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Correction to the simply supported results of G Singh et al presented in their 1990 Journal of Sound and Vibration paper.

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**Discussion on ‘‘Nonlinear vibration of simply supported rectangular
**

cross-ply plates’’ by Gajbir Singh, K. Kanaka Raju, G. Venkateswara Rao

and N.G.R. Iyengar [Journal of Sound and Vibration 142 (1990)

213–226]

Adrian G. Radu

n

Mechatronics Department, ‘‘Politehnica’’ University of Timisoara, Blv. Mihai Viteazul Nr. 1, 300222 Timisoara, Romania

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 16 June 2010

Received in revised form

3 September 2010

Accepted 20 December 2010

Handling Editor: M.P. Cartmell

Available online 22 January 2011

1. Analysis

Large amplitude free vibration of cross-ply simply supported thin plates under von Ka´ rma´ n strain-displacement

hypothesis and classical laminated plate theory (CLPT) assumption, are investigated by Singh et al. [1] using direct

numerical integration (ﬁve-point Gauss rule) on the nonlinear to linear frequency-ratio expression. The strain and kinetic

energy, denoted U and T, respectively, of the rectangular plate of length a and width b with the xy coordinate plane passing

through the mid-plane, are expressed in Ref. [1] as follows:

U ¼

1

2

_

a

0

_

b

0

ðA

1,1

e

2

1

þ2A

1,2

e

1

e

2

þA

2,2

e

2

2

þA

6,6

e

2

6

þ2B

1,1

e

1

k

1

þ2B

2,2

e

2

k

2

þD

1,1

k

2

1

þ2D

1,2

k

1

k

2

þD

2,2

k

2

2

þD

6,6

k

2

6

Þdxdy

T ¼

1

2

_

a

0

_

b

0

N

r

k

t

k

_ _

_ w

2

dxdy (1)

In Eq. (1), r

k

and t

k

are the density and thickness of lamina number k, respectively (k=1,y,N, N being the total number of

plies), w represents the out of plane displacement, e

i

and k

i

are the von Ka´ rma´ n strains, and A

ij

, B

ij

, and D

ij

, represent the in-

plane, in-plane bending coupling and bending stiffness coefﬁcients of the plate (i, j =1, 2 and 6).

The nonlinear free vibration response of the plate is obtained in Ref. [1] according to Refs. [2,3] by considering two sets

of harmonic solutions (Eqs. (8) and (9) in Ref. [1]), one for each set boundary conditions taken into account simply

supported with unmovable edges (Eq. (10) in Ref. [1]) and simply supported (Eq. (11) in Ref. [1]).

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jsvi

Journal of Sound and Vibration

0022-460X/$ - see front matter & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2010.12.018

n

Tel.:+40256403560; fax:+40256403523.

E-mail address: raduag@mec.upt.ro

Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 2682–2689

The equation of motion is obtained by Singh et al. [1] from the Lagrangian (L=U–T) as follows:

N

r

k

t

k

_ _

€ wþawþbw

2

þgw

3

¼0 (2)

and by equating the strain and potential energy expressed in Eq. (1) that yields

N

r

k

t

k

_ _

_

w

2

þaw

2

þ

2

3

bw

3

þ

1

2

gw

4

¼H (3)

where H is a constant. In Eqs. (2) and (3), the coefﬁcients of the polynomial expressions are obtained by Singh et al. [1] as

follows:

a ¼T

8

þ

2T

1

T

2

T

5

ÀT

3

T

2

5

ÀT

2

1

T

6

T

3

T

6

ÀT

2

2

; b ¼T

9

þ3

T

2

T

4

T

5

þT

1

T

2

T

7

ÀT

3

T

5

T

7

ÀT

1

T

4

T

6

T

3

T

6

ÀT

2

2

g ¼T

10

þ2

2T

2

T

4

T

7

ÀT

3

T

2

7

ÀT

4

T

2

6

T

3

T

6

ÀT

2

2

(4)

where the T

k

coefﬁcients (k=1,y,10) are expressed in terms of the stiffness coefﬁcients A

ij

, B

ij

, and D

ij

, for each of the two

boundary conditions taken into account. In particular, the expression of T

8

given in Ref. [1] for the simply supported

boundary condition

T

8

¼

mp

a

_ _

4

D

1,1

þ2 ðD

1,2

þ2D

6,6

Þ

mp

a

_ _

2

np

b

_ _

2

þ

np

b

_ _

4

D

2,2

_ _

(5)

has drawn attention through the presence of the multiplication factor two in front of the square brackets that in fact

doubles the D

2,2

term. The coefﬁcients in the T

8

expression (Eq. (5)) result from the corresponding terms in the strain

energy expression (Eq. (1)), i.e. from the terms containing the bending stiffness coefﬁcients D

i,j

(i,j =1,2, and 6). The

assumed harmonic solution for the out of plane displacement in Ref. [1] is a double sine

wðx,y,tÞ ¼WðtÞsin

mp

a

x

_ _

sin

np

b

y

_ _

(6)

where m and n represent the number of half sine waves in the x- and y-directions, respectively, and W(t) is the time

dependent amplitude. The von Ka´ rma´ n expression, Eq. (1) in Ref. [1], for the squared rotation about the y-axis that

multiplies the D

2,2

coefﬁcient in the strain energy expression (Eq. (1)) is obtained using Eq. (6) as follows:

k

2

2

¼ À

@

2

w

@y

2

_ _

2

¼WðtÞ

2

np

b

_ _

4

sin

mp

a

x

_ _

sin

np

b

y

_ _ _ _

2

(7)

Within the considered boundary conditions, no other term in the strain energy expression can contribute with another

fourth power of the np/b term to multiply the D

2,2

coefﬁcient and therefore this term should not be multiplied by two in

the expression of T

8

(Eq. (5)). The correct form of the T

8

is

T

8

¼

mp

a

_ _

4

D

1,1

þ2 D

1,2

þ2D

6,6

_ _

mp

a

_ _

2

np

b

_ _

2

þ

np

b

_ _

4

D

2,2

(8)

In fact, for the simply supported with unmovable edges boundary condition (all translations ﬁxed on all edges), Singh et al.

obtain [1] the correct form of T

8

.

Considering a harmonic solution, w¼w

0

cosðotÞ, at maximum free response amplitude (w=w

0

), where w

0

is the mid-

plane displacement of the plate and where

_

w ¼0, Eqs. (2) and (3) yield the nonlinear to linear frequency ratio (o

NL

/o

L

) in

the form of quadratic polynomials in Eqs. (16) and (17), respectively [1]. The perturbation solution of Chandra and Raju

[4,5] and of Chandra [6] is also examined in Eq. (17) in Ref. [1]. Next, Singh et al. propose a direct numerical integration

procedure that leads to the expression in Eq. (22) of Ref. [1] for the nonlinear to linear frequency ratio as a ratio of two

improper integrals [7] that are solved by numerical integration using a ﬁve-point Gauss rule. For convenience, this

expression is reproduced below

o

NL

o

L

_ _

2

¼

_

wmax

0

dw=

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ðH

L

Àaw

2

Þ=ð

N

r

k

t

k

Þ

_

_

wmax

0

dw=

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ðH

NL

Àaw

2

Àð2=3Þbw

3

Àð1=2Þgw

4

Þ=

N

r

k

t

k

_ (9)

In Eq. (9), H

L

and H

NL

represent the constant term of Eq. (3) obtained for linear and nonlinear vibrations, respectively.

The linear natural frequency is obtained in Eq. (23) of Ref. [1] as a function of a (Eq. (4)) in which the incorrect T

8

term

has a major contribution. In this respect it must be noted that Jones [3] obtains analytical expressions for the linear natural

frequency of simply supported plates and in fact recovers the correct form of T

8

under a different notation (T

33

for anti-

symmetric cross-ply). Singh et al. [1] compute the linear frequency parameter denoted l

L

using the linear natural

frequency (o

L

) obtained in Eq. (23).

Initially suspecting a typing error in the published T

8

expression in Ref. [1], the linear frequency parameter, l

L

,

presented in Tables 5–10 [1] for the simply supported boundary case is veriﬁed. The results match the published results

A.G. Radu / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 2682–2689 2683

and are in concordance with those obtained using the expressions presented by Jones [3]. The nonlinear to linear

frequency ratios published in Tables 5–10 in Ref. [1] for simply supported symmetric and anti-symmetric four ply

composite plates are veriﬁed using a recent version of MathCAD

s

that has the capability of solving the so called ‘‘improper

integrals’’ [7] of the type obtained in Eq. (9). Two MathCAD built in integration methods are used: ‘‘Adaptive’’ that uses an

adaptive quadrature method, and ‘‘Singular endpoint’’ that uses an open-ended Romberg method, appropriate for integrals

which do not exist at one or both limits of integration [8]. Both methods yield the same result. All computations are

performed using the default 10

–3

‘‘zero tolerance’’ in MathCAD; occasionally a 10

–6

‘‘zero tolerance’’ was tested leading to

the conclusion that MathCAD numerical integration is robust.

For data presented in Tables 5–7 in Ref. [1] the following properties of the lamina are considered: E

1

=206.84Â10

9

,

E

2

=5.171Â10

9

, G

12

=2.5855Â10

9

Pa, n

12

=0.25 and r=2564.856 kg/m

3

. For data presented in Tables 8–10 in Ref. [1] the

following properties of the lamina are considered: E

1

=4.905Â10

10

, E

2

=4.905Â10

9

, G

12

=2.4525Â10

9

Pa, n

12

=0.25 and

r=1500 kg/m

3

. Composite cross-ply square plates of side a=b=0.3048 (m) and four plies of equal thickness

(t

k

=0.001016 m, k=1,y,4) are examined ﬁrst for each material (Tables 5 and 8 in Ref. [1]). Next, rectangular plates with

the aspect ratio (a/b) of two (Tables 6 and 9 in Ref. [1]) and four (Tables 7 and 10 in Ref. [1]) are considered. The length to

thickness ratio (a/h) of the plate of 75, 150 and 300, respectively, places the analysis within the Kirchhoff hypothesis of the

CLPT. The nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) are computed for both, the ﬁrst (m=n=1) and second (m=2, n=1)

mode of the composite plates for various values of the deformation to plate thickness ratio (w/h). The obtained results are

presented in Tables 1–6 together with the corresponding results obtained by Singh et al. [1] in Tables 5–10, respectively.

The linear frequency parameters (l

L

) for the ﬁrst two modes as well as the relative errors of the published [1] nonlinear to

linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

), taking current results as reference, are also presented in Tables 1–6.

Tables 1–6 show signiﬁcant differences in the ﬁrst mode results for all studied cases; the relative error increases with

deformation to plate thickness ratio (w/h) reaching over 12% for the rectangular plates (a/b=4) with symmetric ply

arrangements. It must be noted that the nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) values published in Tables 1–6 in

Ref. [1] were not obtained even when considering the incorrect form of the T

8

coefﬁcient (Eq. (6)).

Given the observed differences, veriﬁcation of current procedure as well as of the numerical integration scheme

become imperative. This check is done for the clamped boundary condition studied by Sigh et al., i.e. using the published

expressions of the T

1

–T

10

from Ref. [1] and confronted with those in Ref. [9]. First, the two-ply square plate, under clamped

boundary condition, used as a test case by Singh et al. in Table 4 is examined. Material properties are those used in Ref. [2]

and backtracked to Ref. [10] as: E

1

=4.873Â10

10

, E

2

=2.467Â10

10

, G

12

=9.715Â10

9

Pa, n

12

=0.25 and r=1564 kg/m

3

. The

same dimensions are considered for the square plate (a/b=1) in Tables 1 and 4. The solution procedures presented in

Eqs. (16)–(18) and (22) [1] are used and the obtained results are presented in Table 7 together with those presented in Table 4

of Ref. [1]. The relative error taking the present results as reference, are also presented in Table 8. As seen in Table 8, the

nonlinear to linear frequency ratios obtained from simple polynomial expressions obtained by Singh et al. in Eqs. (15)–(17)

[1] yield a relative error that is less than 0.5% for maximum displacement to thickness ratio (w/h). The relative errors in

Table 8 for Eq. (9) results are slightly higher but still under 2%. However, the linear frequency parameter value, l

L

=2.2022,

reported in Table 4 of Ref. [1] is not obtained; the computed value of the linear frequency parameter is l

L

=2.2968.

Table 1

Nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) of a square (a/b=1) cross-ply plate; E

1

/E

2

=40; G

12

/E

2

=0.5; n

12

=0.25 (a/h=75).

w/h o

NL

/o

L

[0/90/0/90] [0/90/90/0]

n=1 Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%) Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%)

Table 5 Eq. (9) Table 5 Eq. (9)

m=1 l

L

=6.0425 l

L

=6.6004

0.25 1.0634 1.0840 –1.90 1.0535 1.0709 –1.63

0.50 1.2388 1.3010 –4.78 1.2038 1.2575 –4.27

0.75 1.4832 1.5952 –7.02 1.4172 1.5156 –6.49

1.00 1.7679 1.9315 –8.47 1.6691 1.8145 –8.01

1.50 2.4000 2.6663 –9.99 2.2355 2.4750 –9.68

2.00 3.0729 3.4401 –10.67 2.8439 3.1758 –10.45

m=2 l

L

=17.3056 l

L

=24.0576

0.25 1.0820 1.0779 0.39 1.0435 1.0463 –0.27

0.50 1.3025 1.2963 0.48 1.1678 1.7130 –0.44

0.75 1.6010 1.5962 0.30 1.3480 1.3561 –0.60

1.00 1.9416 1.9400 0.08 1.5643 1.5755 –0.71

1.50 2.6850 2.6916 –0.24 2.0584 2.0761 –0.85

2.00 3.4666 3.4827 –0.46 2.5955 2.6195 –0.91

A.G. Radu / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 2682–2689 2684

Next, the results presented in Table 11 of Ref. [1] for a rectangular six layered cross-ply composite plate are computed and

compared with the published results [1]. The material properties are the same as those used in Tables 8–10. The obtained

results for the nonlinear to linear frequency ratio (o

NL

/o

L

) for various displacement to thickness ratio (w/h) as well as the

relative error taking the present results as Ref. are presented in Table 9 for a rectangular plate (a/b=2). The obtained maximum

error is 1.07%.

Some other minor inconsistencies have been observed in Ref. [1] and are listed below. The b coefﬁcient in the

denominator expression in Eq. (21b) should be 2/3 (and obviously not 3/3) as it results from Eq. (17) and as is correctly

given in Eq. (22) alias current Eq. (9). Also Ref. [14] in [1] was published by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation and not by

McGraw-Hill.

Table 2

Nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) of a rectangular (a/b=2) cross-ply plate; E

1

/E

2

=40; G

12

/E

2

=0.5; n

12

=0.25 (a/h=150).

w/h o

NL

/o

L

[0/90/0/90] [0/90/90/0]

n=1 Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%) Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%)

Table 6 Eq. (9) Table 6 Eq. (9)

m=1 l

L

=4.3264 l

L

=2.9509

0.25 1.0645 1.0274 3.62 1.1327 1.1773 –3.79

0.50 1.2427 1.2107 2.65 1.4674 1.5884 –7.62

0.75 1.4905 1.4903 0.02 1.8946 2.0978 –9.69

1.00 1.7787 1.8221 –2.38 2.3652 2.6501 –10.75

1.50 2.4178 2.5604 –5.57 3.3634 3.8088 –11.69

2.00 3.0976 3.3435 –7.36 4.3949 4.9981 –12.07

m=2 l

L

=6.0425 l

L

=6.6004

0.25 1.0795 1.0848 –0.49 1.0672 1.0716 –0.41

0.50 1.2942 1.3036 –0.72 1.2519 1.2598 –0.63

0.75 1.5857 1.6000 –0.89 1.5077 1.5198 –0.80

1.00 1.9193 1.9386 –0.99 1.8042 1.8208 –0.91

1.50 2.6486 2.6778 –1.09 2.4600 2.4852 –1.02

2.00 3.4166 3.4557 –1.13 3.1561 3.1901 –1.07

Table 3

Nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) of a rectangular (a/b=4) cross-ply plate; E

1

/E

2

=40; G

12

/E

2

=0.5; n

12

=0.25 (a/h=300).

w/h o

NL

/o

L

[0/90/0/90] [0/90/90/0]

n=1 Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%) Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%)

Table 7 Eq. (9) Table 7 Eq. (9)

m=1 l

L

=4.1552 l

L

=2.4855

0.25 1.0653 1.0199 4.45 1.1707 1.2332 –5.07

0.50 1.2454 1.2013 3.67 1.5838 1.7422 –9.09

0.75 1.4956 1.4826 0.88 2.0951 2.3540 –10.10

1.00 1.7863 1.8178 –1.73 2.6489 3.0072 –11.91

1.50 2.4303 2.5644 –5.23 3.8099 4.3637 –12.69

2.00 3.1148 3.3566 –7.20 5.0011 5.7478 –12.99

m=2 l

L

=4.3264 l

L

=2.9510

0.25 1.0820 1.0970 –1.37 1.1669 1.1791 –1.03

0.50 1.3025 1.3279 –1.91 1.5727 1.5933 –1.30

0.75 1.6010 1.6347 –2.06 2.0761 2.1063 –1.43

1.00 1.9416 1.9823 –2.05 2.6222 2.6620 –1.49

1.50 2.6849 2.7375 –1.92 3.7681 3.8274 –1.55

2.00 3.4666 3.5302 –1.80 4.9444 5.0233 –1.57

A.G. Radu / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 2682–2689 2685

Since its publication, Ref. [1] has accumulated at least 26 citations [11–36]. In Ref. [11] the direct integration method

presented by Singh et al. [1] is used for solving the dynamic ﬁnite element equation of uniform ﬁxed, hinged and ﬁxed–

hinged beams. Pulngern et al. [12] use the direct numerical integration method (DNIM) presented in Ref. [1] to validate

analytical and experimental free vibration of simply supported spring steel beams. Refs. [13–15] present improved

integration methods for the nonlinear to linear frequency ratio (o

NL

/o

L

) of simply supported and clamped isotropic and

(0/90)

3

cross-ply rectangular plates. The ﬁxed boundary condition results in [1] are used for validation; no comparison

with the published results in question for the simply supported boundary condition. Refs. [16–26] cite Ref. [1] without any

use of the DNIM or comparison with speciﬁc results. Refs. [27,28] use the simply supported isotropic square plate results of

Singh et al. for validation. Moorthy et al. [29] add damping to the equation of motion obtained in [1] to study the resulting

chaos behavior of the (0/90)

3

cross-ply rectangular plate under ﬁxed boundary condition. Refs. [30–36] use the clamped

square isotropic plate results from Table 3 and/or [0/90] cross-ply plate results from Table 4 of Singh et al. in fact only the

results of Eq. (16) (and not Eq. (22)) in Ref. [1], for validation. After examining all 26 citations, it can be concluded that the

questioned numerical results of Singh et al. [1] have been accidentally or maybe deliberately avoided in all citing papers.

Table 4

Nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) of a rectangular (a/b=1) cross-ply plate; E

1

/E

2

=10; G

12

/E

2

=0.5; n

12

=0.25 (a/h=75).

w/h o

NL

/o

L

[0/90/0/90] [0/90/90/0]

n=1 Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%) Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%)

Table 8 Eq. (9) Table 8 Eq. (9)

m=1 l

L

=3.4809 l

L

=3.6841

0.25 1.0556 1.0702 –1.36 1.0498 1.0629 –1.24

0.50 1.2113 1.2552 –3.49 1.1907 1.2306 –3.24

0.75 1.4315 1.5112 –5.27 1.3922 1.4654 –4.99

1.00 1.6906 1.8080 –6.49 1.6314 1.7400 –6.24

1.50 2.2715 2.4642 –7.82 2.1722 2.3520 –7.64

2.00 2.8941 3.1609 –8.44 2.7553 3.0052 –8.32

m=2 l

L

=9.5926 l

L

=12.4517

0.25 1.0729 1.0704 0.23 1.0441 1.0470 –0.27

0.50 1.2718 1.2681 0.29 1.1701 1.1754 –0.45

0.75 1.5446 1.5426 0.13 1.3524 1.3607 –0.61

1.00 1.8589 1.8599 –0.05 1.5711 1.5826 –0.73

1.50 2.5499 2.5586 –0.34 2.0699 2.0880 –0.87

2.00 3.2804 3.2978 –0.53 2.6118 2.6363 –0.93

Table 5

Nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) of a rectangular (a/b=2) cross-ply plate; E

1

/E

2

=10; G

12

/E

2

=0.5; n

12

=0.25 (a/h=150).

w/h o

NL

/o

L

[0/90/0/90] [0/90/90/0]

n=1 Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%) Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%)

Table 9 Eq. (9) Table 9 Eq. (9)

m=1 l

L

=2.3982 l

L

=1.8227

0.25 1.0588 1.0324 2.56 1.0986 1.1331 –3.05

0.50 1.2222 1.2026 1.63 1.3579 1.4502 –6.37

0.75 1.4516 1.4604 –0.60 1.7013 1.8585 –8.46

1.00 1.7204 1.7675 –2.66 2.0877 2.3104 –9.64

1.50 2.3206 2.4544 –5.45 2.9210 3.2728 –10.75

2.00 2.9620 3.1865 –7.05 3.7908 4.2696 –11.21

m=2 l

L

=3.4809 l

L

=3.6841

0.25 1.0663 1.0707 –0.41 1.0595 1.0634 –0.37

0.50 1.2489 1.2570 –0.64 1.2250 1.2322 –0.59

0.75 1.5022 1.5145 –0.81 1.4573 1.4685 –0.76

1.00 1.7961 1.8129 –0.92 1.7293 1.7446 –0.88

1.50 2.4466 2.4723 –1.04 2.3360 2.3595 –1.00

2.00 3.1375 3.1722 –1.09 2.9840 3.0157 –1.05

A.G. Radu / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 2682–2689 2686

Table 6

Nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) of a rectangular (a/b=4) cross-ply plate; E

1

/E

2

=10; G

12

/E

2

=0.5; n

12

=0.25 (a/h=300).

w/h o

NL

/o

L

[0/90/0/90] [0/90/90/0]

n=1 Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%) Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%)

Table 10 Eq. (9) Table 10 Eq. (9)

m=1 l

L

=2.2385 l

L

=1.5263

0.25 1.0613 1.0280 3.24 1.1259 1.1696 –3.74

0.50 1.2310 1.2046 2.19 1.4458 1.5700 –7.91

0.75 1.4683 1.4744 –0.41 1.8572 2.0648 –10.06

1.00 1.7455 1.7954 –2.78 2.3117 2.6028 –11.18

1.50 2.3624 2.5118 –5.95 3.2788 3.7337 –12.18

2.00 3.0204 3.2733 –7.72 4.2796 4.8958 –12.59

m=2 l

L

=2.3982 l

L

=1.8227

0.25 1.0729 1.0851 –1.13 1.1224 1.1343 –1.05

0.50 1.2718 1.2928 –1.62 1.4346 1.4539 –1.32

0.75 1.5446 1.5729 –1.80 1.8373 1.8649 –1.48

1.00 1.8589 1.8935 –1.82 2.2834 2.3195 –1.56

1.50 2.5498 2.5954 –1.76 3.2337 3.2872 –1.63

2.00 3.2804 3.3359 –1.67 4.2182 4.2893 –1.66

Table 7

Nonlinear to linear frequency ratios (o

NL

/o

L

) for square (a/b=1) cross-ply [0/90] clamped plate (a/h=150); ﬁberglass reinforced plastic [2].

w/h o

NL

/o

L

m=1 Ref. [1] Current results Ref. [1] Current results Ref. [1] Current results Ref [1] Current results

n=1 Eq. (16) Eq. (17) Eq. (18) Eq. (22)

0.3 1.0674 1.0681 1.0343 1.0346 1.0510 1.0515 1.0480 1.0513

0.6 1.2481 1.2503 1.1309 1.1321 1.1909 1.1927 1.1827 1.1905

0.9 1.5016 1.5058 1.2757 1.2781 1.3932 1.3966 1.3762 1.3896

1.2 1.7974 1.8036 1.4544 1.4582 1.6350 1.6400 1.6069 1.6263

1.5 2.1179 2.1261 1.6561 1.6614 1.9011 1.9079 1.8610 1.8866

1.8 2.4534 2.4636 1.8734 1.8801 2.1827 2.1913 2.1304 2.1620

2.1 2.7985 2.8106 2.1014 2.1095 2.4746 2.4849 2.4099 2.4475

2.4 3.1501 3.1642 2.3370 2.3465 2.7735 2.7855 2.6965 2.7400

2.7 3.5062 3.5222 2.5781 2.5890 3.0773 3.0910 2.9882 3.0376

3.0 3.8655 3.8834 2.8233 2.8356 3.3848 3.4001 3.2836 3.3389

Table 8

Relative error between Ref. [1] and current results of Table 7.

w/h Relative error (%)

m=1 Current results vs. Ref. [1]

n=1 Eq. (16) Eq. (17) Eq. (18) Eq. (22)

0.3 –0.06 –0.03 –0.05 –0.31

0.6 –0.18 –0.11 –0.15 –0.66

0.9 –0.28 –0.19 –0.24 –0.97

1.2 –0.34 –0.26 –0.31 –1.20

1.5 –0.39 –0.32 –0.36 –1.36

1.8 –0.41 –0.35 –0.39 –1.46

2.1 –0.43 –0.38 –0.42 –1.54

2.4 –0.45 –0.40 –0.43 –1.59

2.7 –0.45 –0.42 –0.44 –1.63

3.0 –0.46 –0.43 –0.45 –1.67

A.G. Radu / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 2682–2689 2687

2. Conclusion

Large amplitude vibration of simply supported rectangular cross-ply plates paper of Singh et al. [1] is re-visited. One of

the presented coefﬁcients for simply supported boundary conditions, namely T

8

, is found to be erroneously determined.

The observed error inﬂuences the nonlinear to linear frequency ratio results for the ﬁrst mode of the simply supported

cross-ply symmetric and anti-symmetric square and rectangular plates. The present computations are performed using

MathCAD to solve the obtained improper integrals. However, the published results were not recovered even when

considering the erroneous expression for T

8

and therefore the numerical integration scheme has been validated for the

current numerical development for the simply supported boundary condition case with unmovable edges. For these cases

the results are found to be close to the published results in [1]. Although the source of the erroneous ﬁrst mode results of

the simply supported plates published in [1] could not be identiﬁed exactly, and cannot be identiﬁed without access to the

original computer code, the fact that these results could not be recovered under the stated material and geometrical

parameters is undoubtedly demonstrated.

References

[1] G. Singh, K.K. Raju, G.V. Rao, N.G.R. Iyengar, Non-linear vibration of simply supported rectangular cross-ply plates, Journal of Sound and Vibration 142

(1990) 213–226.

[2] I.S. Raju, G. Venkateswara Rao, K. Kanaka Raju, Effect of longitudinal or in-plane deformation and inertia on the large amplitude ﬂexural vibrations of

slender beams and thin plates, Journal of Sound and Vibration 49 (1976) 415–422.

[3] R.M. Jones, Mechanics of Composite Materials, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1975.

[4] R. Chandra, B.B. Raju, Large amplitude ﬂexural vibration of cross-ply laminated composite plates, Fibre Science and Technology 8 (1975) 243–264.

[5] R. Chandra, B.B. Raju, Large deﬂection vibration of angle ply laminated plates, Journal of Sound and Vibration 40 (1975) 393–408.

[6] R. Chandra, Large deﬂection vibration of cross-ply laminated plates with certain edge conditions, Journal of Sound and Vibration 47 (1976) 509–514.

[7] H. Jefereys, B.S. Jefereys, Methods of Mathematical Physics, second ed, Cambridge University Press, London, 1950.

[8] MathCAD User’s Guide 2000 MathCAD Professional MathCAD 2000 Standard, MathSoft, Inc., Cambridge, MA, 1999.

[9] G. Singh, K.K. Raju, N.G.R. Iyengar, Large amplitude free vibration of simply supported antisymmetric cross-ply plates, AIAA Journal 29 (1991)

784–790.

[10] B.W. Rosen, N.F. Dow, Z. Hashin, Mechanical properties of ﬁbrous composites, NASA CR-31 Technical Report, 1964.

[11] G. Singh, G. Venkateswara Rao, N.G.R. Iyengar, Re-investigation of large-amplitude free vibrations of beams using ﬁnite elements, Journal of Sound

and Vibration 143 (1990) 351–355.

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[19] O. Barton Jr., R. Reiss, Vibration of antisymmetric laminated plates using eigensensitivity analysis, Computers and Structures 64 (1997) 425–439.

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Composite Materials 8 (1999) 295–313.

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induced strain actuators, Journal of Sound and Vibration 301 (2007) 846–863.

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Table 9

Result comparison for frequency ratio (o

NL

/o

L

) variation with amplitude for a six-layered anti-symmetric cross-ply rectangular (a/b=2) plate; E

1

/E

2

=10;

G

12

/E

2

=0.5; n

12

=0.25 (a/h=150).

w/h o

NL

/o

L

m=1 Ref. [1] Current results Relative error (%)

n=1 Table 11

À2 2.8099 2.8371 –0.96

À1.5 2.2479 2.2683 –0.90

À1 1.7201 1.7327 –0.73

À0.5 1.2672 1.2722 –0.40

0.5 1.0785 1.0817 –0.30

1 1.4412 1.4523 –0.76

1.5 1.931 1.9501 –0.98

2 2.4744 2.5012 –1.07

A.G. Radu / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 2682–2689 2688

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Vibration 220 (1999) 695–727.

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[29] R.I.K. Moorthy, A. Kakodkar, H.R. Srirangarajan, Chaotic response of a composite plate, Computers & Structures 57 (1995) 699–701.

[30] C.-S. Chen, W.-S. Cheng, R.-D. Chien, J.-L. Doong, Large amplitude vibration of an initially stressed cross ply laminated plates, Applied Acoustics 63

(2002) 939–956.

[31] C.-S. Chen, C.-P. Fung, Non-linear vibration of initially stressed hybrid composite plates, Journal of Sound and Vibration 274 (2004) 1013–1029.

[32] C.-S. Chen, Large amplitude vibration of initially stressed orthotropic plates, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 24 (2005) 1073–1083.

[33] C.-S. Chen, C.-P. Fung, R.-D. Chien, Nonlinear vibration of orthotropic plates with initial stresses on a two-parameter elastic foundation, Journal of

Reinforced Plastics and Composites 25 (2006) 283–301.

[34] R.-D. Chien, C.-S. Chen, Nonlinear vibration of laminated plates on an elastic foundation, Thin-Walled Structures 44 (2006) 852–860.

[35] C.-S. Chen, C.-P. Fung, R.-D. Chien, Nonlinear vibration of an initially stressed laminated plate according to a higher-order theory, Composite

Structures 77 (2007) 521–532.

[36] C.-S. Chen, A.-H. Tan, R.-D. Chien, Non-linear oscillations of orthotropic plates on a non-linear elastic foundation, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and

Composites 28 (2009) 851–867.

A.G. Radu / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 2682–2689 2689

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