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Toughness

Definition: The ability of a metal to rapidly distribute within itself both the stress and strain caused by a suddenly applied load, or more simply expressed, the ability of a material to withstand shock loading. It is the exact opposite of "brittleness" which carries the implication of sudden failure. A brittle material has little resistance to failure once the elastic limit has been reached.

Hardness

Definition: The hardness of steel is generally determined by testing its resistance to deformation. A number of methods are employed including Brinell, Vickers and Rockwell. The steel to be tested is indented by a hardened steel ball or diamond under a given load and the size of the impression is then measured. For steel there is an empirical relationship between hardness and tensile strength and the hardness number is often used as a guide to the tensile strength, e.g. 229 Brinell = 772N/mm2 (50 tons/sq.in).

Hardenability

Definition: The property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness when steel is heated to a given temperature and then quenched (more precisely it may be defined as an inverse measure of the severity of cooling conditions necessary to produce on continuous cooling a martensitic structure in a previously austenitized steel i.e. to avoid transformations in the pearlitic and bainitic ranges). The lower the cooling rate to avoid these transformations, the greater the hardenability. The critical cooling rate is largely a function of the composition of the steel. In general the higher the carbon content, the greater the hardenability, whilst alloying elements such as nickel, chromium, manganese and molybdenum increase the depth of hardening for a given ruling section.

Ductility
Definition: The property of metal which permits it to be reduced in cross sectional area without fracture. In a tensile test, ductile metals show considerable elongation eventually failing by necking, with consequent rapid increase in local stresses.

Age-Hardening
Definition: A process of aging that increases hardness and strength and usually decreases ductility.

Aluminum Killed Steel

Definition: Steel deoxidized with aluminum in order to reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.

Austempering
Definition: temperature temperature intermediate

Quenching from a temperature above the transformation range to a above the upper limit of martensite formation, and holding at this until the austenite is completely transformed to the desired structure, for the purpose of conferring certain mechanical properties.

Boron Steels Definition: The addition of boron in the range 0.0. For steels with a hardness over 500 BHN the Vickers test is more reliable. A standard specimen is bent through a specified arc and in the case of strip. pressing. Bainite Definition: An acicular aggregate of ferrite and carbide particles formed when austenite is transformed on cooling at temperatures in the intermediate (200-450oC) range. brittle and crystalline. Steel which has cooled slowly from a high temperature contains ferrite and pearlite in relative proportions varying with the chemical composition of the steel. drawing.Austenitic Steels Definition: Steels containing high percentages of certain alloying elements such as manganese and nickel which are austenitic at room temperature and cannot be hardened by normal heat-treatment but do work harden. Cold Working Definition: Altering the shape or size of a metal by plastic deformation. . of hard steel or tungsten carbide. Hardness and tensile strength are increased with the degree of cold work whilst ductility and impact values are lowered. spinning. A range of boron steels is now listed in the current BS 970 and are widely used for the production of cold headed fastenings. They are also nonmagnetic. Bend Test Definition: Bending tests are carried out to ensure that a metal has sufficient ductility to stand bending without fracturing. Typical examples of austenitic steels include the 18/8 stainless steels and 14% manganese steel. Pearlite is a lamellar structure of ferrite and cementite. extruding and heading. Cupping Definition: The fracture of severely worked rods or wire where one end has the appearance of a cup and the other that of a cone. Processes include rolling. The cold rolling and cold drawing of steel significantly improves surface finish. involves impressing a ball 10 mm diameter. the direction of grain flow is noted and whether the bend is with or across the grain. above the martensite and below the pearlite range.e. with a loading of 3000 kilogrammes into the steel surface. Brinell Hardness Test Definition: The Brinell hardness test for steel. It is hard. Cementite Definition: An iron carbide (Fe3C) constituent of steel.005% to certain steels increases the hardenability. it is carried out below the recrystallisation point usually at room temperature.0005. i. The hardness of the steel is then determined by measurement of the indentation.

Grain orientated steels have preferential magnetic properties in the direction of rolling and non. A eutectoid steel contains approximately 0. Electrical Steels Definition: Steels which are characterised by their magnetic properties and are intended for the manufacture of electrical circuits. The melting is activated by resistive heat generated in a conductive slag. Electroslag Refining Definition: A specialised steel making process in which a rolled or a cast ingot in the form of an electrode is remelted in a water cooled copper mould. Eutectic Definition: A mixture of two or more constituents which solidify simultaneously out of the liquid at a minimum freezing point.Charpy Test Definition: A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen usually notched. It has a face centred cubic lattice and is nonmagnetic. The resulting product has a similar basic chemical composition to the original ingot. by differential attack. but is characterised by high purity and low inclusion content. Eutectoid Definition: A mixture of two or more constituents which forms on cooling from a solid solution and transforms on heating at a constant minimum temperature.83% carbon. reveals the structure. Ferritic Steel Definition: A term usually applied to a group of stainless steels with a chromium content in the range of 12. The energy absorbed. as determined by the subsequent rise of the pendulum. Gamma Iron Definition: The allotropic form of iron existing between the temperature 910oC and 1400oC is known as Gamma Iron. is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. .grain orientated steels have similar magnetic properties both transversely and in the direction of rolling. Such steels possess good ductility and are easily worked but do not respond to any hardening or tempering processes. They are supplied in the form of cold rolled sheet or strip. generally less than 2mm thick and up to 1500mm wide.18o and whose structure consists largely of ferrite. Typical applications include high integrity components for the aerospace industry. Types of applications include automotive trim and architectural cladding. Gamma iron containing carbon or other elements in solution is known as austenite. Etching Definition: Treatment of a prepared metal surface with acid or other chemical reagent which. is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum.

Although subsequent hot and cold working affect the grain size. it is possible by examination to determine the extent to which the transformation of the austenite has occurred. whereas coarse grained steels have better machinability. Certain deterioration. German Silver Definition: German silver has a color resembling silver. If a small piece of steel is heated sufficiently slowly for it to become austenitic and then plunged into a salt bath and held at a constant temperature below the upper critical point for a definite time followed by rapid quenching. such as season cracking and caustic embrittlement. . occur almost exclusively at grain boundaries. particularly for martempering and austempering. Grain Size Control Definition: When a steel is austenitised by heating to above the critical range. Isothermal Transformation Curve Definition: Also known as the Time Temperature Transformation Curve. nickel and zinc.Gauge Length Definition: Used in the mechanical testing of steel. When alloys yield new phases (as in cooling). The number is derived from the formula N=2n-1 where n is the number of grains per square inch at a magnification of 100 diameters. For service at ordinary temperatures it is generally considered that fine grained steels give a bettercombination of strength and toughness. Coarse 1-5 and fine 5-8. Excessive grain growth can cause Orange Peel during drawing. grain boundaries are the preferred location for the appearance of the new phase. Grain size has an important effect on physical properties. time is required for the production of a homogeneous structure during which there is a tendency towards grain growth. it is originally controlled at the steel making stage by the addition of aluminum. Grain Boundary Definition: Bounding surface between crystals. Grain Growth Definition: The enlarging or coarsening of the individual grains within the metal or alloy during heating at a temperature above the recrystalization temperature. but is an alloy of primarily copper. it is the length marked on the parallel portion of a tensile test piece from which the elongation is measured. The information obtained can be plotted as timetemperature transformation curves which is useful in heat treatment practice. By taking a number of specimens of the same steel and treating them in the same way. but varying the holding temperature and time the behaviour of the steel with time and temperature can be studied. Grain Size Measurement Definition: Grain size is normally quantified by a numbering system.

When the specimen is cold. A standard test piece 25mm x 100mm is heated to a predetermined temperature and quenched by a jet of water sprayed onto one end. BS 970 contains hardenability curves for many of the steels in the Standard. Killed Steel Definition: The term indicates that the steel has been completely deoxidised by the addition of an agent such as silicon or aluminium.Izod Impact Test Definition: A test specimen. this test will illustrate the effect of mass upon a chosen steel when heat treated and indicate if the steel is of a shallow. Knoop Hardness Test Definition: A micro hardness test in which an elongated pyramidical diamond is pressed into the surface. When the pendulum of the Izod testing machine is released it swings with a downward movement and when it reaches the vertical the hammer makes contact with the specimen which is broken by the force of the blow. Machinability Definition: Simply defined as a measure of the ease with which a metal can be machined satisfactorily. Jominy Test Definition: A method for determining the hardenability of steel. medium or deep hardening type. hardness measurements are made at intervals along the test piece from the quenched end and the results are plotted on a standard chart from which is derived the hardenability curve. A graduated scale enables a reading to be taken of the energy used to fracture the test piece. The load may be applied slowly or suddenly and will determine whether the material will be suitable for forging or rolling into thin sheet. to be broken by a swinging or falling weight. The hammer continues its upward motion but the energy absorbed in breaking the test piece reduces its momentum. Killed steels are characterised by a high degree of chemical homogeneity and freedom from porosity. To obtain a representative result the average of three tests is used and to ensure that the results conform to those of the steel specification the test specimens should meet the standard dimensions laid down in BS 131. before casting. Properly carried out. Malleability Definition: It can be defined as the property of a metal to be deformed by compression without cracking or rupturing. so that there is practically no evolution of gas during solidification. usually of square crossed section is notched and held between a pair of jaws. The Jominy test is covered by BS 4437:1987. .

e. The test simulating a deep drawing operation is made by a standard steel ball under pressure. held at temperature to allow a full soak and cooled in still air. Because of the manner in which the product is processed at Ulbrich. This prevents cracking and minimises distortion. Ulbrich does not have the capability to passivate. Notched Bar Test Definition: A test to determine the resistance of a material to a suddenly applied stress.lbs. Passivation Definition: Immersion of stainless steel in a solution of nitric acid. continuing until the cup formed from the metal sample fractures. Readings are in thousandths of an inch. The advantage of martempering is the reduction of thermal stresses compared to normal quenching. The treatment also dissolves any embedded or smeared iron picked up on the surface during processing. similar to the Erichsen ductility test. Orange Peel Effect Definition: An effect that arises on the surface of steel sheets when they are stretched beyond their elastic limit. or of nitric acid plus oxidizing salts. Soaking must be long enough to avoid the formation of bainite. refining the grain size and improving the mechanical properties. which restores the original corrosion resistant surface by forming a thin transparent oxide film.Martempering Definition: A heat treatment involving austenitisation followed by step quenching. This test is sometimes used to detect stretcher straining and indicates the surface finish after drawing. pearlite or bainite to a temperature slightly above the Ms point. The steel is heated to 800-900oC according to analysis. . or Joules. shock. passivation is not considered necessary. A notched test piece is employed in an Izod or Charpy machine and the results are recorded in ft. Martensite Definition: The hard constituent produced when steel is cooled from the hardening temperature at a speed greater than its critical cooling rate. Normalising Definition: A heat treatment process that has the object of relieving internal stresses. Martensite is an acicular phase when seen in the microstructure of steel. at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite. i. Olsen (Ductility) Test Definition: A method of measuring the ductility and drawing properties of strip or sheet metal which involves determination of the width and depth of impression.

Precipitation Hardening Definition: Hardening in metals caused by the precipitation of a constituent from a supersaturated solid solution. This produces a tough structure and is responsible for the mechanical properties of unhardened steel.Pearlite Definition: A lamellar constituent of steel consisting of alternate layers of ferrite (alpha-iron) and cementite (iron Carbide Fe3C) and is formed on cooling austenite at 723oC. 317.e. 434) help improve pitting resistance. Pitting Definition: Sharp depressions in the surface of the metal generally attributed to localized chemical attack by a corrosive media. Peening Definition: Mechanical working of metal by hammer blows or shot impingement. molybdenum additions (i. In stainless steels. types 316. .