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1. What do u meant by "SBI" of an object? ANS: SBI stands for State, Behavior and Identity. Since every object has the above three.  State: It is just a value to the attribute of an object at a particular time.  Behavior: It describes the actions and their reactions of that object.  Identity: An object has an identity that characterizes its own existence. The identity makes it possible to distinguish any object in an unambiguous way, and independently from its state. 2. Differentiate persistent & non-persistent objects? ANS: Persistent refers to an object's ability to transcend time or space. A persistent object stores/saves its state in a permanent storage system without losing the information represented by the object. A non-persistent object is said to be transient or ephemeral. By default objects are considered as non-persistent. 3. What do you meant by active and passive objects? ANS: Active objects are one which instigates an interaction which owns a thread and they are responsible for handling control to other objects. In simple words it can be referred as client. Passive objects are one, which passively waits for the message to be processed. It waits for another object that requires its services. In simple words it can be referred as server. 4. What is meant by software development method? ANS: Software development method describes how to model and build software systems in a reliable and reproducible way. To put it simple, methods that are used to represent ones' thinking using graphical notations.
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5. What are models and meta models? ANS: Model: It is a complete description of something (i.e. system). Meta model: It describes the model elements, syntax and semantics of the notation that allows their manipulation. 6. What do you meant by static and dynamic modeling? ANS: Static modeling is used to specify structure of the objects that exist in the problem domain. These are expressed using class, object and USECASE diagrams. But Dynamic modeling refers representing the object interactions during runtime. It is represented by sequence, activity, collaboration and statechart diagrams. 7. Why generalization is very strong? ANS: Even though Generalization satisfies Structural, Interface, Behavior properties. It is mathematically very strong, as it is Transitive and Antisymmetric. Antisymmetric: employee is a person, but not all persons are employees. Mathematically all As’ are B, but all Bs’ not A. Transitive: A = > B, B = >c then A = >c. A. Salesman. B. Employee. C. Person. Note: All the other relationships satisfy all the properties like Structural properties, Interface properties, Behavior properties. 8. Differentiate Aggregation and containment? ANS: Aggregation is the relationship between the whole and a part. We can add/subtract some properties in the part (slave) side. It won't affect the whole part. Best example is Car, which contains the wheels and some extra parts. Even though the parts are not there we can call it as car. But, in the case of containment the whole part is affected when the part within that got affected. The human body is an apt example for this relationship. When the whole body dies the parts (heart etc.) are died. 9. Can link and Association applied interchangeably?
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ANS: No, We cannot apply the link and Association interchangeably. Since link is used represent the relationship between the two objects. But Association is used represent the relationship between the two classes. link :: student: Abhilash Association:: student 10. What is meant by "method-wars"? course: MCA course

ANS: Before 1994 there were different methodologies like Rumbaugh, Booch, Jacobson and Meyer etc. who followed their own notations to model the systems. The developers were in a dilemma to choose the method which best accomplishes their needs. This particular span was called as "method-wars". 11. Whether unified method and unified modeling language are same or different? ANS: Unified method is convergence of the Rumbaugh and Booch. Unified modeling lang. is the fusion of Rumbaugh, Booch and Jacobson as well as Bertrand Meyer (whose contribution is "sequence diagram"). Its' the superset of all the methodologies. 12. Who were the three famous amigos and what was their contribution to the object community? ANS: The Three amigos namely, James Rumbaugh (OMT): A veteran in analysis who came up with an idea about the objects and their Relationships (in particular Associations). Grady Booch: A veteran in design who came up with an idea about partitioning of systems into subsystems. Ivar Jacobson (Objectory): The father of USECASES, who described about the user and system interaction. 13. Why does the function arguments are called as "signatures"?
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ANS: The arguments distinguish functions with the same name (functional polymorphism). The name alone does not necessarily identify a unique function. However, the name and its arguments (signatures) will uniquely identify a function. In real life we see suppose, in class there are two guys with same name, but they can be easily identified by their signatures. The same concept is applied here. ex: class person { public: char getsex(); void setsex(char); void setsex(int); }; In the above example we see that there is a function setsex () with same name but with different signature. 14. What is ID selector? ANS: ID selector is an individually identified (named) selector to which a specific style is declared. Using the ID attribute the declared style can then be associated with one and only one HTML element per document as to differentiate it from all other elements. ID selectors are created by a character # followed by the selector's name. The name can contain characters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code; however, they cannot start with a dash or a digit. #abc123 {color: red; background: black} <P ID=abc123>This and only this element can be identified as abc123 </P>
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15. What is contextual selector? ANS: Contextual selector is a selector that addresses specific occurrence of an element. It is a string of individual selectors separated by white space, a search pattern, where only the last element in the pattern is addressed providing it matches the specified context. TD P CODE {color: red} The element CODE will be displayed in red but only if it occurs in the context of the element P which must occur in the context of the element TD. TD P CODE, H1 EM {color: red} The element CODE will be displayed in red as described above AND the element EM will also be red but only if it occurs in the context of H1 P .footnote {color: red} Any element with CLASS footnote will be red but only if it occurs in the context of P P .footnote [lang]{color: red} Any element with attribute LANG will be red but only if it is classed as "footnote" and occurs in the context of P. 16. What does \ABCD (and \ABCDE) mean? ANS: CSS allows Unicode characters to be entered by number. For example, if a CLASS value in some Russian document contains Cyrillic letters EL PE (Unicode numbers 041B and 041F) and you want to write a style rule for that class, you can put that letter into the style sheet by writing: .\041B\041F {font-style: italic;} This works on all keyboards, so you don't need a Cyrillic keyboard to write CLASS names in Russian or another language that uses that script. The digits and letters after the backslash (\) are a hexadecimal number. Hexadecimal numbers are made from ordinary digits and the letters A to F (or a to f). Unicode numbers consist of four such digits. If the number starts with a 0, you may omit it. The above could also be
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written as: .\41B\41F {font-style: italic;} But be careful if the next letter after the three digits is also a digit or a letter a to f! This is OK: .\41B-\41F, since the dash (-) cannot be mistaken for a hexadecimal digit, but .\41B9\41F is only two letters, not three. Four digits is the maximum, however, so if you write: .\041B9\041F {font-style: italic;} 17. How do I have a background image that isn't tiled? ANS: Specify the background-repeat property as no-repeat. You can also use the background property as a shortcut for specifying multiple background-* properties at once. Here's an example: BODY {background: #FFF url (watermark.jpg) no-repeat;} 18. Why do style sheets exist? ANS: SGML (of which HTML is a derivative) was meant to be a deviceindependent method for conveying a document's structural and semantic content (its meaning.) It was never meant to convey physical formatting information. HTML has crossed this line and now contains many elements and attributes which specify visual style and formatting information. One of the main reasons for style sheets is to stop the creation of new HTML physical formatting constructs and once again separate style information from document content. 19. What is inline style? How to link? ANS: Inline style is the style attached to one specific element. The style is specified directly in the start tag as a value of the STYLE attribute and will apply exclusively to this specific element occurrence. <P STYLE="text-indent: 10pt">Indented paragraph</P>
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20. What are the advantages/disadvantages of the various style methods? ANS: External Style Sheets Advantages: * Can control styles for multiple documents at once * Classes can be created for use on multiple HTML element types in many documents * Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts Disadvantages: * An extra download is required to import style information for each document * The rendering of the document may be delayed until the external style sheet is loaded * Becomes slightly unwieldy for small quantities of style definitions Embedded Style Sheets Advantages: * Classes can be created for use on multiple tag types in the document * Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts * No additional downloads necessary to receive style information Disadvantages: * This method cannot control styles for multiple documents at once Inline Styles Advantages: * Useful for small quantities of style definitions * Can override other style specification methods at the local level so only exceptions need to be listed in conjunction with other style methods Disadvantages: * Does not distance style information from content (a main goal of
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SGML/HTML) * Cannot control styles for multiple documents at once * Author cannot create or control classes of elements to control multiple element types within the document * Selector grouping methods cannot be used to create complex element addressing scenarios. 21. How Virtual functions call up is maintained? ANS: Through Look up tables added by the compile to every class image. This also leads to performance penalty. 22. What is imported Style Sheet? How to link? ANS: Imported Style Sheet is a sheet that can be imported to (combined with) another sheet. This allows creating one main sheet containing declarations that apply to the whole site and partial sheets containing declarations that apply to specific elements (or documents) that may require additional styling. By importing partial sheets to the main sheet a number of sources can be combined into one. To import a style sheet or style sheets include the @import notation or notations in the STYLE element. The @import notations must come before any other declaration. If more than one sheet is imported they will cascade in order they are imported - the last imported sheet will override the next last; the next last will override the second last, and so on. If the imported style is in conflict with the rules declared in the main sheet then it will be overridden. <LINK REL=STYLESHEET HREF="main.css" TYPE="text/css"> <STYLE TYPE="text=css"> <!-@import url(http://www.and.so.on.partial1.css); @import url(http://www.and.so.on.partial2.css); .... other statements --> </STYLE>
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23. What is a Style Sheet? ANS: Style sheets are the way that standards-compliant Web designers define the layout, look-and-feel, and design of their pages. They are called Cascading Style Sheets or CSS. With style sheets, a designer can define many aspects of a Web page: * fonts * colors * layout * positioning * imagery * accessibility Style sheets give you a lot of power to define how your pages will look. And another great thing about them is that style sheets make it really easy to update your pages when you want to make a new design. Simply load in a new style sheet onto your pages and you're done. 24. What is alternate Style Sheet? How to link? ANS: Alternate Style Sheet is a sheet defining an alternate style to be used in place of style(s) declared as persistent and/or preferred. Persistent style is a default style that applies when style sheets are enabled but can disabled in favor of an alternate style, e.g.: <LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="style.css" TYPE="text/css"> Preferred style is a default style that applies automatically and is declared by setting the TITLE attribute to the LINK element. There can only be one preferred style, e.g.: <LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="style2.css" TYPE="text/css" TITLE="appropriate style description"> Alternate style gives a user the choice of selecting an alternative style a very convenient way of specifying a media dependent style. Note: Each group of alternate styles must have unique TITLE, e.g.: <LINK REL="Alternate Stylesheet" HREF="style3.css" TYPE="text/css" TITLE="appropriate style description" MEDIA=screen>
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<LINK REL="Alternate Stylesheet" HREF="style4.css" TYPE="text/css" TITLE="appropriate style description" MEDIA=print> Alternate stylesheet are not yet supported. 25. How can you set a minimum width for IE? ANS: To set a minimum width, the CSS property is 'min-width'. This can be very useful and works well in good browsers. IE doesn't understand 'min-width'. However, it has a proprietary property called 'expression' which allows us to feed it javascript via a stylesheet. Below is how to set a (780px) minimum width for IE... <!--[if gte IE 5]><style type="text/css"> body { width:expression (documentElement.clientWidth < 780 ? (documentElement.clientWidth == 0? (body.clientWidth < 780 ? "780px" : "auto") : "780px") : "auto" ); } </style> <![endif]--> As the property is non-standard, it won't validate with the W3C validator, so if we put it in the head like this (above) - in an IE conditional comment - the validator will ignore it and the page will get a clean bill of health. 26. How do I place text over an image? ANS: To place text or image over an image you use the position property. The below example is supported by IE 4.0. All you have to do is adapt the units to your need. <div style="position: relative; width: 200px; height: 100px"> <div style="position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 200px"> <image></div> <div style="position: absolute; top: 20%; left: 20%; width: 200px"> Text that nicely wraps </div></div>
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27. Which browsers support CSS? ANS: It depends on your definition of "support." If you are interested in those browsers which makes some attempt at supporting CSS, no matter how partial or bug-ridden, then the list is: * Internet Explorer 3.0 and above * Navigator 4.0 and above * Opera 3.6 and above * Konqueror * Arena * Emacs-w3 * Amaya * Lexicon * XPublish by Media Design in.Progress If instead you're interested in those browsers which are known to do a credible job of bug-free and mostly completed support for CSS1, then the list narrows somewhat dramatically: * Internet Explorer 5.0 for Macintosh and above * Internet Explorer 5.5 for Windows and above * Netscape Navigator 6.0 and above * Opera 4.0 and above While none of these browsers can be claimed to have a perfect implementation of CSS1, they are all quite good and can be relied upon to operate in a consistent fashion for most of CSS1. 28. How do I combine multiple sheets into one? ANS: To combine multiple/partial style sheets into one set the TITLE attribute taking one and the same value to the LINK element. The combined style will apply as a preferred style, e.g.: <LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="default.css" TITLE="combined"> <LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="fonts.css" TITLE="combined"> <LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="tables.css" TITLE="combined">
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29. What is attribute selector? ANS: Attribute selector is a selector defined by 1) the attribute set to element(s), 2) the attribute and value(s), 3) the attribute and value parts: 1a) A[title] {text-decoration: underline} All A elements containing the TITLE attribute will be underlined 1b) A[class=name] {text-decoration: underline} The A elements classed as 'name' will be underlined 2) A[title="attribute element"] {text-decoration: underline} The A elements containing the TITLE attribute with a value that is an exact match of the specified value, which in this example is 'attribute element', will be underlined 3) A[title~="attribute"] {text-decoration: underline} The A elements containing the TITLE attribute with a value containing the specified word, which in this example is 'attribute', will be underlined. 30. What is parent-child selector? ANS: Parent-child selector is a selector representing the direct descendent of a parent element. Parent-child selectors are created by listing two or more tilde (~) separated selectors. BODY ~ P {background: red; color: white} The P element will be declared the specified style only if it directly descends from the BODY element: <BODY><P>Red and white paragraph </P></BODY> BODY ~ P ~ EM {background: red; color: white} The EM element will be declared the specified style only if it directly descends from the P element which in its turn directly descends from the BODY element: <<P><EM>Red and white EM </EM></P></BODY> 31. Which set of definitions, HTML attributes or CSS properties, take precedence?
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ANS: CSS properties take precedence over HTML attributes. If both are specified, HTML attributes will be displayed in browsers without CSS support but won't have any effect in browsers with CSS support. 32. How do we eliminate the blue border around linked images? ANS: In our CSS, you can specify the border property for linked images: a img { border: none ; } However, note that removing the border that indicates an image is a link makes it harder for users to distinguish quickly and easily which images on a web page are clickable. 33. Why calls the subtended angle a "pixel", instead of something else (e.g. "subangle")? ANS: In most cases, a CSS pixel will be equal to a device pixel. But, as you point out, the definition of a CSS pixel will sometimes be different. For example, on a laser printer, one CSS pixel can be equal to 3x3 device pixels to avoid printing illegibly small text and images. I don't recall anyone ever proposing another name for it. Subangle? Personally, I think most people would prefer the pragmatic "px" to the non-intuitive "sa". 34. Why was the decision made to make padding apply outside of the width of a 'box', rather than inside, which would seem to make more sense? ANS: It makes sense in some situations, but not in others. For example, when a child element is set to width: 100%, I don't think it should cover the padding of its parent. The box-sizing property in CSS3 addresses this issue. Ideally, the issue should have been addressed earlier, though. 35. How to use CSS to separate content and design? ANS: The idea here is that all sites contain two major parts, the content: all our articles, text and photos and the design: rounded corners, colors and effects. Usually those two are made in different parts of a webpage’s lifetime. The design is determined at the beginning and then
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we start filling it with content and keep the design fixed. In CSS we just add the nifty <link>-tag we’ve told you about to the head of your HTML document and we have created a link to our design. In the HTML document we put content only, and that link of ours makes sure it looks right. We can also use the exact same link on many of your pages; giving them all of them the same design. We want to add content? Just write a plain HTML document and think about marking things up like “header” instead of “big blue header” and use CSS to make all headers look the way you want! 36. Can CSS be used with other than HTML documents? ANS: Yes. CSS can be used with any NY structured document format. E.g. XML, however, the method of linking CSS with other document types has not been decided yet. 37. How do I design for backward compatibility using Style Sheets? ANS: Existing HTML style methods (such as <font SIZE> and <b>) may be easily combined with style sheet specification methods. Browsers that do not understand style sheets will use the older HTML formatting methods, and style sheets specifications can control the appearance of these elements in browsers that support CSS1. 38. Why use Style Sheets? ANS: Style sheets allow a much greater degree of layout and display control than has ever been possible thus far in HTML. The amount of format coding necessary to control display characteristics can be greatly reduced through the use of external style sheets which can be used by a group of documents. Also, multiple style sheets can be integrated from different sources to form a cohesive tapestry of styles for a document. Style sheets are also backward compatible - They can be mixed with HTML styling elements and attributes so that older browsers can view content as intended.
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39. What is CSS rule 'at-rule'? ANS: There are two types of CSS rules: ruleset and at-rule. At-rule is a rule that applies to the whole style sheet and not to a specific selector only (like in ruleset). They all begin with the @ symbol followed by a keyword made up of letters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, dashes and escaped characters, e.g. @import or @font-face. 40. What is selector? ANS: CSS selector is equivalent of HTML element(s). It is a string identifying to which element(s) the corresponding declaration(s) will apply and as such the link between the HTML document and the style sheet. For example in P {text-indent: 10pt} the selector is P and is called type selector as it matches all instances of this element type in the document. In P, UL {text-indent: 10pt} the selector is P and UL (see grouping); in .class {text-indent: 10pt} the selector is .class (see class selector).

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