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Contents

 Introduction  Theoretical Background.  Galvanizing of Steel.  Transient Fe Activity at Interface & Nucleation Kinetics.  The Structure of the Inhibition Layer.  Galvanizing Bath.  Why Aluminum.  Why Aluminum control.  Controlling Factors.  Physical processes.  Determination of Aluminum Concentration in Zinc Bath.  Fuzzy Logic controller.  Conclusion.

Theoretical Background
The addition of Aluminum to galvanizing baths for controlling coating microstructure is an integral part of the continuous galvanizing technology. Aluminum can dissolve in all the binary Zn-Fe compounds, thereby creating equilibrium states unavailable to the binary Zn-Fe system. In a continuous galvanizing bath, Fe exists in two forms: it exists in the liquid Zn as solute, or in the solid strip. Al can combine with Fe in the liquid Zn to form η(Fe2Al5) particles, which eventually float to the bath surface to form top dross. Al can also react with the steel strip and deposit the η phase on its surface as a barrier layer, commonly referred to as the inhibition layer, which prevents the direct contact between the strip and liquid Zn, thereby allowing a “free” or unalloyed Zn overlay to form. The inhibition layer is desirable for galvanized coatings because it inhibits the formation of Zn-Fe alloys thereby improving the coating adhesion and ductility. However, an inhibition layer should be avoided in galvanizing because a number of coating defects, such as incomplete alloying and sink-roll prints can be attributed to the formation of the inhibition layer, partial or continuous, in the hot-dipping stage of the galvanizing production. In the continuous hot-dip galvanizing of steel strip, sheet in cold-rolled condition undergoes cleaning, recrystallization-annealing, coating with zinc, possibly galvanizing, and skin-pass rolling and chemical treatment in a continuous process. Apart from obtaining the optimal mechanical properties necessary for the specific application, the achievement of a flawless surface is a basic prerequisite for producing a composite material of good quality. A possible defect which is liable to occur during hot-dip coating and impair the optical flawless of zinc coating is the formation of extremely fine pimples caused by ultra fine particles within the zinc coating. These particles are composed of element iron, aluminum and zinc and originate from the precipitation of iron in the zinc bath. They are referred to as dross. Numerous analyses confirm with good agreement that the dross particles, which at room temperature are detected by metallographic techniques either within the coatings or in samples taken from the zinc bath, are intermetallic ternary compounds. Quantitative determinations of the levels of the element iron, aluminum and zinc show that at room temperature the dross particle consists of the phase Fe2Al5Zn. Aluminum is added to the bath in specific amounts to guarantee adequate coating adherence, and there is constant input of iron during the galvanizing process. Source of iron input is the strip being galvanized. Excess iron (above the solubility limit) precipitates as two possible phases. One phase takes the form of an iron-aluminum alloy, which rises, to the surface as of the molten zinc as top dross. The other is an iron-zinc alloy, which settles down as the bottom dross. Aluminum has a greater affinity of Iron than Zinc, resulting in a protective Fe-Al layer coming on the strip in the bath, which retards the development of binary Fe-Zn phase that can cause coating adhesion problems with galvanized steel. This reaction between iron and aluminum also aids in dross control, shifting the resulting dross product from bottom dross to top dross, and so easing removal.

partial or continuous. On the other hand. The rate of dissolution from the strip is slow at such a bath Al level because of segregation of Al at the interface. in the as-galvanized coating. Ideally. there should be no inhibition layer. it is also necessary to limit the amount of aluminum in the galvanizing bath for several reasons: • Adding more than required to minimize the iron-zinc reaction is an unnecessary cost to the process. This is thought to impair the spot weldability and phosphatability of the material. At this point. so that the alloying process during post-annealing would not be impeded and a uniform coating with high quality will be assured. the dross formation rate is also slow. The control of Al is critical in galvanizing process. • Excess bath aluminum content can result in coating defects such as sag and ripple.Despite these advantages. Fe2Al5Znx becomes an equilibrium compound in the bath. . On the other hand. the Al content in a galvanizing bath should be high enough so that the intermetallic particles formed in the bath mostly float to its surface and line stoppages solely for bottom dross removal can be avoided. Consequently. Maintaining a bath Al content marginally higher than this level could prevent forming bottom dross. the δ (or Γ1) to η transition point is the optimum composition for galvanizing. the formation of the Fe2Al5 phase at the interface is practically impossible because of severe competitions from the ζ and δ phases. Based on the above analysis. • Excess bath aluminum content results in higher coating aluminum content.

there are three relevant compounds. On the other hand. In essence. The enthalpy change associated with the dissolution of Fe is the sum of the enthalpy changes for the three steps. an equilibrium state cannot be established in front of the substrate/melt interface. which is approximately equal to the Gibb’s free energy of fusion for Fe. and ∆G is the energy barrier. and the number of Fe atoms that can dissolve in the Zn is largely dependent on the probability of a Fe atom escaping from the steel substrate. The amount of Fe dissolved is always more than that deposited back onto the substrate as intermetallic compounds. can be calculated through the following equation: P=exp (-∆G/RT) Where R is the universal gas constant. P.Transient Fe Activity at Interface & Nucleation Kinetics In continuous galvanizing. The activities of Fe and Al in molten Zn are inter-related through the thermodynamic properties of the intermetallic compounds in equilibrium with the liquid. First. Zn is almost pure and its activity is unity. Fe quickly dissolves from the strip. there are three Fe solubility curves. the Fe atoms are mixed with the Zn atoms. given by: ∆Gf =15200-8. At a given Al content (activity). and finally. as well as in general galvanizing. Correspondingly. determined by the sum of the partial free energies of the three components. is practically pure Fe. the Al and Zn atoms repel each other as indicated by a positive partial molar excess free energy of Al in the binary Zn-Al system. One can conveniently imagine the process of Fe dissolution from the strip as taking place in three steps. each representing equilibrium between the liquid and the relevant compound. T is the temperature in Kelvin. but also higher than those sustained by the equilibria between the liquid and metastable compounds in the region. The energy barrier for the separation of Fe atoms from the strip is approximately equal to the free energy of fusion. The lower the Fe activity is. a galvanizing bath is a Zn-Fe-Al ternary alloy. is solely dependent on the Fe activity. Al has a high affinity . and dross is constantly produced in galvanizing. Before a compact alloy layer forms. the transient Fe activity in this region is not only higher than the equilibrium value. Al segregation In the liquid.20T joule The probability of a Fe atom escaping from the strip. Fe atoms are separated from the strip surface. chemistry of the formation of different alloys/compounds will change accordingly. δ and η. the main stream of continuously galvanized strip. By varying dipping times and bath Al contents. therefore. the Gibb’s free energy of the liquid. the more negative the free energy of the liquid is. In continuous galvanizing. Zn-Fe compounds frequently form in coatings where these compounds are thermodynamically unstable.ζ. then the intruding Fe atoms separate Zn atoms from each other. and its surface is chemically activated after being thoroughly cleaned. Fe Dissolution Ultra-low-carbon steel. Frequently. The three steps are sequential. Upon exposure to the molten Zn. In a galvanizing bath.

Initially. then Al is enriched in the interface by a fraction of 200 at 460oC. The free energy change.18%). Al atoms needed for the formation of inhibition layer are readily supplied by the liquid contiguous to the interface. . the Al required for the growth of the inhibition layer. assuming the density of the compound as 7. The formation kinetics of inhibition layer on the substrate follows a quasi-linear law in the first second with a rate of typically 0. The coatings could contain some outbursts if defects are present on the substrate surface or if the immersion time is long enough to cause the breakdown of the inhibition layer. it is a general agreement that a full inhibition effect is expected. Binary Zn-Fe system Energy barriers for the formation of Zn-Fe intermetallic compounds are “ very high and very sensitive to any variation in surface nucleation energy”. however.1µm/s. then ∆G0=-163408+171T-RTln(aFe) the formation of ζ phase results in a free energy change of –38065 J/mole at 460oC. with the formation of unit volume of the compound is ∆Gvζ= -3. The enrichment of Al in the interface can be estimated using the following equation: Ci=Cb*exp (E/kT) Where Ci and Cb are the Al concentrations at the interface and in the bath. Al segregation to the substrate/Zn surface significantly reduces the Arial density of potential nucleation sites for the ζ and δ phases. and E is the binding energy of the Al atoms to the substrate surface.for Fe. If one assumes that the binding energy of Fe and Al at the interface is equal to the binding energy of atoms in the inhibition compound. Al atoms are expected to segregate to the substrate surface to form complex clusters with the Fe atoms. Coatings produced in such a bath consist of a Zn overlay with a thin inhibition layer at the coating/substrate interface. The nucleation rate of the formation of the compound is exponentially proportional to the energy barrier ∆G θ = Ωexp (-∆G/RT) Where Ω is the number of potential nucleation sites. Due to the large difference in the Al contents of the inhibition layer (55%) and the molten CGG alloy (0.28 g/cm3.15%. respectively. has to be supplied by long range diffusion of Al in the liquid.06*108 J/m3 Zn-Fe-Al ternary system The formation of the alloy layer in coatings in baths containing Al level higher than 0. The expression for Gibb’s free energy for the formation of Zn-Fe binary system is given below: 13Zn(1)+Fe (α)=Zn13Fe ∆G0=-163408+171T J/mol The nucleation of ζ phase takes place on the substrate surface where the Fe activity is unity. If the ζ phase nucleates at a place where the Fe activity aFe is less than unity.

21 wt %. 20oC higher or lower. the formation of inhibition layer. The second output is the dross mix.18%). • Bath temperature is chosen to be in the range of 460 or 480oC.19 wt % to 0. depending upon strip immersion time. Working Conditions The experimental variables and the matrix were chosen as follows: • Immersion duration is varied from near zero to 20 s. the possible thickness of the inhibition layer was calculated. On the basis of data of Al pick-up of the galvanized coatings. The galvanizing bath is also an aluminum exchanger – aluminum from the ingot is also divided into two outputs (the coating and dross) as well as the potential accumulation. Typical industrial duration is around 2 s. which is composed of 2 layers: a very thin layer of interfacial alloy. • Annealing temperature is set equal to 750oC. The first output is through the coating of the sheet. i.zinc input via the ingot is divided into two outputs and possibly an accumulation. • Immersion temperature was set equal to bath temperature. We generally take the thickness of the inhibition layer in the range of 5nm to 80nm.20% is used. • Melts were iron saturated. does not pollute the bath. assuming a homogeneously distributed Fe2Al5 inhibition layer. The iron. . Fe2Al5 and a thicker layer of zinc. Galvanizing Bath The galvanizing bath may be considered as being the place where reaction occurs between zinc and the immersed steel sheet. produced during an industrial galvanizing campaign. The first reaction during hot dipping in an Al-containing Zn bath is the reaction between Fe and Al. which combines with aluminum to create the interfacial alloy layer. a strong inhibition is desired and therefore a high Al of about 0. the industrial bath being considered turbulent. the duration is 2 minutes and cooling gas flow rate 20 dm3 per minute. with emphasis on the short duration. iron inputs is essentially due to the sheet surface dissolution especially at the early stages of the galvanizing reaction. The galvanizing bath is zinc exchanger.e. This output of iron may also be divided into two outputs (coating and dross) and an accumulation in the bath.The Structure of the Inhibition Layer In the case of galvanizing. Zinc accumulation depends mostly on the variations of the bath height. It is earlier reported that the inhibition layer is predominantly composed of an orthorhombic Fe2Al5 phase with a high Zn content. with an Al content of 0. The galvanizing bath is an iron exchanger – as opposed to zinc and aluminum. • Hydrodynamic conditions are chosen in both the laminar and turbulent range. TEM studies on extraction replicas by Guttmann revealed that the layer is formed of two sublayers with an overall thickness of 250nm (Al (bath) = 0.

when inhibiting layer thickness grows: the system thus possesses a memory of its past history. 3800 and 4500. Easy transport means thinner layer more readily completely covering. but only to the point that the flow is either laminar or turbulent. . This is true for short as well as long immersion times.1 s immersions. Diffusive transport is then probably the controlling mechanism. as turbulent conditions are for Reynolds numbers of 2000. one can deduce that nucleation is influenced by hydrodynamics. laminar conditions represent the set of results obtained for Reynolds numbers of 0 and 900. In fact. • The inhibiting layer is thinner and more finely grained when hydrodynamic conditions are turbulent. the following observations may be made: • Relative motion between sample and melt is important. Therefore. For longer immersions the behavior is more similar because the curves tend to become parallel. • Differences between sets of results are prominent for starting aluminum take-up values.Effects of hydrodynamics At one temperature and melt composition but under varying hydrodynamic conditions. The differences in morphology are however less visible for 5 s immersions than for 0. the latter conditioning Al transports towards the interface. Effects of melt temperature Experiments have been performed using a dip temperature equal to the melt temperature and under turbulent conditions only.

Effects of immersion temperature • • A dipping temperature slightly above the melt temperature.20 wt-% does not give any increase in Al take-up.14 to 0.20-wt %. when Al concentrations rise from 0. gives rise to a small increase of interfacial layer thickness. which is common industrial practice. a small reduction is even observed. A concentration above 0. Effects of melt composition • Higher Aluminum content raises initial Al take-up. A dipping temperature slightly under the melt temperature gives rise to a small decrease of Al interfacial layer thickness. . but to a smaller extent than the above case. Temperature is thus an important parameter.• Rising temperature lead to a considerable augmentation of Al take-up at the interface.

and (3) zeta phases. therefore. can be partially reduced by the aluminum contained in the bath. SiO2. forms epitaxially so that Fe2Al5 crystals developed colonies of the same orientation as the underlying substrate steel grain. made between 600oC and 460oC. developed on the substrate during galvanizing. (2) delta. Here FeZn7 mainly forms the bottom dross and Fe2Al5 forms the top dross. and at contents of >0. • Inhibition of Fe-Zn reaction • Microstructure • Aluminothermic > MnO.20-wt% Al-Zn coatings showed Fe-Zn alloy layer development which was discontinuous. Guttmann proposed that the Fe2Al5 inhibition layer.15) / Bottom (Al < 0. as well as the interstitial free steel substrate grain size of Fe-Zn reaction kinetics during galvanizing processing. This means that the occurrence of bottom dross decreases with increasing aluminum content.Why Aluminum Formation of Fe2Al5 > allows deformation • Cannot avoid Fe dissolution > Dross The effects of Fe2Al5 inhibiting layer developed on the steel substrate.12% the iron precipitates via the FeZn7 phase. But in high Al content bath unlike the pure bath where a uniform Fe-Zn alloy layer formed. For a low Al content bath or a pure Zn bath the entire steel/coating interface reacted with the liquid Zn to form a uniform reaction layer. The thermodynamic calculations show that at aluminum contents of <0. So we can say that in our concerning range of Al concentrations we will get only the top dross. Solubility modifier of Fe in zinc • Al increases  Fe solubility decreases .12) As the aluminum content increases the precipitation of iron shifts from the δ phase FeZn7 to the η phase Fe2Al5. the 0. Three individual Fe-Zn phase layers were observed to form in coated steels: (1) gamma.12% and 0. At aluminum contents of between 0. The presence of Al in the Zn bath causes the formation of a Fe2Al5 inhibition layer. P2O5 to Al2O3 SIMS analysis shows that the iron oxide.14% via the Fe2Al5 phase. This analysis shows that indeed the presence of an important aluminum oxide over the residual iron oxide at the steel/coating interface. which lead to a good adhesion. Fe and Zn diffusion follow normal diffusion rates at these low angle boundaries. That aluminothermic reaction however allows a sufficient iron oxide reduction and the formation of the Fe2Al5 inhibition layer. Improves adherence Dross modifier • Top (Al > 0. The colonies from low angle boundaries when contained within an underlying substrate grain interior and. are of great interest to the steel coating industry. but the occurrence of top dross increases.14% the transition is variable and both phases are formed.

An evaluation of the growth kinetics of the inhibition layer in galvanized coating carried out earlier suggested that the level of Fe supersaturation in front of a growing inhibition layer was about 1. Modification of surface tension of zinc • Al increases  strip wettability decreases Improvement in strip wettability. On adding more Al the thickness of inhibition layer increases. however. Fe quickly dissolves from the strip.Upon exposure to the molten Zn. which causes hindrance in zinc diffusion process and hence decreases the strip wettability. iron will only start building up when the zinc solidifies. The amount of Fe dissolved is always more than that deposited back onto the substrate as intermetallic compounds. These works suggested the energy barrier for Fe atoms to escape from the substrate increases linearly with the Al content at the interface. The main parameters of process considered during the design of the model are: 1. the most important being the diffusion of iron through the different intermetallic phases during the time the coating is exposed to elevated temperature. Available experimental results suggest that the Fe supersaturation level in the vicinity of the substrate/Zn interface decreased with an increasing bath Al content. . the result could be explained by a better zinc diffusion through the graphite/soot layer and the development of Fe-Zn reactions at the steel coating interface. The Time-temperature path. and dross is constantly produced in galvanizing. The diffusion of iron starts as soon as the steel enters the molten zinc bath. Effect on viscosity • Al increase  viscosity decreases Why Aluminum Control Affects coated steel properties • Surface appearance • Adhesion • Ductility • Weldability • Paintability Corrosion resistance • Controlling factors The development of the coating is controlled by a number of factors.5 times the equilibrium Fe solubility limit. The temperature path the coating is exposed to will depend primarily on the line speed. furnace temperature and steel gauge. the latter having a major influence on the heat capacity of the system and thereby on the effective heating and cooling rates.

as the very short annealing times. The coating thickness. The objective was to develop an understanding of the effects of processing conditions and zinc alloy ingot additions on aluminum deportment. The amount of Fe2Al5 at the interface between the coating and the steel base left after the burn off of the flux. 3. assumed that for the low alloy steels studied in this work the steel composition does not have any effect. In order to accomplish a material balance. In this study it is. 6. This is assumed to be very subordinate compared to intra-granular diffusion. 3. The composition of the steel base. as flux will accumulates in grooves and pitches in the steel surface this assumption is questionable. however. 4. Grain boundary diffusion opening up “fast routes” of diffusion. for simplicity assumed that all phases nucleate everywhere without delay. however. A mass balance calculation was conducted at the No. It is assumed that the coating consists of η at the onset of the process. Growth of different phases.2. 4. It is. Determination of Aluminum Concentration in Zinc Bath The control process of aluminum concentration starts with taking the mass balance of different components of the zinc bath. In some cases these variations may be important. The effect of this layer is to reduce the iron diffusion into the coating. As nucleation takes place sporadically the development of the coating will not be uniform. In the bath aluminum balance. typically 4 to 10 seconds. Kinetics of the break down of the Fe2Al5 layer at the steel-coating interface. Surface roughness of the steel base. e. . It is assumed that the effect can be simplified as a time dependent factor slowing down diffusion into the adjacent Γ1 layer. the zinc bath will have iron dissolved. 5. 2. some phases show dendritic growth. make it likely that some phases will have non-equilibrium compositions during significant portions of the annealing process. 2 CGL of the CRM of TISCO. The D values must consequently be calculated from the activation energy of the diffusion process and pre-exponential factors for each of the intermetallic phases. Physical processes The main physical processes taking place are: 1. the input comes from zinc alloy ingots. The diffusion coefficients D depend strongly on the intermetallic phase and the temperature. It is assumed that thickness of this layer is uniform. 5. been assumed that at a given temperature each phase has only one D-value. The initial iron distribution through the coating. however. Diffusion of iron and zinc within each of the phases.g. Nucleation kinetics for the different intermetallic phases. In this work it has. The aluminum output consists of two components: (i) Coating and (ii) Dross. The D-values depend to a lesser extent on the compositional variations within each phase. it was necessary to determine the amount of aluminum consumed by the strip and removed by the dross skimming practice.

Outline of CGL.Al (output) = ∆Al Al (input) = Charge into bath ± ∆bath level Al (output) = Al (coating) + Al (dross) ± ∆level Where: ∆Zn: Quantity of Zn unaccounted for. The processing line speed ranges from 60 m/min to 150 m/min and coating weights from 60 g/m2/side to 360 g/m2/side. ∆Al: Quantity of Al unaccounted for. Calculation of components required for mass balance . producing both automotive and construction products. The zinc bath has a capacity of 160 tons and is powered by two 450 kW inductors. The line is capable of producing coated steel sheet ranging from 0.000 tons of galvanize (GI) annually. This work describes the process used to calculate the zinc bath material balance at CRM No.2 CGL (TISCO) while producing galvanized products.Quantifying the aluminum of the dross production is a difficult task for a mass balance due to the fact that the dross skimming always contains pure zinc and dross particles. Method A material balance was constructed for both zinc (Zn) and aluminum (Al). The equations for coating aluminum and dross generation rate are also discussed.2 CRM No. Furthermore. The material balance for a finite period of time is given by the following equation. multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between coating aluminum content and processing variables.0 mm in thickness and 600 mm to 1524 mm in width. The dross from the zinc bath was collected. The results of the material balance for zinc and aluminum in the zinc bath are presented.Zn (output) = ∆Zn Zn (input) = charge into bath ± ∆bath level Zn (output) = Zn (coating) + Zn (dross) ± ∆level For Aluminum: Al (input) .2 mm to 2. This process allowed separation of the zinc metal from the dross particles thus providing the actual aluminum content of the dross. and the full size dross ingots were remelted and analyzed. This wide variation in processing conditions has an important effect on aluminum control in the zinc bath. For zinc: Zn (input) . The dross generation rate was also related to the processing variables. Direct determination of the amount of aluminum in dross under production line conditions has not been reported.2 CGL was installed in 2001 with a design capacity of 285. Previous attempts reported in the literature include: (i) calculating the amount of aluminum based on lab scale iron dissolution rate and (ii) estimating the amount of aluminum by difference of aluminum addition and coating aluminum.

Product mix covered drawing quality. 3. The holding period allowed the dross particles to float to the top of the crucible. 3. 2. 3. at the end of the trial. Dross particles were removed from the melt until the surface appeared clean and shiny. Aluminum in coating is calculated as a function of various processing parameters. deep drawing quality. lock forming quality and physical quality. The aluminum and iron contents in the dross particles and the reusable zinc metal were determined by wet chemical analysis. A decrease in bath height. Zn: the difference in amount of zinc (input) and zinc (output). • Aluminum calculation 1. An increase in bath height is counted as zinc output. 2. Aluminum in dross was measured and formulated as a function of zinc consumption. . 2. Zinc in coating is calculated as a function of strip area coated and coating weight.• Zinc Calculation 1.2 CGL.Data The data used for the mass balance calculation was obtained from No. During this trial. Al: Difference of the above two parameters. 134 coils were coated and the bath Al ranged from 0. Zn (output): Zinc output consists of two components: (i) zinc in coating and (ii) zinc in dross. Information used for mass balance 1. The aluminum in any measured bath height increase is considered aluminum output.205% while gauge of product ranged from 0.Calculation of Aluminum effective Aluminum content in the bath is not the amount of Aluminum. a counted as zinc input.38 mm – 1. The remaining reusable zinc metal and the skimmed dross particles were separately weighed and recorded. Al (output): Aluminum output consists of two components: (i) aluminum in coating and (ii) aluminum in dross.Dross Separation Six jumbo dross ingots were collected from the trial and were remelted. The actual amount of aluminum used in coating is the amount of effective aluminum. Zinc in dross was measured and formulated as a function of zinc consumption.165% to 0. Zn (input): Calculation of zinc input is based on the number of ingots of two different compositions (zinc alloy (ZA) with 1% Al component and highgrade (HG) pure zinc) charged to the bath. Al (input): Calculation of aluminum input is based on the number of zinc alloy (1% Al) ingots charged to the bath and the quantity of aluminum due to the bath height decrease. which takes part in the reaction or used in coating. Each dross ingot was cut into smaller blocks for easy handling and remelted in a gas-fired furnace and held at 470oC for 4 hours.52 mm.

In order to determine the active contents from the findings obtained here.21 0.43]=14. T in K) in the figure below the solubility calculated at five different temperatures are plotted as downward curves.19 0. 0. It is in principle the solubility curve for iron and aluminum in molten zinc.18-(12536/T)-4.23 .2 0.05 0.2692-0.17 470 480 490 500 0.0133*T] (Contents in [wt %].06 0.72*log [19. a correction chart is developed.02 0.43*log [8.18 0.04 0. Below these curves the respective contents are in solution.03 460 0.22 0.72*(%Al) 4.3424-0.0074*T]1. The formula for calculating the solubility curve is: Log [(%Fe) 1.01 0 0.

limit as precipitates must be subtracted from the absolute values to determine the active contents. If the analysis value is below the solubility line corresponding to the bath temperature prevailing when the sample is taken. %Fe) co-ordinates. 460 470 480 490 500 0. these contents are the active contents. If it is above the line. Firstly. If the analysis value is above the solubility curve of the corresponding bath temperature the contents must be reduces along the correction curves until the solubility line is crossed. C= Fe% .0.19 0.09 0. From this the slope of the correction straight line for higher aluminum contents of Fe/Al = 2*56/5*27 = 0.83. this means that the quantities.83 is arithmetically derived for the weight ratio.83*Al% Now putting this value of C in the figure given below we can find out the Aleff % for that condition.2 0. the aluminum and iron contents determined by analysis of a sample taken from the zinc bath are plotted on the graph. the solubility curve of the temperature at which the zinc-bath sample was taken of for which the active contents are to be determined should be used. This means that each percent of iron bonds with 1/0.15 -0.1 -0. Starting from the result of a zinc-bath analysis. For the point of intersection of the correction curve and the selected solubility line the active aluminum and iron contents can then be read off at the axes.11 -0.above these curves they are precipitates.16 -0.17 -0. In the case of higher aluminum contents Fe2Al5 bonding takes place. Corresponding to that value we can get the value of the coefficient of the correction curve passing through that point of (%Al.23 .18 From here we can easily find out the Al effective in the bath corresponding to that temperature and contents of the bath. which were present in the bath above the solubility.17 -0. however. Here.14 -0. whereby for every two-iron atoms five aluminum atoms are bonded.18 0. -0.21 0. the active iron and aluminum contents can be read off via a correction line of slope 0.13 -0.12 -0.22 0. We know the initial concentration of the Fe and Al in the bath and also the bath temperature.21 percent of aluminum.83 =1.

0804 R2 = 0.9048*Aleff + 0.9937*Aleff + 0.Here in the graph we find that in the desired range the value of Const.0023* T)/(2.8877 – 0.0208 R2 = 0.055 R2 = 0.9995 For 485oC: Const = -1.0023* temp . On comparing the exact value of Aleff and the value we find out by the above equation is given in a plot below: .3362*Aleff + 0.032 – 0.9999 o For 460 C: Const = -0.032 R2 = 0.9989 o For 500 C: Const = -1.1168 R2 = 0. and Al% of the bath.8877 R2 = 0. So we can get a linear relation of const. depending on the value of Aluminum in the bath.9998 o For 470 C: Const = -0.1. Slope(m) = -0. varies linearly with respect to the value of Aluminum in the bath. The relation is Aleff = (C+ 1.9997 For 475oC: Const = -1.0253 R2 = 0.0666 R2 = 0. Fe% of the bath.9407 On doing regression analysis we find a relation of Al effective depending on the bath temperature.2508*Aleff + 0. Those are For 450oC: Const = -0.9992 For 495oC: Const = -1.9408 Constant(c) = 0.0083 * T) Here T is in degree centigrade and the value of C we can find from the above given relation. On doing regression analysis we find relations for different temperature levels.0698*Aleff + 0.0308 R2 = 0.097 R2 = 0.0283*Aleff + 0.9987 From the above relations we find that the slope and the constant of the straight line equation is changing with the change in temperature of the bath so we will have to find out the dependence of these variables on temperature finally we get relations for the slope and the constant with respect to the temperature.1794*Aleff + 0.1405 R2 = 0.9999 o For 455 C: Const = -0.9649*Aleff + 0.9997 For 480oC: Const = -1.9994 For 490oC: Const = -1.941*Aleff + 0.9212*Aleff + 0.0454 R2 = 0.0374 R2 = 0.0083* temp + 2.1197*Aleff + 0.9999 o For 465 C: Const = -0.

6 0.23 460 470 480 490 500 460(cal) 470(cal) 480(cal) 490(cal) 500(cal) y = 0.18 0.1 -0.2 -1.8877 2 R = 0.22 0.09 0.16 -0.032 2 R = 0.18 0.14 -0.11 -0.2 0.-0.2440 -0.4 -0.12 -0.19 0.4 0.4 -1.17 -0.9408 460 480 500 520 slope(m) constant(c) Linear (slope(m)) Linear (constant(c)) y = -0.8 -1 -1.6 -0.9409 From the above plot we find that the exact and measured value are quite close to each other so we can take the equation derived as a relation to find out the Aleff for the Zinc bath at that condition.17 -0.2 0 -0.1.15 -0.0023x .21 0.13 -0.0083x + 2. .

dross and coating chemistries. and (ii) from analytical data that characterized the bath. The following parameters were determined to have a significant effect on coating aluminum content (significant at a 99% confidence level). Results and Discussion 1.29*Aleff+0. Coating Al (g/m2/side) = -3.58 g/cm3).4.029*Imm time+0.0022*CtgWt+5. Spreadsheets were prepared (i) from operational data that characterized the strip being processed and the types and weights of materials added and removed. This relationship is in agreement with published information that coating aluminum .0014*Trd+0.0053*Pot r =0. Regression analysis was performed to determine the effects of the processing parameters on coating aluminum content. N=108 This relationship indicates that coating aluminum content can be controlled by these five parameters. Coating aluminum content and processing variables: As coating Al is not routinely measured. • CtgWt: Coating weight (g/m2/side) • EffAl: effective aluminum (%) • Imm time: immersion time (sec) • Trd: strip turn down temperature (oC) • Pot: pot temperature (oC) The relationship between these five parameters and coating aluminum is given by the following regression equation. it is necessary to estimate the amount of Al in the coating for the mass balance.Mass balance The figure given above shows the schematic mass balance for a zinc bath.89+0.Bath height measurement Operation conditions and ingot addition practice can change the bath height and result in a possible accumulation (increase in the bath height) or depletion (decrease in the bath height) in the zinc bath. The amount of zinc due to changes in the bath height was determined based on the bath dimension and liquid zinc density at 460OC (ρ =6.84. 5. The bath height change was measured using a custom-made set up during the trial.

i.9 cm (bath height start. 5.bath height finish). the total amount of zinc/aluminum input should be expressed as follows: Zn (input) = Zn (ingot) + Zn (Decrease in bath heights) Al (input) = Al (ingot) + Al (Decrease in bath heights) 3. Process Model Strip Zinc Pot (Zn. Dross generation is taken as constant for whole process and also its composition. effective bath aluminum content. Therefore. Al concentration is taken as uniformly distributed in the bath. Bath temperature is taken to be same for every point and bath is taken as homogeneous. the iron diffusion from the steel surface is taken as negligible in amount so basically the iron amount in dross is taken as the loss in the iron composition in the bath.content increases with increasing coating weight. 3. Weight and chemical analysis of the dross mixture. 4.. The mass balances are the result of 3185 minutes of operation where all input and output materials have been measured: Weight of ingots (ZA and HG). 2. pot temperature and strip turn down temperature. as dross is the loss of iron from the bath. . Zinc 2. Fe & Al) Zinc bath contains mainly three components: 1. Mass balance The weights of ingot additions and all material outputs are expressed in kilograms. Iron Assumptions made for our model: 1. The iron atom what is going out. This indicates that the amount of zinc in the bath has been depleted. immersion time. During this trial. Because the line speed variation is small so the line speed is take as a constant. the bath height decreased by 4. 2.e. Weight and analysis of the coating. Aluminum 3.

formation of other phases are discarded. 6. 3. The model is working as an expert system which checks the aluminum concentration available in the bath is sufficient for the next processing mother coil. So finally we can predict the bath composition. all the calculation and prediction are done for the next mother coil based on the current position of the zinc bath. Aleff. speed and coating weight. 7. and we know the coating weight from these two values we can get the zinc amount coming out in the coating.Alcoating. i. The next step is the calculation of Zndross. . Aldross & Fedross from the given rate of generation of dross. which is transferred as an input for the next coil. 7. 5. bath temperature. Al% and the bath temperature at the starting. which is a function of Fe%. Here Zncoating = Coating Weight .. So we can tell the final bath composition because we know the Zn consumption and the Al consumption and we can also tell the Fe% in the bath because we know the value of Fe coming out as dross. Zinc bath is taken to be as a mixture of Al. 2.6. Mother coil dimensions are taken as input and we know the composition of the bath before getting into the process. 4. Now we know the Alcoating. The next step is the calculation of Al amount coming out of the bath as coating. Algorithm for our model: 1.e.phase and the zinc. Zn & Fe only because the contribution of other elements is very low. So. The coating is taken as a uniform layer of η. which we find as a function of strip temperature. Now the next step is to calculate the Aleff in the bath.

Strip entry temperature Dross weight calculation Coating Aluminum Zinc in coating Zn.19 % < Al < 0. Coating Weight. Al & Fe in dross Calculation of final bath composition .Start Initial Bath Condition 0.21 % Effective Aluminum Add Al & Zn Ingots according to requirement Mother coil Dimensions. Speed.

Initial Bath Condition Bath temp .83*Al% Aleff = (C+ 1.0014*Trd+0. Al% Fe% C=Fe%-0.029*Imm time+0. Coating Weight. Al% Fe% Mother coil Dimensions.22515 – 0.002711* T)/(3.0022*CtgWt+5.89+0.00976 * T) Effective Aluminum Initial Bath Condition Bath temp . Speed.581074 – 0. Strip entry temperature Coating Al (g/m2/side) = -3.0053*Pot Coating Aluminum CtgWt = Coating Zinc + Coating Aluminum Zinc in coating Zinc in coating Coating Aluminum Dross Components Final bath composition .29*EffAl+ 0.

6% of aluminum input is consumed by the coating layer.4% of aluminum input goes into the removed dross mix. strip entry temperature and bath temperature have a significant effect on coating aluminum content (significant at 99% of confidence level). Regression analysis showed coating weight. • 8. 3.1% respectively. 2. .1% and 90. 4. The aluminum and zinc accounted for in the mass balance was 92.2% of the zinc input is consumed by the coating layer. effective aluminum. Breakdown of the aluminum consumption is: • 74. Breakdown of the zinc consumption is: • 91. rate of dross generation and rate of reusable zinc metal generation (significant at a 99% confidence level). • 25. immersion time.8% of the zinc input goes into the removed dross.Conclusions 1. A strong relationship was found between zinc consumption rate.