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A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as a medicine or medication, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance - or product comprising such

- intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.[1][2] The word pharmaceutical comes from the Greek word Pharmakeia. The modern transliteration of Pharmakeia is Pharmacia.

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1 Classification 2 Types of medications (type of pharmacotherapy) o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 2.1 For the gastrointestinal tract (digestive system) 2.2 For the cardiovascular system 2.3 For the central nervous system 2.4 For pain and consciousness (analgesic drugs) 2.5 For musculo-skeletal disorders 2.6 For the eye 2.7 For the ear, nose and oropharynx 2.8 For the respiratory system 2.9 For endocrine problems 2.10 For the reproductive system or urinary system 2.11 For contraception 2.12 For obstetrics and gynecology 2.13 For the skin 2.14 For infections and infestations 2.15 For the immune system 2.16 For allergic disorders 2.17 For nutrition 2.18 For neoplastic disorders 2.19 For diagnostics 2.20 For euthanasia

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3 Administration 4 Statistics 5 Legal considerations o 5.1 Prescription practice

antidopaminergics.  6 Development 7 Blockbuster drug o 7. The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines. bile acid sequestrants. opioid  [edit]For the cardiovascular system . mode or route of administration. Antimalarial drugs: treating malaria 4. Antipyretics: reducing fever (pyrexia/pyresis) 2. Analgesics: reducing pain (painkillers) 3. biological system affected. or therapeutic effects. antidiarrhoeals. prostaglandin analogues Lower digestive tract: laxatives.[3] such as by chemical properties.1 Leading blockbuster drugs   8 Environmental impact 9 History o o o 9. cytoprotectants. An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). Antibiotics: inhibiting germ growth 5.2 Medieval pharmacology 9. cuts and wounds [edit]Types [edit]For  of medications (type of pharmacotherapy) the gastrointestinal tract (digestive system) Upper digestive tract: antacids. antispasmodics. A sampling of classes of medicine includes: 1. Antiseptics: prevention of germ growth near burns. proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). antiflatulents. reflux suppressants.3 Modern pharmacology    10 See also 11 References 12 External links [edit]Classification Medications can be classified in various ways.1 Ancient pharmacology 9. H2-receptor antagonists.

heparin. polyenes Anti-inflammatory: NSAIDs. angiotensin receptor blockers. sulfa drugs. antiplatelet drugs. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. anaesthetics. lithium salts. diuretics. mydriatics. sympathomimetics. antiarrhythmics. General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"). [edit]For pain and consciousness (analgesic drugs) See also: Analgesic The main classes of painkillers are NSAIDs. cannabinoids. α blockers. and 5-HT (serotonin) antagonists. cycloplegics Antibacterial: antibiotics. dopamine antagonists. anticonvulsants/antiepileptics. nitrate. peripheral activators Affecting blood pressure (antihypertensive drugs): ACE inhibitors. calcium channel blockers Coagulation: anticoagulants. and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)). stimulants (including amphetamines). antidepressants (includin g tricyclic antidepressants. haemostatic drugs Atherosclerosis/cholesterol inhibitors: hypolipidaemic agents. [edit]For       the eye General: adrenergic neurone blocker. benzodiazepines.    [edit]For the central nervous system See also: Psychiatric medication and Psychoactive drug Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics. vasoconstrictors. anxiolytics. barbiturates. antihistamines. Other drugs such as anesthetic medication can also be used to reduce pain or numb a person's feeling to it. antiemetics. anticholinergics. vasodilators. antianginals. corticosteroids . fibrinolytics. statins. astringent. calcium channel blockers. anti-hemophilic factors. topical antibiotics. ocular lubricant Diagnostic: topical anesthetics.g. and anticholinesterases. opioids and various orphans such as paracetamol. aminoglycosides. parasympatholytics. antipsychotics.emetics. hypnotics. muscle relaxants. cholinergics.Parkinson's disease) drugs. cyclopyrrolones. fluoroquinolones Antiviral drug Anti-fungal: imidazoles. movement disorder (e. neuromuscular drugs. cardiac glycosides.. [edit]For musculo-skeletal disorders The main categories of drugs for musculoskeletal disorders are: NSAIDs (including COX-2 selective inhibitors).

exudate absorbents. tar products. selective alpha-1 blockers. vitamin A derivatives. dopamine agonists. progestogen. sunscreens. beta-blockers. Diethylstilbestrol [edit]For the skin emollients. proteolytics. vasopressin analogues [edit]For the reproductive system or urinary system antifungal. anticholinesterases. antibiotics. antifibrinolytics. thyroid hormones. prostaglandin agonists/prostaglandin inhibitors. mucolytics. antidiabetics (sulfonylureas. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/hyperosmotics. follicle stimulating hormone. anticholinergics. disinfectants. anticholinergics. local anesthetics. tamoxifen. vitamin D analogues. scabicides. cholinergics. cholinergics. gonadotropin. corticosteroids. clomiphene. antipruritics. antithyroid drugs. abrasives. gonadotropin release inhibitor. alkalising agents. antiseptics. bone regulators. NSAIDs. 5-alpha reductase inhibitor. fertility medications [edit]For    contraception Hormonal contraception Ormeloxifene Spermicide [edit]For obstetrics and gynecology NSAIDs. antiandrogens.luteinising hormone. fibrinolytics. human growth hormone. antitussives. systemic antibiotics. decongestants corticosteroids. anticholinergics. diphosponate. hormones. steroids. beta-receptor agonists. quinolones. gonadorelin. oestrogen. cerumenolyti [edit]For the respiratory system bronchodilators. prostaglandins. corticosteroids . Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). biguanides/metformin. antihistamines.topical antibiotics. insulin. desloughing agents. antifungals.  Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists. haemostatic drugs. NSAIDs. anticholinergics. steroids [edit]For endocrine problems androgens. parasympathomimetics. thiazolidinediones. antifungals. miotics. calcitonin. pediculicides. antispasmodi cs. anti-allergics.sildenafils. keratolytics. nitroglycerin [edit]For the ear. insulin) . nose and oropharynx sympathomimetics. antiperspirants. Beta2-adrenergic agonists. LHRH gamolenic acid.

and Other (which includes introducing medication through intranasal. immunoglobulins. [4] It can be performed in various dosage forms such as pills. therapeutic antibodies. Frequencies are often abbreviated from Latin. immunosuppressants. They can be administered all at once as a bolus. topical. anti-obesity drugs. tablets. There are three major categories of drug administration. and consequently medicines will not be licensed for this use in those countries. and rectal means). anabolic drugs. at frequent intervals or continuously. haematopoietic drugs. somatostatin inhibitors. antileprotics. erythropoietin [edit]For diagnostics euthanasia contrast media [edit]For See also: Barbiturate#Other non-therapeutical uses and barbituates An euthanaticum is used for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Euthanasia is not permitted by law in many countries. G-CSF. interferons. such as every 8 hours reading Q8H fromQuaque VIII Hora. inhalation. antituberculous drugs. aromatase inhibitors. electrolytes and mineral preparations (including iron preparations and magnesium preparations). There are many variations in the routes of administration. . [edit]Administration Administration is the delivery of a pharmaceutical drug to a patient. antifungals. vitamins. food product drugs [edit]For neoplastic disorders cytotoxic drugs. antiprotozoals [edit]For the immune system allergic disorders nutrition vaccines. or capsules. Parenteral(introducing the medication directly to the circulatory system). Parental nutritional supplements. amoebicides. antimalarials. antivirals. sex hormones. antihistamines. Enteral (taking medication orally).[edit]For infections and infestations antibiotics. monoclonal antibodies [edit]For anti-allergics. recombinant interleukins. NSAIDs [edit]For tonics. including intravenous (into the blood through a vein) and oral administration (through the mouth). anthelmintics.

and prescription only medicine(POM). The International Narcotics Control Board of the United Nations imposes a world law of prohibition of certain medications. which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The data from a statistical graph observed shows that the wholesale acquisition price of 7 prescription drugs are better sources. is implemented in some jurisdictions. not visible to the public. called Paclitaxel costs $695 on the gray market where as the wholesaler costs about $52. contraindication and lack of detail in dosage and administrations instructions. in certain situations. but errors can happen. They publish a lengthy list of chemicals and plants whose trade and consumption (where applicable) is forbidden. or may be part of efforts to ensure that disease treating drugs. Such programs may deal with the contingency of a lack of medication in the event of a serious epidemic of disease. For patented medications. BTMs do not require a prescription. and only be sold by a pharmacist or pharmacy technician. but must be kept in the dispensary. misprescription. are available to countries which cannot afford the drug owner's price. such as the United Kingdom have a third category of pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies. Reasons to not prescribe drugs such as interactions or side effects are called contraindications. by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. countries may have certain mandatory licensing programs which compel. In 2000 the definition of a prescription error .[edit]Statistics The "gray market" for cancer and other drugs has been started due to a short supply of pharmaceutical drugs. [edit]Prescription practice Drugs which are prescription only are regulated as such because they can impose adverse effects and should not be used unless necessary. Doctors may also prescribe prescription drugs for off-label use . medications may be divided into over-the-counter drugs (OTC) which may be available without special restrictions. [5] [edit]Legal considerations Depending upon the jurisdiction. such as AIDS drugs. The drug primarily used to treat breast cancer. Errors include overprescription and polypharmacy. A third category.purposes which the drugs were not originally approved for by the regulatory agency.78. Medical guidelines and clinical trialsrequired for approval are used to help inform doctors' prescription of these drugs.behind-the-counter medications (BTMs). The precise distinction between OTC and prescription depends on the legal jurisdiction. Many countries. The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals helps guide the referral process between pharmacists and doctors. a medication's owner to contract with other agents to manufacture the drug. OTC medications are sold without restriction as they are considered safe enough that most people will not hurt themselves accidentally by taking it as instructed.

a cholesterol-lowering medication marketed by Pfizer with sales of $12. [edit]Leading blockbuster drugs Trade name Indication Company Sales[10] ($billion/yea r)* Drug Atorvastatin Lipitor hypercholesterolem Pfizer ia 12. In 2009 there were a total of seven new blockbuster drugs. Beyond this purely arbitrary financial consideration. Drugs can be extracted from natural products (pharmacognosy) or synthesized through chemical processes. The top seller currently is Lipitor.5 . thus making it the first blockbuster drug. About 125 products are blockbusters. The drug's active ingredient will be combined with a "vehicle" such as a capsule.8 billion. Patients often take the medicines for long periods.[7] Cimetidine was the first drug ever to reach more than $1 billion a year in sales.[6] [edit]Development Main article: Drug development Drug development is the process by which a drug is created. the conference was motivated by ambiguity in the what a prescription error and a need to use a uniform definition in studies. most commonly. such as the influenza vaccine shortage in the United States."[9] The birth control pill Enovid was the first modern drug taken by those not ill for a highly prevalent chronic condition. a blockbuster drug is one that achieves acceptance by prescribing physicians as a therapeutic standard for. cream. Child-resistant packaging will likely be used in the ultimate package sold to the consumer.5 billion. or liquid which will be administered through a particular route of administration. [edit]Blockbuster drug A blockbuster drug is a drug generating more than $1 billion of revenue for its owner each year.[8] A report from URCH Publishing estimated that about one third of the pharma market by value is accounted for by blockbusters.was studied using a Delphi method conference. The focus on highly profitable drugs for chronic conditions and resulting de-emphasis of one-time acute treatment drugs has led to occasional shortages of antibiotics or vaccines. "In the pharmaceutical industry. a highly prevalent chronic (rather than acute) condition. with combined sales of $9.

4 Olanzapine * Zyprexa schizophrenia Eli Lilly 6.4 Quetiapine Seroquel bipolar disorder schizophrenia AstraZeneca 7.2 Sales are for the 12 months preceding June 30.3 Rosuvastatin Crestor hypercholesterolem AstraZeneca ia 7.2 Adalimumab Humira rheumatoid arthritis Abbott 6.7 e Esomeprazole Nexium acid reflux disease AstraZeneca 8.5 Infliximab Remicad Crohn's disease Johnson & e rheumatoid arthritis Johnson 6. 2011.1 Fluticasone/salmeter Seretide asthma ol GlaxoSmithKlin 8. [edit]Environmental impact .6 Etanercept Enbrel rheumatoid arthritis Amgen Pfizer 6.Drug Trade name Indication Company Sales[10] ($billion/yea r)* Clopidogrel Plavix atherosclerosis Bristol-Myers Squibb Sanofi 9.

although research is limited. Pharmaceuticals may also be deposited in the environment through improper disposal. the oldest known medical text of any kind. Once in the water they can have diverse. dates to about 1800 BC and represents the first documented use of any kind of medication. runoff from sludge fertilizer and reclaimed wastewater irrigation. This is close to the WHO definition of pharmacovigilance.[11] In 2009 an investigative report by Associated Press concluded that U. the science aiming to capture any adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in humans after use. while Ecopharmacology is concerned with the entry of chemicals or drugs into the environment through any route and at any concentration disturbing the balance of ecology (ecosystem). as a consequence. subtle effects on organisms. Ecopharmacology is a broad term that includes studies of “PPCPs” irrespective of doses and route of entry into environment. evaluation. It also found that an estimated 250 million pounds of pharmaceuticals and contaminated packaging were discarded by hospitals and long-term care facilities.S. It deals specifically with those pharmacological agents that have impact on the environment via elimination through living organisms subsequent to pharmacotherapy. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus. and are often filtered ineffectively by wastewater treatment plants which are not designed to manage them. and leaky sewage.Main article: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment Since the 1990s water contamination by pharmaceuticals has been an environmental issue of concern.[16] The term Environmental Persistent Pharmaceutical Pollutants (EPPP) was suggested in the 2010 nomination of pharmaceuticals and environment as an emerging issue toStrategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE). manufacturers had legally released 271 million pounds of drugs into the environment. [edit]History [edit]Ancient pharmacology Using plants and plant substances to treat all kinds of diseases and medical conditions is believed to date back to prehistoric medicine. understanding and prevention of adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment.[13][14][15] Ecopharmacovigilance is the science and activities associated with the detection.[17][18] It . It could not distinguish between drugs released by manufacturers as opposed to the pharmaceutical industry. 92% of which was the antiseptics phenol and hydrogen peroxide.[12] Pharmacoenvironmentology is a branch of pharmacology and a form of pharmacovigilance which deals entry of chemicals or drugs into the environment after elimination from humans and animals post-therapy.[11] Most pharmaceuticals are deposited in the environment through human consumption and excretion.

responsible for introducing and promoting important surgical advances including basic antiseptic practice and the use of anaesthetics. The Second World War saw the introduction of widespread and effective antimicrobial therapy with the development and mass production of penicillin antibiotics. analysis and separation of minerals. . pharmacy. Dakin's solution. such as using honey to treat infections. (1205–1296). Medicinal creams and pills were employed as treatments. It describes plant-based medications to counter diseases. In the inter-war period. and preparation of alkalis. and ancient Greek physicians imported medications from Egypt and elsewhere.[22] [edit]Medieval pharmacology Al-Kindi's 9th century AD book. Medieval medicine saw advances in surgery. The Hippocratic Oath for physicians. a germicide which helped prevent gangrene. a sacred text of Hinduism whose core dates from the 2nd millennium BC. Theodoric Borgognoni. horticulture. compounding of metals. but few truly effective drugs existed.[20] The earliest foundations of ayurveda were built on a synthesis of selected ancient herbal practices.and other medical papyri describe Ancient Egyptian medical practices. Folklore cures and potentially poisonous metal-based compounds were popular treatments. cooking. leading Oliver Wendell Holmes. attributed to 5th century BC Greece. Sr. refers to the existence of "deadly drugs". sugar manufacture. together with a massive addition of theoretical conceptualizations. Alexis Carrel and Henry Dakin developed the Carrel-Dakin method of treating wounds with an irrigation. the Atharvaveda. metallurgy.[19] On the Indian subcontinent. beyond opium and quinine. is the first Indic text dealing with medicine. operative skills. to famously comment in 1842 that "if all medicines in the world were thrown into the sea. [edit]Modern pharmacology For most of the 19th century. Ancient Babylonian medicine demonstrate the use of prescriptions in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC.[21] The student of Āyurveda was expected to know ten arts that were indispensable in the preparation and application of his medicines: distillation. it would be all the better for mankind and all the worse for the fishes".[23]:21 During the First World War. although the hymns recorded in it are believed to be older. one of the most significant surgeons of the medieval period. drugs were not highly effective. new nosologies and new therapies dating from about 400 BC onwards. De Gradibus and Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s The Canon of Medicine cover a range of drugs known to Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. Garcia de Orta described some herbal treatments that were used. the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed.

S. including pharmaceutical development. a few biological vaccines. Increasingly.[23]:23-24 As of 2008. U. Drugs increasingly became "the center of medical practice".[24] In the 1950s new psychiatric drugs.S. notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine. were designed in laboratories and slowly came into preferred use.[23] Recently.S. state required or encouraged the substitution of generic drugs for higher-priced brand names. Although often accepted as an advance in some ways. and typical antipsychotics for psychosis. Throughout the 1990s outcomes were similar . firms from the second-largest market. developed three. Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the drugs when not subject to psychiatric control. rauwolfia alkloids as tranqulizers and antihypertensives. developed eight. and insulin for diabetes. which imposes price controls. codeine. As more drugs became prescribed for chronic illnesses. and by the 1970s nearly every U. Japan. and the United Kingdom contributed 10. France. the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration.made possible by the pressures of the war and the collaboration of British scientists with the American pharmaceutical industry. In 1962 a subsequent amendment required new drugs to be tested for efficacy and safety in clinical trials. however. multi-disciplinary approaches have yielded a wealth of new data on the development of novel antibiotics and antibacterials and on the use of biological agents for antibacterial therapy. costs became burdensome. Medicare Part D. In the 1930s antibiotics emerged: first sulfa drugs. nitroglycerin.S.. Drug. and Cosmetic Act required manufacturers to file new drugs with the FDA. then penicillin and other antibiotics.[23]:22 In the 1950s other drugs emerged including corticosteroids for inflammation. Governments have been heavily involved in the regulation of drug development and drug sales. xanthines for asthma. and quinine for heart disorders. there was some opposition. Other drugs included antitoxins. digitalis. antihistamines for nasal allergies. due to serious adverse effects such as tardive dyskinesia.S. thousands of approved drugs have beendeveloped.[23]:24-26 Until the 1970s. and drug innovation is correspondingly high. biotechnology is used to discover biopharmaceuticals. and the 1938 Federal Food. In the U. The 1951 Humphrey-Durham Amendment required certain drugs to be sold by prescription. law. This also led to the 2006 U. based firms developed 29 of the 75 top-selling drugs. In 2000 U. drug prices were not a major concern for doctors and patients. and morphine for pain. and a few synthetic drugs. drug prices are among the highest in the world. which offers Medicare coverage for drugs.[23]:28-29 As of 2008. Medicines commonly used by the late 1920s included aspirin. the United States is the leader in medical research.