal Power Station - II

Apart from TNEB power plants, private power plants also been considered for GHG emission estimation.

7.4 TRANSPORT
An efficient transport system influences economic development, population distribution, shape of cities and towns, environmental quality and access to social infrastructure. Tamil Nadu has a highly developed public and private transportation network. Road and rail transportation are the dominant modes of transport in Tamil Nadu. Energy consumed in the transport sector in Tamil Nadu is quite high due to high road density and efficient transportation system. Transport sector growth has shown an ascending trend over the years; when compared to 2008-09 energy consumption levels, motor spirit consumption rate has increased to 26% & high speed diesel has increased to 20% Fuels consumed by transport sector during 2009-10 - Activity data10

Product
Motor Spirit Diesel

2008-09 (MT)
952,221 4,151,031

2009-10 (MT)
1,203,539 4,979,122

Growth %
26.4 19.9

Apart from TNEB power plants, private power plants also been considered for GHG emission estimation. The transport sector emissions include all emissions resulting from roadways & railways. In recent years, due to increasing affluence, there has been a many-fold increase in the state’s vehicle population. Consequentially, emissions levels have been increasing. In 2009-10, around 20.9 million tons of CO2 equivalent emissions were estimated to be emitted from this sector with road transport contributing 18.92 million tons of CO2 equivalents. Though the aviation & navigation sector emissions were estimated, they were not added to the transportation total.
10

The State Level Co-ordinator, Indian Oil Corporation

27

7.5 RESIDENTIAL/Commercial
Residential energy consumption needs like cooking and lighting are fulfilled by LPG and superior kerosene oil (SKO). Superior kerosene oil is distributed through public distribution system. LPG is distributed through several private agencies. Fuels consumed by residential sector during 2009-10 - Activity data11

Product
SKO LPG

2008-09 (MT)
540,751 1,022,974

2009-10 (MT)
599,303 1,234,726

Growth %
10.8 20.7

Emissions from these fuel usages were quantified to around 5.5 million tons of CO2 Eq.

7.6 FUGITIVE EMISSIONS
Fugitive emissions occur mainly due to coal mining, venting, flaring, transport and storage of oil and natural gas. Emissions from Neyveli Coal mining operations, Tamil Nadu refinery operations and natural gas processing have been considered. Total emissions from this source was computed to be 0.4 million tons of CO2 Eq.

7.7 GHG EMISSIONS SUMMARY – ENERGY SECTOR
Emission Sources
Power Generation Transport Residential/Commercial Other Energy Fugitive Emissions Total Emissions

CO2 Eq. (MT)
51,422,878 20,113,210 5,582,110 6,364,407 1,238,477 84,721,082

11

The State Level Co-ordinator, Indian Oil Corporation

28

8. AGRICULTURE
Agricultural practices release significant amounts of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Methane is produced largely from microbial activity in oxygen-deprived condition, notably from fermentative digestion by ruminant livestock (enteric fermentation), through manure management practices and rice fields. N2O is produced from microbial transformation of nitrogen in the soils and manures, and this activity is enhanced further when available nitrogen exceeds the plant requirements. This section discusses the emissions from agriculture sector. Sources analyzed in this discussion are • Livestock u Enteric fermentation u Animal manure • Rice cultivation u Irrigated – Continuously flooded, single and multiple aeration u Rain-fed – Drought prone and flood prone • Agriculture soils – Direct emissions and indirect emissions • Field burning of agriculture crop residues

8.1 OVERVIEW OF GHG EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURE SECTOR
Agricultural sector emitted 16.03 million tons of CO2 Eq. emission. Enteric fermentation constituted 60.9% of the total CO2 Eq. emission followed by rice cultivation, which emitted 20.3% of total CO2 Eq. Emission from soil were tantamount to 14.1% of total CO2 Eq. emission. Remaining 4.6% of the emissions were attributed to manure management and burning of crop residues. GHG Emission distribution of agriculture sector in percentage wise (CO2 Eq.)
2% 14%

22% 59%

3%

Enteric Fermentation

Manure Management

Rice Cultivation

Agricultural Soils

Burning of Crop Residue

29

8.2 ENTERIC FERMENTATION
In Tamil Nadu, live stock rearing has been ingrained in the culture. Livestock reared includes cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horses, pigs, and poultry. Many of these animals, through enteric fermentation, produce massive amounts of methane. To estimate the emissions, populations of each of these livestock categories were quantified. Since livestock census is carried out every five years and the last census data was published in 2008, livestock population of 2009 was estimated using compounded annual growth rate from 1997 and 2003, as per data published by Ministry of Agriculture, India. (See table below) Livestock population estimates for 2009 12

Species
Cattle Buffalo Sheep Goat Pigs Donkeys Horses

Livestock population in ‘000 1997
9047 2741 5259 6416 609 26 27

2003
9141 1658 5593 8177 321 25 26

CAGR
0.001 -0.08 0.01 0.04 -0.1 -0.01 -0.011

2009
9236 1003 5948 10421 169 24 24

In order to estimate the enteric fermentation emissions, tier 1 approach - which involves multiplying the population of each species by their respective emission factor, was used. For cattle and buffalo, the pollution was categorized into dairy and nondairy species. Dairy includes all lactating breeds from both indigenous and cross breeds and non-dairy category comprises of calves below one year, adults beyond calving age, and those within one to two years of age. In 2009, cattle and buffalo as a whole emitted 0.3 million tons and 0.05 million tons of methane respectively. Of these, the single biggest contributor was dairy cattle (0.2 million tons). Relative to bovines, other species emitted lesser amounts of methane.

12

Ministry of Agriculture, India

30

Enteric fermentation

11% 6% 4% 46% 8%

25%

Dairy Cattle

Non Dairy Cattle

Dairy Buffalo

Non Dairy Buffalo

Sheep

Goat

8.3 MANURE MANAGEMENT
Manure management practices have not been followed extensively in Tamil Nadu. Majority of the animals feed through grazing and the excreta go directly into the soil. Excreta mixes with the soil and dries up quickly resulting in no methane emissions. However, nitrous oxide emissions result due to the action of nitrification and de-nitrification bacteria. In this study, it was assumed that excreta of animals other than bovines go directly into the soil and, hence, there are no methane emissions. Methane emissions from manure management practices was estimated to be 0.43 million tons of CO2 Eq. emission.

8.4 RICE CULTIVATION
Rice fields are one of the largest sources of methane emissions. Tamil Nadu, being one of largest rice cultivators in India, produces signification amount of emissions. Emissions from paddy field were estimated to be 0.17 million tons of CH4 Emissions. The single biggest contributor was continuously flooded field accounting 38% of emissions followed by 30% from single/multiple aeration.

31

Rice cultivation area in hectares

413404 588731

67473

775944

Continously Flooded Deepwater Cultivation

Single/Multiple Aeration Flooded Cultivation

8.5 AGRICULTURAL SOILS
Nitrous oxide emissions occur through direct and indirect ways. Direct pathway includes addition of organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, manure deposition and nitrogen fixation by crops. Indirect pathways follow two methods: i) Volatilization of Ammonia (NH3) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) from managed soils, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning and ii) Leaching of soil and runoffs. Emissions were found to be around 2.2 million tons of CO2 Eq. emission through direct pathway and 2,661 tons of CO2 Eq. emission through indirect ways.

8.6 BURNING OF CROP RESIDUES
Usually, crops that are burnt in the field are rice, maize, cotton, millet, sugarcane and groundnut. Emission from burning crop residues is calculated using the formula given below. Emissions = ∑ crops (a X b X c X d X e X f) Where, a - Crop production b - Residue to crop ratio c – Dry matter fraction of the residue burnt d – Fraction burnt e – Fraction actually oxidized f – Emission factor This estimation was arrived at using IPCC revised inventory preparation guideline (IPCC, 1996). Dry matter fraction of crop residue was taken as 0.8 (Bhattacharya and Mitra, 1998). Fraction oxidized was taken as 0.9 (IPCC, 1997) and 0.25 as fraction burned (IPCC, 1997). Crop specific values of carbon fraction and N/C ratios were IPCC default values. Ratios of residue to crop product and emission factors were taken from Revised IPCC 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Applying this methodology, it was estimated that 0.3 million tons of CO2 Eq. emission was emitted due to burning, which constituted of 0.01 million tons of CO2 and 210 tons of N2O.

32

8.7 GHG EMISSIONS SUMMARY – AGRICULTURE SECTOR
Emission Sources
Enteric fermentation Manure Management Rice cultivation Agricultural Soils Burning of crop residues Total

CO2 Eq. (MT)
9,770,195 439,587 3,655,652 2,253,272 305,758 16,424,464

33

9. LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY (LULUCF)
In the context of global climate change and sustainable development, forest management activities play a major role in alleviating the effects of climate change. Socio-economically, forests are of prime importance as it provides both tangible and intangible services. Hence, its preservation becomes an activity of prime importance. However, forests are also affected by climate change and their contribution to mitigation strategies is stressed. This section discusses the emissions from land use, land use change and forestry. Sources analyzed in this discussion are: • • • • • Forest Land Crop Land Grass Land Settlements Fuel wood usage

9.1 GHG ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY – GPG APPROACH
The IPCC has developed three exhaustive guidelines to inventorize GHG emissions from LULUCF sector. They are as follows: • Revised 1996 guidelines for LULUCF (IPCC, 1997) • Good Practice Guidelines (GPG) for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) • Agriculture forest and Other Land Use category Guidelines, AFLOU 2006 The widely covered land use categories, the sub-categories and carbon pools in GPG* 2003 are as follows: • Land Categories u Forest Land, grassland, crop land, wetland, settlements and others • Land remaining in the same category (E.g. Grassland remaining grassland) • Land converted into other category (E.g. Forest land converted into cropland) • CO2 emissions and removals from carbon pools u Above ground biomass (AGB) – Namely stem, leaves, and branches etc. u Below ground biomass (BGB) – Roots having thickness of 2mm and above u Soil carbon u Dead organic matter (DOM) and woody litter

9.2 GHG ESTIMATION – CARBON STOCK CHANGES
Dominant source of GHG emission in LULUCF sector is mainly attributed to CO2 emissions and removals. Emissions and removals are estimated by calculating the sum of changes in stock over a period of time, which can be averaged further to yield annual stock change. Annual stock change in the LULUCF category is given by ∆CLU = ∆CAB + ∆CBB+ ∆CDW + ∆CSC Where, ∆CLU is the stock change in land use, ∆CAB = changes above ground, ∆CBB = changes below ground, ∆CDW = changes as a result of deed wood and ∆CSC is the changes result from soil carbon The changes in the carbon stock can be estimated using two approaches: “Carbon Gain-Loss method” and “Carbon StockChange or Stock-Difference method”(IPCC 2003 and 2006). However, for Tamil Nadu “Stock Change” method has been used to derive the carbon removal and emission figures. Carbon stock-change or stock-difference method: ∆C = (Ct2 – Ct1)/(t2-t1) Where: ∆C is the carbon stock change, Ct1 – carbon stock at time t1 and Ct2 – carbon stock at time t2.

34

9.3 INVENTORY ESTIMATION
Inventorizing the emission requires careful study of land area and the approach methodology as well. A broad classification of land area is given in the table 8.2. The approach used to quantify the emissions under LULUCF in Tamil Nadu study is the IPCC Tier-2 Approach. Land area classification for inventorization

Main categories
Forest

Sub-categories
Forest land remaining forest land Lands converted into forest land Crop land remaining crop land Lands converted into crop land Grassland remaining grassland Lands converted into grassland Wetland remaining wetland Lands converted into wetland Settlements remaining settlements Lands converted into settlements

C-pools
AGB, BGB and Soil carbon

Non-GHG gases

Crop land

Grassland

CH4 and N2O Soil and Biomass

Wetland

Settlements

9.4 LAND USE MATRIX
GHG emissions are estimated for land remaining in the same category and for lands converted into other lands in the case of forest. For non-forest land categories estimation is carried out for land remaining in the same categories. See table below for land use pattern of Tamil Nadu. Land Use matrix in Tamil Nadu13 (Area in Sq. Km)

Land-use
Forest

Sub-category
Reserved forest Reserved forest Unclassified forest

2008
18930.1 1824.4 656.7 1100.1 3334.4 50429 25109.2

2009
19214.5 1551.7 665 1099.2 3264.4 48921.4 26591.2

Change in area
284.4 -272.7 8.2 -0.8 70 -1507.5 1482

Grassland

Grazing land Wasteland Net area sown Fallow

Cropland

13

Department of Economics & Statistics

35

9.5 TAMIL NADU FOREST AT A GLANCE
Forest biodiversity in Tamil Nadu is classified into three major groups: Tropical forest, Montane Sub-tropical forest and Montane temperate forest. These major categories are further subdivided into nine categories (See figure below). Table below shows the area of different types of forest in Tamil Nadu during 2009. Forest area of Tamil Nadu in Sq.km14

Categories

Sub-categories
Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest Tropical Semi Evergreen Forest

2009
777.2 862.0 1912.3 11064.3 3040.4 379.2 237.9 245

2011
779.6 864.7 1918.3 11099.0 3050.0 380.4 238.6 245.7

Tropical Forest

Tropical Moist Decidious Forest Tropical Dry Decidious forest Tropical Thorn Forest Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest

Montane Sub Tropical Forest Montane Temperate Forest

Subtropical Broad Leaved Forest Montane Wet Temperate Forest Forest Map of Tamil Nadu 14

14

Forest Survey of India, State of Forest Report 2009 and 2011

36

CARBON STOCK CHANGE OF FOREST BIOMASS The equation used to quantify carbon (C) emission and removal is: C stock = Growing stock * Specific gravity * Dry weight of the wood * Carbon fraction Where; Specific gravity = Oven dry weight/Green Volume In order to estimate the carbon sequestered in biomass during 2009-10, a comparison study was carried out between the growing stocks of forest in 2009 and 2011 (FSI, 2009 and 2011). (See table below for changes in growing stock between 2009 and 2011). From the changes in volume of growing stock it was obvious that afforestation activity has been carried out. Dry weight of wood was taken as 80% of biomass and 40% of dry weight was taken as the carbon fraction of the wood (Kishwan, J, et al, 2009) Growing stock of biomass in 2009 and 2011 in cubic metre15

Categories
Growing stock of forest Growing stock of trees outside forest

2009
142.4 73.4

2011
144.4 70.3

Based on the methodology, it was estimated that 1 million tons of carbon was sequestered during 2009-11. Around 1.83 million tons of CO2 was sequestered during 2009.

9.6 FUELWOOD
Based on the carbon sequestration data, it was quantified that 1.7 million tons of CO2 Eq. emission was sequestered in Tamil Nadu during the year 2009-10.

9.7 CO2 EMISSIONS AND REMOVAL FROM NON-FOREST CATEGORIES
The net emissions/removals from non-forest land category are outlined in table below. Removal of non-forest land emits around 0.11 million tons of CO2 was found to be released from grassland. For cropland 8.8 million tons of CO2 was sequestered in the study period. GHG emission and removals from non-forest land categories

Land use
Grassland-Grassland Crop land-Cropland Wetland-Wetland Settlement-Settlement Other land

Mean Annual Increment (MAI) in C (t/ha/yr)
-0.05 0.30 -

Area in 2009-10 (million ha)
0.50 7.81 -

Net change in CO2 = MAI * 3.667 (tons) [+ Emissions and – removals]
110,161 -8,816,247 -

NET GHG EMISSION AND REMOVALS FROM FORESTRY SECTOR Net GHG emissions and removals are shown in the table below. It is observed that net sink constituted 10.63 million tons of CO2 while net emissions were 2.67 million tons of CO2. On the whole around 7.56 million tons of CO2 were sequestered during 2009-10.
15

Forest Survey Report of India

37

9.8 GHG EMISSIONS SUMMARY – LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE & FORESTRY
Land use categories
Forestland Cropland Grassland Settlement Fuel wood usage Total
*Not Estimated

CO2 emissions/removals [-removals and + sequestration] in MT
-3,474,664 -8,816,247 110,161 NE* 2,566,667 -9,614,084

38

10. WASTE
Waste generation is closely associated with population, urbanization and affluence. Today, it has become a major challenge for municipalities to collect, recycle, and treat waste in a sustainable manner. A cornerstone for sustainable development is to establish affordable and effective management practices. Furthermore, it should be emphasized that public health, safety and environmental benefits result from it. Waste has been one of the major sources for methane. It is generated as a result of anaerobic decomposition by methanogenic bacteria on organic matter. In addition, it is also a source for N2O emissions in the case of domestically generated wastewater. Sources of greenhouse gases from waste discussed in this document are classified into three categories. They are: • Municipal solid waste disposal resulting in CH4 • Domestic waste water disposal culminating in CH4 and N2O emission • Industrial waste water disposal emanating CH4 GHG Emission distribution by waste sector in percentage wise (CO2 Eq.)

22%

56% 22%

Municipal Solid Waste

Domestic waste water

Industrial waste water

10.1 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
In Tamil Nadu, waste is periodically collected and disposed at waste disposal sites in cities. A majority of the MSW is discarded in landfills by means of open dumping and only a fraction of the waste finds its way into composting practices. To estimate the emissions from landfills, first order decay methodology has been used (IPCC, 2002). CH4 generated from disposal site is calculated using the following formula: Methane Emitted = (∑CH4 generated - RT) * (1 - OXT) RT = Methane recovered in year T, Tonnes OXT = Oxidation factor in year T (fraction) CH4 generated from the landfill depends on the amount and composition of waste and waste management practices as well.

39

CH4 generated in year T is represented as CH4 = DDOCm decompoT * F * 16/12 Where, F = Fraction of CH4 by volume 16/12 = Molecular weight ration, CH4/C DDOCm decompoT is the Decomposable degradable organic carbon that degrades under the anaerobic condition in landfill site. This component is calculated using the formula DDOCm = W*DOC*DOCf* MCF W = Mass of waste deposited, tones DOC = Degradable organic carbon in he deposition year DOCf = Fraction of DOC that can possibly decompose (Fraction) MCF = Methane correction factor in the year of deposition (Fraction). Average per capita waste generation was found to be 0.55 kg per day; about 70% of the generated waste finally ends up in landfill (NEERI, 2005). Besides, degradable organic carbon fraction is taken to be 0.11 (NEERI, 2005). Furthermore, methane correction factor of 0.4, fraction of degradable organic carbon that decomposes (DOCf) as 0.5, fraction of methane in the landfill as 0.5 and rate constant as 0.17 per year are taken from IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 2002).

10.2 WASTE WATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
Wastewater arises from a number of domestic, commercial and industrial sources. The generated water may be treated on site or sewered to a centralized treatment plant or discharged into a water body without prior treatment. Hence, the method of wastewater handling has a crucial role to play in emission quantification. Generally, CH4 is emitted when water is treated or disposed anaerobically.

10.2.1 DOMESTIC WASTE WATER
The choice of wastewater treatment method has a decisive role to play in the emissions level. In Tamil Nadu, wastewater that is sewered is collected centrally and treated in aerobic environment creating no emissions. Therefore, methane emissions from domestic wastewater were ascertained to be zero. N2O emissions occur irrespective of the handling method due to the presence of protein in wastewater. The simplified equation to determine N2O from wastewater is: N2OEmissions = NEffluents* EFEffluents*44/28 Where, N2OEmissions – N2O emissions in inventory year, tons N2O/year NEffluent – Nitrogen in the effluent, tons N/year EFEffluent – Emission factor for N2O emissions from wastewater, tons N2O-N/tons N 44/28 - Conversion factor for tons N2O-N into tons N2O NEffluent is calculated using the following formula: NEffluent = P * Pr * FNPR * FNON-CON * FIND-COM * NSludge

40

Where, P – Human population Pr – Annual per capita protein consumption, ton per yr FNPR - Fraction of nitrogen in the protein (Default = 0.00016 ton N per ton of protein) FNON-CON - Factor denoting non-consumed protein addition to the wastewater (Default – 1.4) FIND-COM - Factor representing the addition of industrial and commercial discharged protein into the sewer system (Default – 1.25) NSludge – Nitrogen detached along with the sludge (Default = 0), tons N per yr Annual per capita protein consumption of 57 gm per day during 2005-2008 was taken for calculation (Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation). Using this methodology for urban population, it was estimated that around 0.48 million tons of CO2 Eq. emission was emitted.

10.2.2 INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER
Tamil Nadu, a trailblazer in various industrial arenas, has a substantial share of India’s industrial production. Indeed, the high concentration of industries generate considerable amount of wastewater leading to very high emission levels. To quantify the emissions from industrial wastewater sources, major industries viz., sugar, paper and pulp, breweries, leather, fertilizer and textiles were taken into consideration. Methodology: The equation to estimate emission from industrial sector is given by Ti = ∑(TOWi- Si ) * EFi - Ri Where, Ti - CH4 emission during the quantification year, tons CH4 per yr; i – Industrial sector TOWi – Total organically degradable waste in wastewater for industrial sector I, tons COD per year Si – Organic component removed as sludge during the quantification year, tons COD per year (Default: 0.35) EFi – Emission factor for industry i, tons CH4 per COD for treatment per discharge pathway Ri – Methane recovered in the inventory year, tons CH4 per yr

10.3 GHG EMISSIONS SUMMARY - WASTE Sector
The total GHG emitted from waste sector in 2009-10 in Tamil Nadu was 2.2 million tons of CO2 Eq. Municipal solid waste has been the dominant source of CH4 emission in Tamil Nadu. It accounted for 56% of the total CO2 Eq. emission from waste. Industrial wastewater constituted 22% of the emissions.

Emission Sources
Municipal Solid Waste Domestic Waste Water Industrial Waste Water Total

CO2 Eq. (MT)
1,241,741 481,405 482,177 2,205,323

41

11. INDUSTRIES
Tamil Nadu has a combination of designated and non-designated consumers, as per bureau of energy effieicny (BEE), listed in energy conservation act 2001. Designated consumers include cement, iron and steel, textiles and paper and pulp. Of these cement has broad base with installed capacity of 21 MTPA16 leading to 12 Million tonnes of CO2 Eq. emission. Though iron and steel, paper and pulp, chlor-alkali, textile, fertilizer have been designated as high energy consumers, their presence in Tamil Nadu is very low, resulting in lesser process related GHG emissions from the industry sector in Tamil Nadu. Other sectors like leather, export oriented industries and engineering units, present in high concentrations, as these industries consume large amount of electrical energy than thermal energy, which is accounted previously in energy sector. GHG Emission distribution by Industrial Sector in percentage wise (CO2 Eq.)
6%

3%

17%

6% 0.40% 1% 0.10% 66%

Cement Pulp & Paper

Soda Ash Iron & Steel

Ammonia Carbon Black

VCM & EDC Other

GHG EMISSIONS SUMMARY – industrial SECTOR
Emission Source
Cement Soda Ash Ammonia VCM & EDC Paper & Pulp Iron & Steel Carbon Black Other Total

CO2 Eq. (MT)
12,002,844 14,607 126,082 68,372 1,158,605 3,040,200 620,800 1,093,995 18,125,505

16

Indian Cement Manufacturers Association Handbook

42

12. STRATEGIES TO PURSUE LOW CARBON GROWTH RATE BY 2020
Overall Approach to Pursue Low Carbon Growth Rate The overall approach for emission reduction strategy of Tamil Nadu should be to pursue an aggressive emissions reduction target. In line with the national commitment of reducing emissions intensity by 20-25% of 2005 levels by 2020, this study explored possible options to help the state of Tamil Nadu achieve similar emissions intensity reduction. Based on the mitigation options identified, an emissions intensity reduction of 20-25% by 2020 for the state of Tamil Nadu looks feasible. Typically, for states, the emissions intensity could either be on emissions per capita basis or on emissions per unit GSDP. While the intensity reduction on emissions per capita basis would call for a very strong effort from the state, requiring significant investments & technology interventions, addressing the reduction initiatives in emissions per unit GSDP appears to be relatively uncomplicated. With over 75% of emissions in Tamil Nadu arising out of energy and power related sources, it is imperative for the state to adopt an overall renewable energy strategy to reduce carbon intensity of power generation and lower its overall emission footprint. With per capita energy consumption in the state bound to rise with increasing urbanization, better standards of life and industrial growth, it is essential for the state to embark on a low carbon power supply to achieve its overall reduction targets. Tamil Nadu’s commitment in this direction can be explicit if the state can adopt a voluntary Renewable Power Obligation (RPO) significantly exceeding any mandatory values central government may impose. Adopting such a voluntary ambitious yet achievable RPO will project the state’s commitment towards this direction and portray favorably for international investors as well. Research & development play a key role in helping the state understand its emissions portfolio and identify suitable mitigation options. These R & D initiatives should also be adequately supported to convert into deployment and widespread adoption, thereby achieving the results foreseen. In these efforts, significant financial contribution is one of the deciding criteria for effective implementation of the state’s low carbon strategies. For a transition economy like India, and a progressive yet attractive investment destination such as the state of Tamil Nadu, it becomes unviable for the state to fund such climate mitigation measures through its fiscal budgets. Basic competing needs such as eradicating poverty, increasing power availability for creating livelihood opportunities, increasing literacy etc will prevail over the state’s environmental concerns. Creation of a ‘Green Fund’ and supporting state’s climate mitigation efforts through funds raised from larger emission sources could be a viable alternative to meet environmental concerns without compromising on the citizen’s fundamental requirements. Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) can significantly act as a carbon sink in the state’s efforts to minimize its overall carbon footprint. Increasing urbanization, greater demand of land for industrial, agricultural and residential purposes is resulting in rapid deforestation land use change issues. Carbon sinks in various states are gradually depleting and increasing the overall environmental concerns – water, soil & climate. States pursuing low carbon growth should lay due focus on LULUCF not only from the standpoint of carbon mitigation, but also to address other serious environmental concerns such as biodiversity preservation, prevention of soil erosion, maintaining water balance and the overall green image of the state.

43

MULTI PRONGED APPROACH TO PURSUE LOW CARBON GROWTH RATE

Schemes to make older plants green Reduction in energy usage in urban areas Multi-pronged approach Promotion of renewable energy technology Promotion of sectors with low carbon intensity

Green by design

Greening supply chain

44

12.1 ENERGY
Energy consumption in a society is closely linked with all key contemporary challenges – poverty alleviation, food scarcity, environmental degradation and therefore, its efficient use assumes paramount importance. In the baseline year of this study, 2009-10, energy related emissions were estimated to be approximately 84 million tons of CO2 Eq., over 75% of overall Tamil Nadu’s emissions. Considering a business as usual (BAU) scenario to estimate the emissions of the state in the year 2019-20, results indicate an emission profile of about 142.37 million tons of CO2 Eq. (See figure below for break-up of emissions from energy sector). These figures indicate the growing importance of reducing the emission levels. Percentage of emissions from energy sector during 2009-10 and 2019-20
1.4 1.23 1.2

1

0.8

0.73

0.6 0.36 0.29

0.4

0.2 0.08 0 Power Generation Transport Residential/Commercial
2009-10 2019-20

0.08

0.09

0.07

0.02

0.02

Other Energy

Fugitive Emissions

To address such a large share of emissions profile, and a significantly increasing share of overall emissions, a combination of regulatory, fiscal and technological measures are essential to meet the upcoming challenge. While a few policy measures from a regulatory standpoint could address emission from sources, a combination of technological and financial measures are essential in others and for reducing the overall emissions profile of the state in FY 2020. Renewable energy (RE), internationally and in India as well, promises to be an excellent alternative to address the serious issue of meeting increased energy demand, yet lowering the emission intensity. Tamil Nadu has been a pioneer in promoting renewable energy utilization in the country over the last couple of decades. In the baseline year 2009-10, renewable energy contributed to about 21% of the overall energy supply in the state. While several forms of RE such as hydro, bio mass, solar forms have been adopted in the state, wind power stands out as the single largest RE source, contributing to about 11.4% of total energy generation. Tamil Nadu, being in the southern tip of the Indian peninsula, has strategic wind flow patterns, making the state a preferred wind power installation site, not only for developers in Tamil Nadu, but across the country as well. The state still offers further potential for renewable energy supply. This step will go a long way in reducing the carbon emission from power generation in the state further.

45

Tamil Nadu Government made its commitment of adding 3,000 Mega Watt solar energy as part of its Solar Mission Program by 2015-1617 . India, as committed in NAPCC, aims to derive 15% (present share is about 4%) of its energy requirements from renewable energy sources by the year 2020. Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) is one of the tools adopted by the Government of India in achieving this ambitious goal. Under these rules, distribution companies, open access consumers and captive power consumers are obligated to buy a certain percentage of their power from renewable sources of energy. While NAPCC indicates mandatory 5% RPO by 2010 and 1% increase every year thereon, Tamil Nadu has adopted a voluntary target of about 10% in 2010. To achieve its overall low carbon growth and emission intensity reduction targets, it is imperative for distribution companies, open access consumers and captive power consumers also to play their role in meeting renewable energy targets. In line with state government targets of meeting 25% of power generation through RE, RPO should also be gradually increased from current levels of about 10% to 25% by 2020. Clear policies and communication would prepare distribution companies, open access consumers and captive power consumers to plan their investments accordingly and assist in meeting the state’s overall emission targets. Tamil Nadu meets about 79% of its power requirement through fossil fuel based power plants. While the state’s overall target is to increase RE based power sources, fossil fuel based power would still continue to be a major source of power supply. While the newer power plants will adopt the latest technology and achieve good energy efficiency levels by design, it is essential to continuously improve existing power stations and thereby, reduce their emission intensity. Power, being a highly sensitive state supply commodity, and with subsidies & cross-subsidies offered for various strategic reasons, pricing remains a major area of concern. Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB) receives a substantial share of funds from the state fiscal budget to sustain its operations and hence, would not be in a position to explore significant improvement opportunities in existing power stations. It is therefore proposed to create a ‘Power Plant Refurbishment Fund’ to create a fund source for TNEB to gradually refurbish & modernize its power stations. The power plant refurbishment fund will derive its income partly from electricity duty collected or allocation from existing tariff. If these are not feasible, Tamil Nadu government may then consider, in consultation with its stakeholders, an additional duty to support such green initiatives in its power sector. The overall objective would be to have an allocation equivalent to about Rs. 0.10 / kWh from industrial and commercial users. This would translate to Rs. 240 crores based on energy consumption in these two user segments in 2009-10. Considering an average improvement, R & M cost of Rs. 100 – 120 crores per power station, this fund would support improvement in about 2 power stations per year. This fund may then be utilized by TNEB to improve the performance of its least efficient plants annually. Over the next 8 years (until 2020), this fund would help TNEB improve most of its older power stations and significantly reduce the overall emission intensity from them.

12.2 TRANSPORT
Transportation is an integral part of our national economy. India’s transport sector is also very large and diverse, catering to the needs of over 1.1 billion people. Good logistics connectivity across the country is essential for robust economic growth. Since the early 1990s, India’s growing economy has witnessed a rise in demand for transport infrastructure and services. Roads are the dominant mode of transportation in India today. They carry almost 90 percent of the country’s passenger traffic and 65 percent of its freight. The density of India’s highway network - at 0.66 km of highway per square kilometer of land – is similar to that of the United States (0.65) and much greater than China’s (0.16) or Brazil’s (0.20)18 . Motor vehicle penetration in the country is still one among the least in the world. Tamil Nadu has a larger and more extensive road and rail network compared to several other states in the country. Its transport related emissions in the base year 2009-10 was estimated to be 20.11 million tones of CO2 Eq. With fast growing automobile market and growing disposable incomes and increased need for transportation, India is bound to witness significant increase in transportation related activities in the years ahead. Emissions under the business as usual scenario is expected to grow to 28.87 million tons by 2019-20. To attenuate the emission levels, key strategies are required to be in place.
17 18

http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/tamil-nadu-to-add-3000-mw-solar-energy/467460/ http://www.go.worldbank.org/CG411SDIWO

46

Attempts to reduce transport related carbon emissions globally have focused on increased mass transport systems, improving fuel efficiency of vehicles and promoting low carbon intensity fuels (eg., bio fuels). While the central government is working on improving fuel efficiency of motor vehicles 19, states can explore the opportunity of increased mass transport systems and promoting low carbon intensity fuels. In this regard, fuel cess has been recognized in many European nations and in a few Indian states (Delhi, for example) to reduce the carbon footprint of fossil fuels. In Delhi, a cess of Rs 0.25 per litre is levied on diesel and the funds are diverted for green initiatives. A similar strategy can be implemented in Tamil Nadu as well. It is proposed to charge a fuel cess of Rs 0.25/litre on both diesel and petrol, and the tax generated from it can be utilized for funding bio fuel research and supporting technology absorption. Based on the statistics of baseline year 2009-10, Tamil Nadu consumed about 1,600 Million litres of petrol and 5,600 Million litres of diesel for its transportation needs. The proposed fuel cess (at the rate of Rs 0.25 per Litre) will result in a funding of about Rs. 180 Crores annually to fund research and implementation of low carbon fuels. To give public transportation systems a major thrust, a green cess is proposed. This would create a sense of awareness and responsibility amongst individual vehicle owners to utilize mass transportation as well as provide financial support for state governments to establish good public transportation systems for its citizens to utilize. Green cess will be supported by allocation from existing road tax collection during purchase / toll collection during utilization. This green tax can be channeled to develop public transportation system and inter-city transportation across the state.

12.3 INDUSTRY
Traditionally, Tamil Nadu has been in the vanguard of industrialization, with over 11% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates having corporate offices in Tamil Nadu. One of the major contributors to the industrial growth has been the state’s enabling industrial policy. Various policies, developed over the last couple of decades, meet the dual objectives of generating increased employment opportunities and achieving higher growth. Past trend on industrial energy consumption shows increasing growth rate and is expected to grow predominantly in the future as well. Energy related greenhouse gas emission in the baseline year is estimated to be about 18.12 million metric tons of CO2 Eq. during 2009-10. Considering the previous decade’s CAGR, industry related emissions in Tamil Nadu is estimated to be about 34.72 million metric tons of CO2 Eq. in 2019-20. Energy efficiency has been adopted by the Indian industry over the last several years as one of the effective competitiveness building measure due to very high energy costs. Several mandatory energy efficiency improvement measures have also resulted in significant capacity building and awareness among the industry fraternity. Tamil Nadu was among the first few Indian states to introduce mandatory energy audits (for almost all industries & commercial buildings meeting minimum energy consumption criteria) and has resulted in significant benefits. Under the NAPCC, National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) has embarked on a new initiative, first of its kind in the world, called Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme. PAT is a market based mechanism to enhance cost effectiveness of improvements in energy efficiency in energy intensive large industries and facilities, through certification of energy savings that could be traded. More than 100 out of about 500 designated energy consumers are based out of Tamil Nadu. This mandatory scheme, under the Energy Conservation Act 2001 will certainly give a major fillip to the energy conservation activities in the state, thereby resulting in significant energy related greenhouse gas emissions. Another lever to encourage industries to adopt non-fossil fuel based energy sources to meet their power and fuel demand would be to introduce a carbon tax on fossil fuel purchases. Currently, government of India levies a clean energy cess of Rs. 50 per ton of coal used. This is a measure that the government of Tamil Nadu could consider collecting a marginally higher cess (say Rs. 65 / ton) to promote non fossil fuel based energy such as energy plantations, bio mass, waste to energy, etc. Co-processing of industrial, municipal and other combustible wastes in cement kilns could be another viable alternate for meeting dual needs of meeting partially the energy requirements of cement industries and addressing the waste management issues of the state.
19

http://www.hindustantimes.com/business-news/WorldEconomy/India-to-introduce-new-fuel-efficiency-standards/Article1-693452.aspx

47

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) across India typically operate in the context of industrial clusters, or geographic concentrations of firms contributing to production of similar goods. These clusters can count over one thousand enterprises, including hundreds of industrial manufacturing plants, and provide employment to tens of thousands of workers. They collectively deliver a substantial share of industrial employment, output and exports. Proliferation of industrial clusters is particularly dominant in Tamil Nadu. SME clusters are impeded in their development due to several constraints, including access to factors (technology, finance, skills and supporting management resources) and access to markets. Cleaner Production and Industry Symbiosis can improve the productive use of energy, materials and water, reduce the generation of waste and emissions (including GHGs) and strengthen the sound management of chemicals. This enhances productivity and contributes to competitiveness, supporting the following overall objectives: a) reduced pollution intensity and increased resource efficiency of target SME industry clusters; b) reduced exposure of employees and communities to risks from industrial clusters and improved employee and community well-being; and c) enhanced public-private partnering in SME clusters with improved ability to innovate. A multi-pronged approach should be deployed for promotion and awareness creation; assessment and coaching support; recognition and rating of performance; and strengthening public-private partnerships at the cluster-level.

48

12.4 BUILDINGS
Buildings are responsible for large amounts of energy consumption and GHG emissions (primarily through electrical energy consumption). Buildings are a key area of focus as 70% of the floor space in India in 2030 is yet to be built. Building sector has vast potential to reduce the GHG intensity through proven technological and architectural interventions. To deploy the breakthroughs and achieve maximal reductions holistic actions are required. Following are the mitigation opportunities available for TN State to reduce the emissions footprint from infrastructure.

Commercial Buildings
Regulatory Measures > Compulsory Green buildings for spaces greater than 20,000 square foot > Provision of (marginally) higher floor space index as an incentive for adopting green buildings > Elimination of excessive bureaucracies on green building approval

Residential buildings
Regulatory Measures > Construction of green homes for complexes having greater than 100 dwelling units or when built up space is greater than 50,000 square foot > Prioritization of rain water harvesting programmes for residential blocks in tier II & tier III cities > > Creation of fast track approval channel for construction

Government buildings
Regulatory Measures > Green procurement for all activities > Green building certification for all upcoming buildings (Mandatory) > Adopting BEE’s 5 star rating for all government buildings (Energy efficiency) > Mandatory energy audits of all existing buildings and improving energy efficiency

Technological interventions Technological interventions Technological interventions > Emphasis on renewable energy > Deploy the use of photovoltics and > Transition to energy efficient lighting use for certain purposes (e.g. Solar Solar water heating system for all from energy consuming lighting Water heating) dwelling units fixtures > Reduce heating, cooling and lighting > Transition to energy efficient lighting > adopt building integrated renewable loads through climate responsive from energy consuming lighting energy systems by design design and conservation practices fixtures Information dissemination measure Information dissemination measure Information dissemination measure > Capacity building on green > Capacity building on green > Capacity building on green concepts concepts concepts > Develop capacity for State’s Public Works Department pertaining green specifications

49

12.5 AGRICULTURE
Agriculture is the most predominant sector for the economy of Tamil Nadu. Nearly 70% of the population depends on agriculture and its allied activities for livelihood. Agriculture is, therefore, a sector of enormous value, but it emits mammoth quantities of GHG into the atmosphere (See figure below for emissions from agriculture sector in 2009-10 and 2019-20). Although it is impossible to completely eliminate these emissions, it is possible to reduce the externalities of agricultural practices that lead to increased emissions by embracing sustainable cultivation practices and technology. A brief description on the potential emissions reduction strategies is given below. Percentage of emissions from agriculture sector
70 59

60

50

50

40

30 22 20 10 3 0 Enteric Fermentation Manure Management Rice Cultivation Agricultural Soils Burning of Crop Residue 1.9 1.7 20 14 10

18

2009-10

2019-20

Since Tamil Nadu is an agrarian economy, the focus should be on increasing the energy efficiency of the sector as a whole. One such energy efficiency measure can be the installation of energy efficient pumps. Government can play a significant role by providing pumps at a subsidized cost (50% of the total cost). Supplementing the pumps, government can encourage Energy Savings Company (ESCO) model of project implementation, considering the growth of agriculture sector. This can result in emissions reductions of 67.9 Million tons CO2 Eq. Financial savings from the projects can be funneled into research project to make the agriculture sector an instigating model for the world. Water and Crop Management can play a decisive role in emissions reduction efforts. Efficient water management can be achieved with the government’s support activities, which could include financial assistance and subsidies for procuring and installing efficient irrigation equipment. On the crop management front, polices focusing on crop insurance can be provided to farmers who cultivate crops in most sustainable manner. In addition to crop insurance, incentives can be given to farmers who use best available cultivation practices. Systemic Rice Intensification (SRI) technique of rice cultivation, which involves less fertilizer usage and seeds, has been known to produce higher yields per hectare. Government can provide financial incentives and crop insurance to encourage farmers to adopt this cultivation practice.

50

12.6 LAND USE AND LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY (LULUCF)
LULUCF management plays a vital role in regulating the environmental parameters of the earth. But presently, its very existence is being threatened by over-exploitation by human beings. Thus, to regulate the environmental conditions, land and forest management becomes crucial. Successful management can be achieved through the strategies described below. GIS studies: Effective forestry management requires information. Pertinent details on forestry can be gathered through GIS studies. Capacity building and social forestry: Effective management depends on capacity building with specific focus on community based development and protection measures. Indeed, this community involvement will improve not only the economics status of people involved but also provide ecosystem services and environmental benefits for generations to come. Here, the TN Government can play a stimulating role by initiating community based projects either by providing financial incentives to local forest community or by galvanizing corporate organizations to indulge in creating social forestry involving local community.

51

GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS
Agriculture: This includes emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management, rice cultivation, managed soils and burning of crop residue CAGR: The compound annual growth rate is calculated by taking the nth root of the total percentage growth rate, where n is the number of years in the period being considered CO2 Eq. : It is the sum total of all Greenhouse Gases in terms of their global warming potential Country Specific Data: Data for either activities or emissions that are based on research carried out on-site either in a country or in a representative country Emission Factor: A coefficient that quantifies the emissions or removals of a gas per unit activity. Emission factor are often based on a sample of measurement data, averaged to develop a representative rate of emission for a given activity level under a given set of operating conditions Emissions: The release of greenhouse gases and / or their precursors into the atmosphere over a specified area and a period of time Energy: This category included all GHG emissions arising from combustion of fossil fuel and fugitive release of GHG’s. Emissions from the non-energy use are not included here and are reported under the industry sector. This category includes emissions due to fuel combustion from energy industries (electricity generation, petroleum refining, manufacturing of solid fuel), transport, commercial/ institutional, residential, agriculture / forestry /and fugitive emissions from coal mining and handling and from oil and natural gas Enteric Fermentation: A process of digestion in herbivores (plant – eating animals) which produces methane as a byproduct Estimation: The process of calculating emissions and /or removal Fossil Fuel Combustion: Is the intentional oxidation of fossil fuel that provides heat or mechanical work to process Fugitive Emission: Emission that are not emitted through an intentional release through stack or vent. This can include leaks from plants, pipelines and during mining Global Warming Potential (GWP): GWPs are calculated as a ratio of radiative forcing of 1 kilogram greenhouse gas emitted to the atmosphere to that from 1 kilogram CO2 over a period of time (e.g. 100 years) Industry: This includes emissions from industrial processes and emissions due to fossil fuel combustion in manufacturing industries. The emissions are estimated from mineral industry (cement, lime, glass, ceramics, soda ash use), chemical industries (ammonia, nitric acid, adipic acid, caprolactam, carbide, titanium dioxide, petrochemicals and black carbon, methanol, ethylene, etc.), metal industry (iron and steel, ferroalloys, aluminium, magnesium, lead, sink, etc.), other industry and non-energy products from fuels and solvent use (paraffin wax and lubricants) Land Cover: The type of vegetation, rock, water, etc., covering the earth surface. Land Use: The type of activity being carried out by unit of land Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF): Includes emissions and removal from changes in areas of forest land, crop land, grass land, wet land, settlements and other lands. Million Tons: equal to 10^6 tons Per Capita Emissions: GHG emissions in CO2 Eq. per person Removals: Removal of greenhouse gases and or their precursors from the atmosphere by a sink

52

Sequestration: The process of storing carbon in a carbon pool Sink: Any process, activity or mechanism which removes greenhouse gases from the atmosphere Source: Any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas Uncertainty: Lack of knowledge of the true value of a variable Waste: Includes methane emissions from anaerobic microbial decomposition of organic matter in solid waste disposal sites and methane produced from anaerobic decomposition of organic matter

53

ABBREVATIONS
AGB – Above Ground Biomass AFLOU – Agriculture Forest and Other land Use categories BGB – Below Ground Biomass BLY - Bachat Lamp Yojana C - Carbon CAGR – Compound Annual Growth Rate CDM – Clean Development Mechanism CFL – Compact Fluorescent Lamp CH4 – Methane CO2 – Carbon Dioxide DOM – Dead Organic Matter CO2 Eq. – Carbon dioxide Equivalent FDI – Foreign Direct Investment FY – Financial Year GDP – Gross Domestic Product GHG – Greenhouse Gas GPG – Good Practice Guidelines GSDP – Gross State Domestic Product GWP – Global Warming Potential HT – High Transmission HFC – Hydro Flurocarbons IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Km – Kilometer LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas LULUCF – Land Use Land Use Change & Forestry MAI – Mean Annual Increment MoA - Ministry of Agriculture MoEF – Ministry of Environment and Forests MW – Mega Watt MT – Metric Ton N2O – Nitrous Oxide NAPCC – National Action Plan on Climate Change NH3 - Ammonia

54

PFC – Per Flurocarbon PLCC – Power Line Carrier Communication ppb – Parts per billion ppm – Parts per million PPP – Public Private Partnership ppt – Parts per trillion RBI – Reserve Bank of India RE – Renewable Energy RPO – Renewable Power Obligation SAPCC – State Action Plan on Climate Change SEZ – Special Economic Zone SF6 – Sulphur Hexafluoride SKO – Super Kerosene Oil SME – Small and Medium Enterprises SRI - Systemic Rice Intensification T&D – Transmission and Distribution TANGEDCO – Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Limited TANTRANSCO – Tamil Nadu Transmission Corporation limited TNEB – Tamil Nadu Electricity Board USD – Unites States Dollar VCS – Verified Carbon Standard VHF - Very High Frequency

55

56

About us
The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the growth of industry in India, partnering industry and government alike through advisory and consultative processes. CII is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry led and industry managed organisation, playing a proactive role in India's development process. Founded over 117 years ago, it is India's premier business association, with a direct membership of over 7000 organisations from the private as well as public sectors, including SMEs and MNCs, and an indirect membership of over 90,000 companies from around 400 national and regional sectoral associations. With 63 offices including 10 Centres of Excellence in India, and 7 overseas offices in Australia, China, France, Singapore, South Africa, UK, and USA, as well as institutional partnerships with 223 counterpart organisations in 90 countries, CII serves as a reference point for Indian industry and the international business community. CII – Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (CII – Godrej GBC) is one of the 10 Centres of Excellences of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre offers advisory services to the industry in the areas of Green buildings, energy efficiency, water management, environmental management, renewable energy, Green business incubation and climate change activities. The Centre sensitises key stakeholders to embrace Green practices and facilitates market transformation, paving way for India to become one of the global leaders in Green businesses by 2015. The Centre is housed in a Green Building which received the prestigious LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Platinum Rating in 2003. This was the first Platinum rated Green Building outside of U.S.A and the third in the world. The Centre was inaugurated by H.E Dr A P J Abdul Kalam, the then President of India, on July 14, 2004.

This Report is Supported By

For more details kindly contact :

CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre Survey No 64, Kothaguda Post, R.R. Dist., Hyderabad - 500 084, Andhra Pradesh, India www.greenbusinesscentre.com

P V Kiran Ananth Senior Counsellor kiran.ananth@cii.in Tel: +91 40 44185152 (D)