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# MODULE 9

Introduction The problems in which the body possesses an axis of symmetry and the boundary conditions and other parameters of the problem are symmetric with respect to this axis are called as axisymmetric problems. The cylindrical coordinate system is found to be convenient for analyzing such problems. In this coordinate system, the primary and secondary variables (or their components if they happen to be vectors and tensors) become independent of , in axisymmetric problems. Therefore, the domain of analysis, in axisymmetric problems, becomes just a r - z plane. Thus, axisymmetric problems are two-dimensional problems, in some sense but not completely. Further, if primary variable is a vector, its becomes zero in axisymmetric problems. Because of this, and the fact -component

that r and z components are independent of , some of the components of the secondary variable (which happens to be a tensor in this case) become zero. Thus, the size of the problem reduces. This lecture describes the integral formulation of a typical axisymmetric problem. Its finite element formulation would be similar to 2-D problems, and hence, will not be discussed. Model Boundary Value Problem

Figure 26.1 Domain and Boundary of a Model Boundary Value Problem To illustrate the development of integral formulations of axisymmetric problems, we consider the axisymmetric steady-state heat conduction problem. The domain and its boundary are shown in Fig. 26.1. The thermal conductivity of the domain material is k and Q is the heat generated at point problems, k and Q are independent of temperature per unit volume per unit time. In axisymmetric . A part of the boundary, denoted by , is held at a

which can vary with the boundary coordinate s . The remaining part of the

The boundary condition 26. as defined in Lecture 20.) : D.3c) Here is the divergence operator.3a) (26.2a) (26. (26.E) and boundary conditions (B. receives the heat flux which also can vary with the boundary coordinate s . The heat flux q . when is substituted in the left hand side of eq. it . Instead. the above problem can be expressed in vector notation : (26.3b) (26.3a). For axisymmetric problems.2c) The differential equation 26.C.2(b) is called as the Temperature of Dirichlet boundary condition where as the boundary condition 26.E. Weak or Weighted Residual Formulation Consider a function . Temperature T ( r . As stated in Lecture 20.2(a) represents the heat balance of small element of the domain. the expression for q becomes : (26. In general.: B. z ) at point ( r .3b) and (26. is the gradient of temperature T and is the unit outward normal to the boundary.1) Here. denoted by .: (i) (ii) (26.1). since the temperature T is independent of . this function will not satisfy the differential equation (26. and are independent of . Using the definition of the divergence operator and eq. z ) of the domain is governed by the following boundary value problem consisting of the differential equation (D. is the heat flow (normal to the area) per unit area per unit time. (26. ) are the components of T while are the components of .3c).C. defined over the domain.3a). which satisfies both the boundary conditions (26. In cylindrical coordinates.boundary. q is considered positive if the heat is flowing out of the domain and vice-versa.2b) (26.2(c) is called as the Heat Flux or Neumann boundary condition.

7). On the boundary where present problem.3c). the left side of eq. 3. however can be expressed as an integral over using the property of the axisymmetric problems that all the variables are independent of . f and g are functions of ( x . we minimize the above residue by setting the integral of the product of R and a weight function to zero : (26.7) and the divergence theorem.5) is over the entire volume V of the body and not over the domain of the analysis shown in Fig 26. this class consists of the functions which satisfy the following conditions : 1. For the present problem. Thus. 20. Thus. For 3-D . the divergence theorem (eq. w must be unconstrained.w is unconstrained on .will lead to the following error called as the residue and denoted by : (26. The integral (26. z ) must belong to a class of admissible functions. Thus.7). w = 0 on .5). Note that. (26. w must be zero.6) becomes : (26. (26.3a. it is a 3-D integral and not 2-D integral. Setting and g = w and using the identity (20. the integration in eq. But. is specified.5) as : (26. (26.7) In Lecture 20. in the 2. 26.4) To make the function an approximate solution of the problem (26.6) To relax the smoothness requirements on the choice of the approximation function . that will be done later.5) Here. we use the vector identity (20. On the boundary where T is specified. We now take them to be the functions of . The function w should be smooth enough for the integral of the weighted residue to be finite. We rewrite eq. we chose the weight function w to be independent to . 26.1.8) has been stated for 2-D problems. The weight function w ( r. in the present problem. This is a major difference between the finite element formulations of the axisymmetric and 2-D problems. y ). In the identity (20.3b.

its statement is as follows. Since and the surface .9) can be expressed in terms of the heat flux q .7) becomes : (26. we get (26.12) follows from the property that k .problems. T and w are independent of . using the properly that Q is independent of eq. (26.10) and transposing the surface integral to the other side. Thus. Setting and using the divergence theorem (26. we express the volume integrals of eq. For a vector-valued function h.11) as the integrals over integral of eq. (26. the second volume integral of (26. the boundary integral on the right side of eq.11) can be written as : . (26.8) to convert the first right side integral to a surface integral. the volume integral of can be converted to the (boundary) surface integral using the following relation : (26.11) can be expressed as : .12) The second step in eq. we get (26.11) Next.1). (26. eq. (26.11) as the integral over (26. (26. the first integral of eq (26. (26. Similarly.8) where S is the boundary surface of the volume V and is the unit outward normal to S .9) Using eq.10) Combing equations (26.13) .6) and (26.

For all the integrals of eq. the surface (26. Further.15) Note that the integral form of the axisymmetric problem differs from that of the 2-D problem in the sense that each integral contains an extra multiplier. the condition 3 of the class of admissible functions can be made explicit. Since boundary integral of eq.2c).15). the (26.15) into two parts : (i) integral over over .14) and canceling the factor expression (26. since w = 0 is on .14) Substituting equations (26.17) This is called as the Weighted Residual Integral .Since ( l is the coordinate along integral of eq. namely the coordinate r .16).11) becomes : from all the terms. the integral over of . (26. This is the integral form to be used in the Weighted Residual Formulation . 26. Variational Formulation must be . we get (26. we get (26. Thus. Now. the integral over . (26. (26.11) becomes : ) and q is independent of .16) Combining equations (26.15) and (26. Using the can be expressed in terms Neumann boundary condition (eq. we simplify the boundary integral of eq. we split the and (ii) integral becomes zero. (26.12)-(26. Finally.17) to be finite. piecewise continuous over the domain with only finite discontinuities.

T must be such that is finite at every point of the domain. the boundary condition (26.3c)).3a). (26. T and unconstrained on .18) can be converted to the form : (26. Let represents a small change in the function wherever T is specified. The function T ( r . which are similar to the conditions on the weight functions w ( r . the variation of T and the operator eq. Further. . 3. the variation .19) where (26. Thus. eq.3c)) is specified. Further. (26.3b). 26.3c) is called as the Natural boundary condition . we get be a function which with the constraint that . The function T ( r . Such a function is called as in on the boundary is called as the variational operator. z ) and its variation heat flux boundary condition (eq.17).20) The functional I is called as the Variational Functional of the boundary value problem ((26.3b). Setting (26. (26. The extremizing function T ( r . condition on on . (26. Thus.We obtain the other integral form in a similar fashion. The equation (26. Thus. z ) needs to satisfy the following three conditions.18) Using the properties of -operator from section 5 of Lecture 2 and assuming k to be independent of temperature. The function T ( r . z ) must be smooth enough to make the functional I finite.3b) is called as the Essential boundary condition and the boundary condition (26. z ) must satisfy the temperature boundary condition (26. (26. z ) : 1. This is the integral form to be used for the Variational Formulation . must be unconstrained where the must be must satisfy the 2.3a) is called as the Euler equation of the functional I (eq.20). This integral form needs to be extremized to obtain the solution of the boundary value problem. Thus.

the procedures of Lectures 21-22 can be used to obtain the element quantities. Further. Since the domain of axisymmetric problems is two-dimensional. Thus.As stated in Lecture 20. the triangular and rectangular elements described in Lectures 21-25 can be used to discretize the domain. the variational functional of the steady-state heat conduction problem exists only if the thermal conductivity k is independent of the temperature T . to assemble them and to apply the Dirichlet boundary condition for axisymmetric problem as well. the variational functional of the heat conduction problem does not represent any physically meaningful quantity. unlike the solid mechanics problems like the bar and beam problems. . Further. the finite element formulation of axisymmetric problems is similar to that of the 2-D problems described in Lectures 21-22.