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Appl. sci. Res.

Section JB, VoI~r



by L. C. WOODS
Department of Mechanical Engineering, N.S.W. University of Technology,

Sydney, Australia

The Schwarz-Christoffel formula for the mapping of apoi~rgon in the zplane on an upper half-plane (the w-plane) is ek~cen'r t o deal' with singIyconnected domains of quite general shape.~ The mappirfg p~oblem in the general case is shown to depend on~.the :solution of, an a w k w a r d iategro:differential equation and an iterative method of finding this solution is indicated. Two further generalizations Are m a d ~ to the formhla; these are (i) the boundaI3r of the singly-~onnected domain in t h e z-plane is m a p p e d on to a finite interval of the real axis of the w-planeinstead of the whole of it, and (ii) the formula is extended to deal with .doubly-connected .domains.

w 1. Introduction. The weD-known formula for the mapping of a polygon ill the z-plane (z = x + iy) on to the ,Upper half of the w-plane (@ = 9 + i v ) c a n be wrKten in the f 0 h n
- - - = K II (w - - 9n) - ~ = '
dw ~=1
dz N




L 2,3 ...... N, are ihe external . ngies oJ" the

polygon (see fig. !):at the vertices~zn, and ~n are the pc'Jars on the real axis in theY'd-plane on to which, these vertices z**are mapped b y (1). In order t 9 deal with curved rather than. po!ygona! shape~ it is natural to seek a generalization of (l') in which the arrg!es a.n tend to zero with_ the intervals z * * ~ l - zn, and 9n~1.77 ~n, :It is quite easy to derive this generalization by a f6rmaI:dalcula:tion based ~on (1).
*) Paper, read at the first annual general meeting o'~ the AuStralian~Matheiha~~al Society at Sydney, August, 1957. ~-

- - 89 - Appl. sci. Res. B 7

this theory is given in w5. and this would be difficult if not impossible. instead of the w h o l e of~v = 0. say.. must clearly lie on the contour F. An obvious further genera]ization of (2) is to take P to be some point lying within F. in the z-plane.90 L. and the logarithm of (1) can be written ] N in --dz __--l n K -. We shall therefore give.~ --OO in (w .C. 1. Then to return .an upper-half plane. Mapping a polygon onto.9) d00(~0).~ ~ ln(w - - 9n)(0n - - 0n-l). In the limit ~n -+ 0 this becomes oo ~-(w) = In ~ = In K .zn. which is more useful than (2) in some practical applications. is given in w4. and this necessarily means tl~at F must map on to a/inite interval of ~ = 0. To make this derivation of (2) rigorous we would first have to recast the usual proof of (1) into a form which perinits the limiting process just used.plane O ~' Fig. but in fact containing an altemat-ive proof of (1) as a special case. a proof of (2) not depending on (1).. o z-plane B C w. then ~n = = On . In this last generalization let F' lie within F.0n-l. slope of the side Z n + l . This generalization. WOODS Let On denote the. The point P. The next step in generalizing the mapping formula is to deal with the doubly-connected region lying between two non-intersecting contours F and F'. (2) where the integral is a Riemann-Stieltjes integral.. which is mapped on to w = co by (2).

-P tend to a point o n F. an o r d i n a ~ point is obtained ff :fi = 0. Proo/O/ the first generalization.g.. o.this gives. Mapping a curved figure onto an upperhalf-plane. C. 9The contour F is ~ u m e d to have a continuously turning tangent save for a finite number. 2).then let.plane w-plane Fig. B. as a. where simple discontinuities in the slope 00 o f f m a y exist (e~g.ULA ~. the literature (cf. t h e y do not seem to: h a v e appeared ~. We shall map the singlyconnected region bounded b y the contour P = PABCD~EooFP shown in fig. Also a finite number of points of ~ are assumed to begat infinity (e. to the $chwarz-Christoffel .1. 272 of B e c k e n b a c h 1)) on the doubly-colmected region between polygons. that one cannot be sure on this point. while P is a point at infinity if fl = ~ (e. w2.g. in this paper are obvious.~PPII~GFOI~M. There is some Russian work .j2 qn to the upper half of the w-plane in such a w a y t h a t the poifit P m a p s on to the point at infinity in the w-1)lane.THE SCHWAI~-CH1ZISTOFFI~L~I. points Doo and Eoo). points B and C in fig. Although the generalizations of the S--C formula given. In the . and there is also the well-known work of L e a t h e m 8) which introduces "curve-factors" into the S'--C formula. giving. The point P which will be moved to infinity b y the transformation m a y be an ordinary point of F or one of .( G o l u z i n (see p. B e c k e n b a c h X ) ) of the subject.~ :ser generalizatibn -.-2. We ~must first let P' shrink to a singie point ' P . of which the work in w5 below is a generalization.figure P is shown to b e at a point where the tangent j~umps through an angle t . However. Doo or E~) j u s t described.of exceptional points. there is such a volume of published papers on conformal mapping. and finally we obtain ( 1 ) b y letting 0o(9)bea stepfunction..formula.t D~): or i~ ~ < fl g72~ .g.the exceptional points (e.C)mapping . ouT:.~st generalization. jo z.

(-.. we exclude the case n = oo. n = ~r/(~r -.n + ao + --al +.8) tends tO . (4) where B and C are n e w constants. In this case the "corner" at infinity is r e m o v e d b y the transformation w ~ z-n. and t h a t the angle 8 does not equal ~r (i. If :(4) is still '~#alid for this value of 8.92 L . WOODS (as at E~).e. i.e constants. = A / w .a) n. especially i m p o r t a n t in practical applications of the theory. and then transformed to infinity b y the inversion w ~ 1/zl..l_l/n.( 2 . . it m a p s i n t 6 the large semi-circle w = Re*~ in the w-plane. Then the corner at P will be straightened b y a transformation of the t y p e zi ~ (z -. and n has been eliminated in favour of /L Secondly suppose P is at infinity. Inverting this series and differentiating the result we fifid t h a t dwdZ _ B w_.. (--z~_<8<z~). (5) It is easily verified from (5) t h a t (4) also holds for ~r < / 3 < 2~r. (3) where A."(--~r</3<~r).. w = A + a0 + . which applies at points like Do. we can write w -. .e. say. ar. . ~r and 2~ are. { l + O(__~) } i. There are three distinct cases to consider.-k.-~) an w + C + 0 (1). i. ao. A p a r t from these singularities the relation between'~ w and z will b e regular near z = a . in fig. . Finally let 8 = ~r.(z--a)~+ . The. 2). where n = I/(1 --/3/zr).need the relation b e t w e e n w and z on this indentation. ~ _ + g~ Z (~r < 3 < 2~r). c . Thus in this neighbourhood. 9 ~ in ( ~ w ) = . and instead of (3) we have w = A z ..e. al . . FirSt'let P be in the finite part of the plane.. The contour is indented a b o u t P b y a c u r v e 7 = F G A of such a shape that.-(z -- A . at z = a.. We shall .ao+al(z--a)+ag. then dz/dw. (8 = (6) where A~ b and a0 are constants.e.z ~ / ~ < ~r). The acute angle ~r --/~ tends to zero with lal -x.. T h a t this is the correct form for w is most easily verified b y letting lal tend to zero in (3). . particular cases fl = 0..

b : r ~ e m a i n . i. w h e r e . _ dw . d. .e. O=arg ~ + dg/ which is clearly the slope of . infinity wit h lab so we can write.the-constants in (3) and using the result lira (1' ~ . d w Now let Idz/dw I = l/q. (7)). 2n). Mocfifying .~. then 0 i s t h e ~ngle between the x-axis and the curves W = constant.. 1 2~i .w 0 --R where w is a point within the contour. and. we then arrive at ( 6 ) a s t~he limiting form of (3). From (4) it follows that dr tim .THE SCI-YvVARZ-CI~II~I:STO'F~Z M~PPFN"G FORI~ULA '~ t . (7) *o~ ~. valid for all values.n~fb.o(9) ' d9 (tl) on ~v = 0.s ~ t e in the limit ~r --> oo. for if d~v = 0.e-~*'. or ~0 =.ol-. 9 -. W e have now established that (4).zb/n) ~n = .fl in the range (-. . . . a:=. r----ln~=In where s = In--. q then d~~ 80 d---w-.o. . / (8) (9) is an analyticffunction in the w-plane whose imaginary part takes the value dOo = 0. and arg (dx. for all choices of the point P t h a t is to be mapped on to w = oo.w . The contour P is the curve ~0 = 0 . By Cauchy's integral applied to the semi-circular contour shown in fig./dw) = 0.. J .the curves d~o = O. and which vanishes at infinity (see. + 1 [ Re'xdx 2~ 3 d(Re~x) ROx -. 2 R ~r .we shall denote the slope of this curve by 00.n.8-~ + i aq0 (10) 1 \q e ~0 = ~ + i 0 . .

l ( 9 . Subtracting the conjugate of this equation from (12).e.a the correct meaning to give 0o(9)d 9 is d0o(~0) = 0 o ( 9 ) d g = ~---lim d / t a n . permitting 0o(9) to be a delta function at a finite number of points in the range of integration. The validity of this is readily established by the usual m e t h o d of indenting the contour in the w-plane by small semicircles about the singular points on the real axis. ~ d (14) where in K is the constant of integration. i. W O O D S Equation (7)" and the limit R -+ oo yields (12) dw Similarly 2~i a 9 -. The proof of (2) is now almost complete. The only gap in this proof is t h a t we have not justified writing the integral in (14) as a Stidtjes integral.94 L.W oo 1 f --oo dr(9 ) as ~ lies outside the semi-circular contour. then let -+ 0 after evaluating the integral.7~ r ( \ S l a~/= J a---dU(9--a) Y~ = --8(~0 -. Alternatively we can take the contour in (4) t o be ~o = e instead of ~v = 0. C. and then letting the radii of these indentations tend to zero. We find in this approach t h a t at a discontinuity of amount a in 00 at the point 9 ~.a) d 9 $g (15) . and using (10) we find oo dT dw -- 1 •d00(9) ! (113) Finally integration with respect to w gives ~-=ln--dz =lnK-dw 1--fln(w--~)d0o(~).

Its value will be fixed if two other corresponding points.a) is its derivative. F r o m fig. In practical problems however i. An alternative m e t h o d of determining the modulus of K is frequently useful. 2 . b u t m u s t satisfy OO f d00(9) = 2z~ -. . This case is s o m e w h a t more difficult and is considered in w 3. (18) xp ---OO In 19" -. Thus for the unique definition of the mapping we h a v e to assign the two correspondences Z~ .1/~ ~ ~n in ( w . n = l. f r o m 9 = oo. If 0o(9) is a step-function with discontinuities in m a g n i t u d e of ~n at 9n. Our proof of (2) is now complete. we find from (17) and (18) t h a t s(9 ) ---. The value of the factor K depends on the scale of the mapping and the orientation of the contour F in the z-plane.ft.. and we obtain (1) as a special case. then the Stieltjes integral in (14) degenerates to the sum -.9n).e. and the required mapping function follows from a knowledge of 00 = 0o(9) and two integrations.t will be the shape of _P t h a t is known. N.91 d00(9*) dg. .' F r o m (14) it follows t h a t W Oo z=z O0 --0o dOo(9)Id.+ oo. --OO (16) W h e r e 00 is continuous we write d00 = 00(9)d9 in (14).+ WO.Igl 3 e x p [ and l = ]KI --OO n 19" - dg.a) is the unit function and 8(9 -. If s is the distance measured around F in an anti-clockwise direction from P. (19) . . i. . and not the relation 00(9). For simphcity consider the case in which no points of P are at infinity -. say z0 and w0 are assigned. the delta function. 2 it is a p p a r e n t t h a t 0(9 ) cannot be chosen arbitrarily. (17) where z~ is the value of z at the point P.the general case can be treated b y a similar method.THE SCHWARZ-CHRISTOFFEL MAPPING F O R M U L A 95 where U(9 -.alld zo .

In R{0o(9)} -- Ifoo(9) --oo In [~* -. Oo(~). namely c o in 00(~o ) = in [K[ -. for a given distribution is directly proportional to l. (20) On F at w ---.this with (20) we arrive at the basic integro-differential equation for 0o(9). [K[ w3.o. . Knowledge of the shape of F enables us to compute its intrinsic equation s = ~0). WOODS where l is the length o f / ' . [00(r J --oo hi - (22) an equation quite beyond the standard methods of solution.9<~the real part of (14) yields oo in --= q In .C. The bgsic integral'equation o/ mapping theory.96 L.9[ dg*. and hence its radius of curvature R = s'(O).). and an equation similar to (19) in the general case. we have in O~(9)=tn[~exp { ~oo -~-J o0(r --oo 1 /. (21) where [K[ itself is % function of 0o(9) determined b y (19) when / ' is finite. On ~ = constant " \dg/ so o n V ----0 \dg/J' 1 - q - = ds d~ . When 00(9) is found from (22) it is substituted in (14) t o g i v e the required mapping relation.--oo in - d0o(9*). W h e n / ' is finite. 1 dq~* }] --In --R l {00(90)} de*. Thus. and combining.- ds d00 d0o d~ - = RO'o(q. Numerical or iterative methods must be employed. The function 00(~) can be a delta function at a finite number of points in the range.

(90). Irt practice we can start with an approximating polygon.00.= --oo and . With R9. F.. on. g these corners..-Then from the.0o(90 ) so as to obtain a fair approximas to F. .. Then the substitutioia of the function 0~(90) in (i8):'~and (19) gives the corresponding~fiihcfi6n s1(90). of ~ in this interval.. W h e n the constant value is zero the section~will be a straight line.n.i6 now.nction. then round off those corners not corresponding to comers on F b y giving 0o(90 ) a non-zero value... the length of . set s(90) = s3(90)... Denote the approximating curve by F1.. using our approximate :s(90) relation'.90= oo.~(. and O's(9) in the left hand side of (22) we 0btz:i.RS.. Other choices of 0o(90 ) are of course possible (see w and with experience it is not difficult to select . relations R(s).e.."7~" ProbaBly the best method of solving !(22). Fig.. n e w ~ a p p m ~ t i ~ r ~ ~ for 00(90 ). i. say 03(90). and so. If 0o(90 ) = k in the interval 90o -..T H E S CHWAI~Z-CI-gRISTOFFET. otherwise it will be curved having a slowly varying curvature.9):. O(s) on F we find the approximate :functions . a . approxima'~e polygon.89 K 90 _< q00 + {a containing a comer of the polygon corresponding to a discontinuity as ~ellews. to vanish in the intervals bounded by 90.. 00....(90)is a step f. over intervals containkn. First r is approximated to by a figure comprised of sections: over each of which 00'(90)has a constant value.{q0~)j 0~(90) :and 0'~..the corresponding ~fam... from the left hand sic~ e of"(22)_. un. A p p r o x i m a t i o n to a curved given curve F. rounding off.:inserted in (18) and (1 9) to yield ... .. r we then. MAPPING FORMULA 9... Convergence of the integral in (22) requires that we choose 00. Also let {he length o f F 1 be equal: to l.. then a and k must be chosen t9 satisfy T = ak. tmow~. 3.(90). The next step-is to make the approximation s(90)= s1(90) (we have already set s(oo)-= l = sr(~o)). ~his. and let 01(9) be the known distribiit-ion of 0 ori F1.tfl~the process has:corl~er~ed:.. .

In all but the simplest cases the integrals in (18). Let this be ---a_< fo_< a. ( 2 n . (19) and (21) have to be evaluated numerically. 4. ~ o ID' A' I A It' ra w-pl~e Fig. which is the "curve" ~v = oo.a correspond to opposite sides of some curve AP.4 .1)a < 9 <--_< (2n + 1)a.the strips 0 _< ~o _< oo. . WOODS From the author's experience it seems that convergence is always quite rapid.a < 9 < a. and of course s has to be measured from some point on F close to. . 4.2. M a p p i n g points within F on to in/inity.. then the lines 9 ~ . . b u t once a numerical scheme has been worked out for one example subsequent problems can be handled quite quickly. hnd~f F1 is reasonably close to F.oo. A:#imilar method can be applied to the case when F has some points. at infinity. o -. . so that the domain within F can be regarded as being mapped . If a point P within F is to be mapped on to the point at infinity in the w-plane then F must map on to a finite section of the real axis of the w-plane.98 L. 4). where A lies on F (see fig. b u t not at infinity. a = 0. -t. Thus the domain within F maps on to the semi-infinite strip O < ~p<<_ oo. the contour resulting from the distribution 0~(9) will be undistinguishable from F for practical purposes. Each complete cycle about contours ~v = constant increases 9 b y 2a. -r 1. Therefore the boundary .C. Curves ~v = constant must enclose P.on to each of . w 4. In this case a separate Sl(9) function has to be derived for each section of F. Mapping a singly-connected domain onto a semi-infinite strip.

9) dOo(9). z~ (w . centre z = z0.. First consider a circle of radius R.v-~oo ~=g Using a well-known result for the hmit of the sum in this equation we arrive at a dr 1 [ c o t ~z d-w -.--z~J In sm ~ --5 1 r .THE SCHWARZ-CHRISTOFFEL MAPPING FORMULA 99 value 00(9) is periodic over -. the Cauchy Principal Value at infinity. (25) With nearly'circular domains we can set s/l = 9 / 2 a in order to commence the iterative process described in w 3. i.e. (24) which is the required generalization of equation (2)... If z0 is mapped on to w = co. i.' The~value of z~. b u t in most applications the semi-infinite strip in the w-plane is more convenient.(9 -.2--aJ 2--a. (cf. (25)). This equation is particularly useful for the mapping of nearly circular domains. 'The special form taken b y this equation when F is a polygon. the position of the point P which is mapped *) Note f r o m the equation preceding (12) t h a t t h e m e a n i n g to be given to 7 is -oo lira f R. which occur frequently in practical problems.w z~ . It is sometimes useful to map these domains on to unit circle in the ~-plane b y ~ e i~to/a. satisfies 0o(9) = -----0o(9 + 2a). and clearly equal to 2zc/2a = z~/a. and furthermore we can take advantage of the fact that 0'(9 ) . i. Substituting this value in (24) and evaluating the const. Using this condition in (13) we get *) a dr dw 1 lim g f d00(9) 9 + 2ha . R~oo .ants we arrive at r ~ in (iz~R/a) + in-w/a..w) d00(~).a _ _ %9 ~ a. --a (23) Integration now gives r = in K -./ ~ .~/a will be small over most of the range . so z = Zo + R e i ~ l a .co < 9 ' < co. and the integral degenerates to a sum is due to B i c k l e y 2).e.e. then b y s y m m e t r y 0'(9) will be constant.

then m a r the resulting region onto the rectangle . and the periodic nature of z(9 ) (cf. 0 _< W < h.a < 9--< a.w) d 9 which follows from Cauchy's integral for z(w) in the upper half plane. 5. we first make it singly-connected b y inserting a barrier AB. into a suitable canonical domain.solution to this problem can be derived b y the same technique as employed in w2 and w 4. is '~an analytic function of given imaginary parts 00 on ~v = 0 and S~ on ~v = h.. and refer the reader to a recent paper ( W o o d s ~)). and periodic in the 9-direction.. plane 0 a" A' ~' Fig. Converting . Doubly-connected regions. WOODS on to w = o% can be found from 1 a (26) z~-.~ a tb --a (9 -. Mapping a doubly-connected region onto a rectangle. z-plane B -A W- ]~.100 L. Equation (26) follows by taking the limit w --> oo in z(w).c. w5. which contains the required solution in a slightly different form.= ~ a Jz(9) dg. The . having a period o~f 2a. (23)).2ai l j z(9 ) c o t . b u t we shall omit the details. In this rectangle . --oo after the integro-differential equation implicit in (24) (derived as in'Xw3) is solved. 5. In order to map the region between two curves F and F'. such as shown in fig.

.a. require that. Printing Office. and G. F. L. A~-15 {1915) 439. l~ational Bureau of Standards.In K ---a a in #i ~ (~ -. as special cases.Cambfidge~ University Press.ts in the z. G. By a calculation similar to that given . Phil. N. h and one additional c0nstant of integrati0n..w) d0o(~) (27) --a where the notation employed for the theta functions is the same as in W h i t t a k e r and W a t s o n ' s text.. E. Trans. 1952.C). Proc. and our earlier generalizations of this formula. 3)" Leathern. Construction and Applications bf'Conformal' Maps. In general this will. Trans. 19"52. k e r . W a t s S n .27) contains the S--C mapping formula. 2) Bicl~ley. T. and these can b e solved b y t h e same type. W. Phil. When the exponential Of (27) is integra-ted to give a fortnula for z(w) there will be four unknown constants appearing in the equation. G. Roy. . C.TI-IE SCI-IWARZ-C~RIST0iv-IEEL I~IAPPZNG FORMUL~ :ItQ~l equation (65) of the author's earlier pa~er fo the present problem we have Q r ---. Received 18th-September. Equation (. . REFERENCES 1) B e c k e n b a c h ..C. Soc. 5) Woods. A 229 (1955) 63. of iterative process as that 0utlin'ed for the simpler "case.(q~). A 2 2 8 (1929) w w e c a n derive a pair of simultaneous integro-differential equations from (27)_for 00(~) and O'. 4) w h i t t a .. E.and w-planes must be specifie'd for a unique mapping. I. D.. namely k. Applied Maths Series "I'8'UiS. V~asl~ag~on 25. Gov. four CorresPonding l~6~ia. Moderxi An~ysis. 1957.