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Research and Development of the


Portland Cement Association




The Nature of Concrete

By T. C. Powers



from the Copyrighted of

Significance of Tests and Properties

CONCRETE AND CONCRETE-MAKING MATERIALS STP No. 169-A, 61-72 (1966) Published American by and Materials

Society for Testing

By T. C. Powers





5420 Old Orchard Skokie, Illinois

“Concrete is simply a class of masonry in which the stones are small and of irregular shape.. the less will the strength of the masonry depend on the strength of the mortar. 2 He said also. water. in the first bulletin from the Structural Materials Research Laboratory. or other coarse material. in the 1912 edition said. with gravel. brick. and he abandoned the notion that concrete is a mixture of mortar and coarse aggregate. C.. Ill.THE NATURE OF CONCRETE T. especially vibration) of portland cement.” D. cinders. “Nearly all the scientific prirmiples which constitute the foundation of civil engineering are susceptible of complete and satisfactory explanation to any person who reallv possesses only so much elementary knowledge of arithmetic and natural philosophy as is supposed to be taught to boys of 12 or 14 in our public schools. A. authors of perhaps the best of early books on concrete. materials of varying size. Sabin in a book on concrete said. Taylor and Thompson.. inert. or beton. the larger and more perfectly cut are the stone. (retired). but in this publication the term concrete usually refers to a material which was at first a plastic mixture (or mixture that became plastic as a result of manipulation. but his treatment of certain topics and his definitions are indicative.” Feret in 1896 considered water and air to be definite components of mortar (and presumably also of concrete).. but it is not clear that he thought of cement paste as an entity. A writer’s concept of the nature of concrete can hardly be revealed in a few words. should be considered as one. Here are some examples: in 1878 Trautwine. Portland Cement Assn. said “Cement concrete. oyster shells. in fact.” 61 in the case of other classes of masonry. in 1910 called concrete a conglomerate body. such as a combination of sand or broken stone screenings. even though fine and coarse aggre- . Therefore. The strength of concrete depends largely on the strength of the mortar. Zielenski. since it may be stated as a general rule. broken stone. fine and coarse combined. . Ill. Research Dept. or some similar material which after mixing with water will set or harden so as to adhere to inert material. Abrams. POWERS1 The term concrete can be construed to include a considerable variety of products made from portland cement or other cementing media. broken brick. Skokie. this discussion of the nature of concrete will have the scope indicated by that description. C. L. “Concrete is an artificial stone made by mixing cement. is . etc. and an aggregate composed of hard. cement mortar mixed with gravel or broken stone.z In 1907. (1918) emphasized the significance of the ratio of water to cement in concrete. Lewis Inst. pointing out that the whole aggregate. with or without air voids. . or with all together. and the mortar to be composed of paste and sand. in the 1lth edition of his Pocket Book for Civil Engineers. air. he considered the conglomerate to be composed of mortar and coarse aggregate.” He described mortar as sand containing a volume of cement equal to the volume of voids in the sand. Chicago.. this dependence will be much closer than 1Research counselor. once head of the Hungarian Association for Testing Materials. and mineral aggregate.

” than would be the compacted volume of Although it is possible to discern an the aggregate it contains. the paste is the active ele. . in fact. definition or description to attain today’s Troxell and Davis (1956) wrote. We must.the aggregate. I cannot do more within which are embedded particles or than touch on a few fundamental topics. F. The volume of rock-like mass as the paste hardens space occupied by a properly compacted through chemical reaction of cement with fresh concrete mixture is slightly greater water. is a combination concrete we find it necessary to regard concrete not as an entity—a substanceof portland cement and water. but also they remain ings are not common. Moreover. water . R. perhaps. The idea lingers with each other: freshly mixed concrete with us. concrete is standing such aspects of concrete as amass of aggregates held together by a volume change characteristics. and this aggregation reture in which a paste of portland cement quires a certain minimum of space per and water binds inert aggregates into a unit weight of material. “Exthey give no adequate basis for underpressed in the simplest terms. owing to settlement hardly be questioned. indeed. The Encyclopedia Britannica. crete is a composite material which con. the term rock why the originally plastic mass becomes refers to the particulate mineral matter that makes up the aggregate.mixture is fresh. the early concept dividual rocks particles in concrete need of concrete as a mixture of mortar and not be in contact with each other. innot altogether unrealistic.To do the subject full justice would be a sists essentially of a binding medium book-length project.therefore. However. called is a building material consisting of a mix. says. (ACI) Committee l160n predominant component of concrete is an Nomenclature in 1964. not in contact gate functions as a unit. because it has simplicity could not be plastic if the solid particles and plausibility and partly because it is were not dispersed to some degree.ence is significant: it shows that the intion and descriptions. although generally not exactly correctness of Abrams’ conclusion can to the same degree that prevails immediately after mixing. as to how and why the mixture had McMillan in his concrete are.occurs. regardless of the size or hard and strong and. The Concrete Inst. and the differevolution of concepts in the above defini. . despite is clear evidence that the rock particles Abrams’ contention that the total aggre. either inthe plastic or in the hardened state. There coarse aggregate tends to persist. In portland cement concrete the When we inquire into the nature of binder or matrix.” In their textbook on concrete. under the force of gravity before setting Even the latest definitions provide but a superficial idea of the nature of con. “Conunderstanding of the nature of concrete. especially spection of broken sections of hardened when there is a gap between the largest concrete show that not only are the rock size in the sand and the smallest size in particles in a dispersed state while the the coarse aggregate. They give no hint as to how and 8Throughout this discussion. say nothing shape of the particlee. 1963 edition. gap grad. go far beyond a superficial ment. Basic Principles plasticity in the first place.” This definition was adopted by the American but as a structure having component parts. as has already been indicated. “Concrete aggregation of mineral particles. . and in any case the dispersed.62 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE gates are proportioned separately. and hardened paste of portland cement and stress-strain-time phenomena. crete. of Concrete Making (1929) said. fragments of a relatively inert mineral GROSS STRUCTURE OF CONCRETE filler.

this means that the degree of dispersion of rock particles is greater the lower the water-cement ratio of the paste. and the original mean size also smaller. the proportion and size characteristics of air bubbles being subject to systematic variation just as is the proportion of aggregate. Specifically. At a given paste consistency. At an air content higher than that normally present in a given mixture. In richer mixtures. concrete placed by a standardized procedure contains a characteristic amount of air in the form of bubbles. water-cement ratio less than about 0. the gross structure of concrete appears to be that of an aggregation of rock particles slightly dispersed in a matrix of paste and air bubbles. aggregate char4Voids due to incomplete filling of mold or form are not considered here. air content depends mainly on those features of aggregate grading that control the mean size of the voids in the aggregate. it is clearly due to the mechanical stability of the matrix and to the mechanical stability of individual particles of rock. raising the air content by means of a given approved air-entraining agent will result in a system of voids having a relatively large mean size. only the voids that me normal components of the mixture. air content and void characteristics are strongly influenced by watercement ratio. Also. The foregoing statement as to the effect of aggregate grading on air content is applicable principally to the leaner types of mixtures. Throughout the range of the most frequently used mixtures. and with a standardized mixing procedure. The main factors are the consistency of the paste and the gradation of the aggregate. in the leaner range of mixtures. Without an air-entraining agent. the amount being a function of certain variable factors. In practical terms. by the same factors that control the normal air voids. The mean size and the size range of the air bubbles in concrete are also significant structural features. in any case. the volume of concrete seldom if ever exceeds the compacted volume of the aggregate by more than 10 per cent. These characteristics also are subject to systematic variation as will be discussed later. if the normal air content of a given mixture is relatively high and the mean size of the voids relatively large (the two usually go together). A conclusion arising directly from consideration of the gross structure of concrete is that the firmness or mechanical stability of concrete cannot be attributed to mechanical stability of the aggregation of rock particles. When a suitable air-entraining agent is used. the air content can be raised to almost any desired level. the stiffer the consistency and the higher the air content the greater the mean clear distance between aggregate particles.4 the paste is composed of portland cement and water.POWERS ON NATURE OF CONCRETE 63 Rock particles in plastic concrete are dispersed in a matrix composed of paste and air bubbles. voids being here defined as the space occupied by paste and air. particularly with respect to the ability of concrete to withstand the effects of freezing. the mean size of air bubbles is controlled by the characteristics of the air-entraining agent used and. and usually it does not exceed it by more than 3 per cent when no air-entraining agent is used. the air content and average air void size increasing with increase of water-cement ratio under given conditions. and the higher the air content. acteristics have little effect. as compared with the mean size when the amount of air normally present is smaller. The degree of dispersion actually depends upon the consistency of the paste and the volume of air. it is clear .5 by weight or 5* gal per sack. In short. This means that with a given air-entraining agent used in different mixtures a wide range in average void size may be observed.

a paste is caused to flow continuously if its solid content is considerably smaller than that at normal consistency. when thinking of the tendency of water to disperse a coherent system of particles. changing paste from a plastic to a fluid material. repulsion can be raised to such a degree as to destroy plasticity. When shearing stress exceeding shearing strength is applied and maintained. the negative ions being held near each cement particle by positive ions selectively adsorbed from the surrounding aqueous solution. INTERPARTICLE FORCES IN FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE We have already seen that plasticity of freshly mixed concrete is possible because the rock particles of the aggregate are slightly separated from one another by matrix material. but such a measure pertains only to paste in the fluid state maintained by a sufficiently high shearing stress. the distance amounting to perhaps ten water molecule diameters. the forces of repulsion are. hence. Several years ago Deryagin. Attraction is due to relatively long range intermolecular forces known as van der Waals forces. Electrostatic repulsion is due to what is called a Gouy diffuse layer of ions. and this is an essential condition for the plastic state. swelling pre8sure. to indicate the force developed by adsorbed films of water in spaces too narrow to accommodate the normal thickness of the films. otherwise. Thus.” and any mechanical displacement of particles with respect to each other requires a certain amount of work to “lift” the particles out of their potential troughs. Deryagin’s term seems most apt. they are said to be in “potential troughs. more or less. a surface physicist of the Soviet Union. In some concrete mixtures. any deformation would necessarily be dilatant rather than plastic. or spreading pressure. The matrix. by a certain small distance. Consistency of freshly mixed paste can be made softer by diminishing the depth of the potential troughs. is plastic because the cement particles and air bubbles are dispersed in water and especially because the interparticle forces tend to hold particles together while at the same time preventing actual point to point contact. Owing to the existence of opposing interparticle forces. introduced the term disjoining pressure and another. in this case negative ions. about which more later. even though the interparticle forces discussed above exist. The shearing strength (yield value) and the resistance to continuous shearing stress (the mobility or structural viscosity) is often used as a measure of paste consistency. the water content of the pastes is so high that the paste has very little plasticity to begin with. disjoining action. the particle concentration is so low that interparticle forces are rela- . Such astateisdue to the coexistence of forces of attraction and repulsion between cement particles. cement particles tend to assume positions with respect to each other corresponding to minimum potential energy with respect to balance of internal forces. due to electrostatic repulsion and to a “disjoining pressure” (Deryagin)5 maintained by adsorbed water molecules covering the surfaces of the grains. and this can be done by using an appropriate surface-active material able to increase interparticle repulsion. which is the case for pastes used in concrete. we see that interparticle forces give freshly mixed paste in the quiescent state. indeed. in this case. itself. When particles are in positions of minimum potential energy with respect to the forces acting between them. a pair of cement grains has a minimum of potential energy with respect to those forces when the particles are separated from each other s In previous publications I have used terms Such as film pressure.64 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE that the stability of thematrix is due to that of hardened cement paste. a structure having a low degree of firmness or shearing strength.

There is one exception: the formation of calcium sulfo-aluminate by reactions involving gypsum and tricalcium aluminate tends to cause volume expansion. The paste in a properly constituted freshly mixed concrete has an optimum consistency. Hydrated cement is able to react also with carbon dioxide gas in the presence of water vapor. Any of the compounds can be decomposed by carbonic acid and. but the effect is not destructive. Chemical Aspects of Mineral Aggregates: The petrographers and mineralogists contributing to this publication have much to say on this subject. Practically. but when used as concrete aggregate it is less vulnerable than the hydrated cement paste which envelopes it. therefore. and they do not have exactly the same composition when formed under different conditions. I shall mention only some chemical characteristics that are of special interest because of the structural and chemical characteristics of the paste component of concrete. Normally. There are at least two other kinds of undesirable chemical attack on certain minerals that seem to be the result of conditions peculiar to the interior of con- . and the permeability of concrete to water is so low that the action of weak acids is only superficial. Even contact with soft-water streams usually causes decomposition at a negligible rate. actually such reaction may increase chemical stability. under no circumstances should it be completely fluid. most of them are impure in the sense that they contain elements not ordinarily given in their formulas. Rocks used for concrete aggregates are generally materials that have survived geologic ages and are thus those that have demonstrated some degree of chemical and physical stability. basic and vulnerable to acid attack. concrete must be protected or it will be destroyed. and it is usually considerably higher because of the presence of alkali hydroxides. Limestone is. and when the sulfate ion concentration is too high. Some are chemically basic. All the components of hydrated cement are basic. neither too soft nor too firm (stiff). In cities where rain falls through industry-polluted air and becomes distinctly acid. acid action is evidenced by surface etching. of course.POWERS ON NATURE OF CONCRETE 65 tively ineffective. That concrete is not generally destroyed this way is explainable mostly in terms of physical factors: under ordinary conditions of exposure the quantity of acid in contact with concrete during a given time is small relative to the quantities of basic material available. cement and water are remarkable in that they involve a doubling of the volume of space required by solid material while the apparent volume of the system remains constant. The reactions between the anhydrous components of portland. But. but when an unlimited supply of sulfate ion is present in the environment. concrete may be destroyed by it. some are acidic. the amount of gypsum needed to control the setting of cement gives only tolerable expansion. expansion can be destructive. whenever a continuous supply of strong acid is encountered. by ordinary rain water. especially with respect to temperature and original cement concentration. the hydroxyl-ion concentration is always at least as high as that of a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide. such destruction is avoidable by using a cement of low tricalcium aluminate content. CHEMICAL NATURE HYDRATED OF CEMENT The chemical compounds found in hydrated cement are complex. For our present purpose it will suffice to mention a few outstanding characteristics.

these particles are usually only three or four molecules thick. These reaction products are collectively that which we have already called hydrated cement. now we shall stress the physical aspects of hydrated cement. Moreover. The term gel particle refers to particles having dimensions in the submicroscopic range of sizes called colloidal. we know that it actually comprises a hierarchy of aggregations of matter. Under some conditions this reaction is accompanied bydestructive expansion. Aprincipal factor determining the physical effect of such reactions is the special and selective hindrance to the diffusion of various ions through the structure of cement paste. Although hardened cement paste looks the way we might expect an amorphous continuum to look. Also. we know that cement paste contains submicro- scopic voids.66 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE crete. in general. The high specific surface area is due mostly to the thinness of the particles. By dispersing the structure and examining the fragments by electron microscopy. one kind involves siliceous rocks. This structure is the starting pattern of the structure that subsequently develops from the materials produced by reactions between the components of cement and water. may be regarded as the primary particles of paste structure. Since. may be decomposed by the caustic solutions found in concrete. The conditions mentioned involve chemico-physical factors too complex to be described here. but it is usually between 20 and 30 per cent of the weight of the dry hydrated cement. it is called dedolomitization. such as is possible only in the submicroscopic range. we have learned to think of matter as intrinsically granular. another is the quantity and specific surface area of the reactive form of silica. and perhaps two. even though atoms and molecules are the primary and secondary aggregations of matter in general. being greater than the limit usually stipulated for the colloidal state. certain dolomites. These particles. the other. Along with the colloidal material in hardened cement paste is crystalline calcium hydroxide having relatively low specific surface area. the reaction involves decomposition of the dolomite and the formation of magnesium hydroxide (brucite). as may be ascertained by referring to the literature on thealkali-silica reactionsin concrete. although a lower void content is possible. and thus they . we have seen particles and have been impressed by their smallness and irregularity of shape. The colloids observed in cement paste are mostly quasicrystalline. and under other conditions. opal being an outstanding example. Structure of Hardened Cement Paste: We have already seen that freshly mixed cement paste is a dispersion of cement particles in water and that it has a certain structure owing to the forces of attraction and repulsion among the cement particles. some dolomites react with the caustic aqueous solution in concrete and expand destructively. The amount of calcium hydroxide is different for cements having different chemical compositions. no expansion. Calcium hydroxide crystals are usually surrounded by and intergrown with colloidal material. we are inclined to regard the pore space as having the character of interstices in a granular aggregation. its void content usually being upwards of 40 per cent. lack of normal crystallinity being due to the extremely small size and imperfect atomic or molecular organization of the solid material. Some kinds of siliceous rocks. one of the three dimensions. in this particular case colloidal bodies can be defined as molecular or ionic aggregations having a very high specific surface area. not all of the same kind chemically.

and the highest possible solid content (exclusive of unhydrated cement if any) has been found to be about 72 per cent or perhaps a little more of the total volume occupied by hydrated material.19 cc of space per gram of cement. the increase of solid volume takes place without appreciable change of over-ail volume. is determined by the net volume of mixing water per unit volume of cement.POWERS ON NATURE OF CONCRETE 67 constitute an integral part of the solid structure. But experimentally it was found that void space cannot be eliminated. the highest possible solid content is about 72 per cent. there will be ample room within the specimen for all hydration products that can be derived from one gram of cement. the physical states of these materials are not known exactly. On this basis we might expect that the hydration products will require 0. The apparent volume of a specimen of paste. (The term gel designates a rigid aggregation of colloidal material. and among pastes made with different portland cements it is not much influenced by differences in chemical composition. An outstanding characteristic of the colloidal matter in hydrated cement paste is that its specific surface area is virtually the same in all pastes made of the same cement regardless of differences in paste density.6 cc of space in addition to the space originally occupied by 1 cc of cement. expressed as a volume per unit quantity of cement. The most abundant colloidal constituent of hydrated cement is an impure calcium silicate hydrate of somewhat indefinite stoichiometry. This experimental observation is.6 cc of hydrated cement. and it usually has a porosity between 40 and 55 per cent. the porosity will have a higher range if the paste is not fully mature. As already indicated the structure is porous. The solid content of any freshly mixed paste is a little over 62 per cent of what the solid content will be after chemical reactions have converted all the cement to the hydration products described above. As just indicated.19 by weight. this amounts to saying that if the water-cement ratio is 0. and the rest of the unit volume remains full of water or is void if all the s The microscopic changes that may occur later as the result of drying and wetting ace properly ignored here. The colloidal matter together with calcium hydroxide appear as a continuous solid structure apparently occupying the whole volume of any specimen of hardened cement paste. It has characteristics resembling those of a natural mineral called tobermorite and has thus come to be called tobermorite gel. As already mentioned. . or 0. which means if com- plete curing has been deliberately or inadvertently omitted. solid volume. but it appears that they are colloidal but with a lower order of specific surface area than those of tobermorite gel. produces about 1.another cornerstone on which ‘our concept of paste structure rests. Gregardless of how high the cement content may be or how little water per unit of cement. One cubic centimeter of cement. normally the solid matter occupies 45 to 60 per cent of the apparent volume.) There are also amounts of calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium alumino ferrite hydrate. This observation is one of the cornerstones of our concept of paste structure. In other words. and the material would become a voidless solid. The net volume of mixing water is that which remains within the specimen at the end of the period of settlement (bleeding) which is normally from 1 to 2 hr after mixing. it was found that under no circumstance can completely mature paste be made entirely solid. a specimen of hydrated cement paste may have a porosity of not less than about 28 per cent.

Although cement particles in freshly mixed paste are individually dispersed throughout the volume of mixing water.6/0.38. but at the same time they form a continuous structure having an over-all volume equal to the apparent volume of the paste.72 = 2.38 by weight. at any sufficiently low water-cement ratio. which limits the solid content to 72 per cent of the apparent volume. In other words. they can not be uniformly spaced because of the interparticle forces. there is more than enough space to accommodate the hydration products and thus less than 72 per cent of the space can become filled with solid matter. Of course. it seems that if we could subdivide a freshly mixed specimen of paste having a certain water-cement ratio into a large number of cubical cells each having an edge length of say 100 Y (about the same as the mean diameter of the largest cement particles but about 100 times as large as the spherical equivalent of a “particle” of tobermorite gel). even when excess space is available. In other words. Since some of the cells must be nearly full of solid material to start with.68 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE water in such space is caused to evaporate. The densest possible hydrated cement paste contains a continuous system of pores. Because of the intrinsic porosity of the structure. it is reasoned that if the hydrated material in a specimen of paste can reach an average density of 72 per cent but no higher. This being true. some of the cement remains anhydrous regardless of the duration of curing. already discussed. In any paste containing less than this amount of waterfilled space. and some might contain few if any grains. If any of the imagined cells contain excess cement. that same degree of density can be and is produced locally at various places throughout any paste. and a residue of the original cement remains a permanent feature of the structure of the paste. as it usually is. it seems almost certain that the 72 per cent limit of the content of solid hydrated material will be achieved in many cells after all the cement has become hydrated. Various observations lead to the concept that in every paste the hydration products tend to become locally concentrated to the maximum degree possible. we would not find the same volumes of cement and water in each cell.6 cc/cc of cement. considering the size of many of the cement grains. we would find that the over-all water-cement ratio is an average of many different local water-cement ratios some higher and some lower than the average. the extra space is a feature of the structure of paste. such cells can get rid of their excess material by diffusion of mate- . we would find some cells almost filled with a single grain. When there is more space available than the minimum required by the hydration products. even though some of the cells cannot become filled to this extent. the volume of paste must be at least 1. and this means that the water-cement ratio by weight must be at least 0. the residue appearing in cross sections as scattered remnants of the largest grains. which presumably is the case wherever the local water-cement ratio is lower than about 0. it follows that instead of 1.2 cc/cc of cement. as evidenced by its permeability to water. One line of evidence supporting this view develops from consideration of the structure of freshly mixed paste. when the volume of cement paste is greater than 2.2 cc/cc of cement to provide enough space for all the hydration products that can be derived from 1 cc of cement. however high the water-cement ratio. some would contain many small grains. that hold the particles practically (but not exactly) in point to point contact. and since interparticle attraction tends to hold particles close together.

The term cement gel is convenient for designating the predominantly colloidal material found in hydrated cement paste. The pores within cement gel are called gel pores. However.T I have used the term cement gel to designate hydrated cement paste in its densest form. for example.POWERS ON NATURE OF CONCRETE 69 rial into adjacent cells lacking cement. but which in any case is not known exactly. try the following: if one could place two marks one angstrom apart on a piece of superrubber 1 in. apart. of fresh paste containing excess cement is joined to one with a deficiency of cement. of course. if any. the original interstitial space among the cement grains having become segmented into isolated cavities by the growth of cement gel. and therefore it does not conform exactly to the term gel. Rock Structure: The structure of concrete is characterized not only by the structure of cement paste but also by the structure of individual pieces of rock making up the aggregate. depending upon the shape of the interstitial spaces. if a 2-in. It should be noted that by this definition cement gel is not synonymous with gel as used above.2 X 106cm2/cc of solid 7Theoretically. Some pieces. and if after hardening both are kept saturated with water. if any. in the present case where many of the spaces are believed to be slit-like. For a porosity of 28 per cent and for solid matter having a specific surface area of 5. The order of mean pore size is indicated by the quotient of the volume of pore space by the boundary area of that space. particularly the smallest. which is to say when the paste contains spaces other than gel pores. so that eventually all the cement can become hydrated if the average watercement ratio is high enough. the quotient is 7. capillaries. The concept of paste structure described above. the mean pore size is. and space not filled with cement gel. as has been verified by microscopic observations.b The corresponding average distance from solid surface to solid surface is between two and four times the hydraulic radius. properly defined as a solid composed of colloidal material. about 18 A seem to be a reasonable estimate. which is about the specific surface area of cement gel. the excess cement in one cube could. surface to surface distances range from zero at chemically bonded points to a maximum distance that is probably greater the greater the capillary porosity of the paste. diffuse into the excess space in the other. cube. The latter term is applied in pastes so dense that the capillaries are discontinuous.5 X 10-8 cm or 7. and then if one could stretch the rubber until it could encompass the earth. if any. or capillary cavities. long. matter. . When the porosity exceeds 28 per cent. entails a corresponding uneven distribution of the sizes of interstitial spaces. but this conclusion would be hard to prove because the process would probably require geological ages for completion. which quotient in hydraulic engineering is called the hydraulic radius. tobermorite gel. We can now describe hardened paste as a solid composed of cement gel. greater than the mean size of gel pores. remnants of cement grains. but in most concrete aggregates most of the particles have granular structure and are 8To acquire an idea of the magnitude of an angstrom unit. diffusion for a distance of a few microns can occur in a normal curing period. Any space not filled with cement gel or grain remnants is regarded as interstitial spaces among masses of cement gel and is called capillary space. the two marks would have become a little over 6 in. may consist of practically voidless crystals or fragments of crystals. after the density of hydrated material had reached 72 per cent. which requires us to visualize an uneven distribution of cement gel. for example. but it must be kept in mind that the term includes noncolloidal calcium hydroxide and other noncolloidal material.5 A.

Some rocks contain pores that reduce their apparent specific gravity but do not affect their permeability. A few kinds of rock do have fine texture. in other words. the higher the humidity. as a rule. The pores in permeable rock are usually larger than those in cement paste. A state of mechanical tensile stress between water molecules in the condensed state restrains evaporation in about the same way that van der Waals attraction restrains evaporation from a thin layer on a solid surface. adsorption being aided by hydrostatic tension maintained by curved meniscuses of the water in capillary spaces. States oj Water in Concrete: The solid matter in mature concrete may contain water molecules or ions derived from water. Cement paste can be regarded as a vessel open to the atmosphere so far as contained water is concerned. may have a coefficient of permeability to water equal to that of a specimen of hardened paste having a porosity of 50 per cent. some of the water can evaporate. but not all of the water it is capable of holding can evaporate unless the surrounding atmosphere is practically empty of water vapor. In rocks having porosities upwards of one per cent the relatively large . from about one third to two thirds of it will be full when the ambient humidity is only 50 per cent. We shall confine the discussion mostly to chemically free water found in cement paste. if the cement paste was originally saturated. water molecules are restrained from evaporating by the van der Waals forces of attraction between them and the surfaces of the gel particles. opposite surfaces are necessarily quite close together. the restrained molecules are held by van der Waals forces. and most are permeable to fluids. and unless they are also practically nonporous they do not make satisfactory concrete aggregate. Of principal interest.70 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE porous. Among these are vesicular rocks and artificially expanded shales in which isolated voids were formed by expansion of trapped gas. however. and such will be the condition when the ambient humidity is about 50 per cent. and which is found in gel pores. In spaces up to about 18A wide (see above) adsorption of two molecular layers on each surface is sufficient to fill most of such space. certain cherts also. Such rocks are useful when concrete of low unit weight is desired. and by those for some minerals found in concrete aggregate. we know that the pores in rocks are usually larger than those in hydrated cement paste. As has already been pointed out. that is. in other words. or in capillary spaces in paste or rock. it influences the properties of concrete to a very important degree. Because of cement paste the internal surface area is very extensive. certain argillaceous limestones are examples of unsuitable fine textured rocks. the pore space may be almost completely full. At higher ambient humidities. which attraction holds a condensed film of water molecules. A rock having a porosity of say one per cent. the amount retained being a larger fraction of the total evaporable water the higher the degree of saturation of the ambient atmosphere. It is commonly known that water in a vessel open to the atmosphere will eventually evaporate unless the atmosphere is saturated with water vapor. as indicated by the formulas for the compounds in hydrated cement. also rocks are less porous than paste. is the water that remains chemically free. rocks have a relatively coarse texture. but a definite fraction of it will be retained. a large fraction of the total evaporable water can exist as a thin film spread over solid surface. Of the total capacity of mature cement paste for evaporable water. thus. At low ambient humidities.

that limit usually being established by the means at hand for compacting the mixture. under a sustained high stress less than the mean “instantaneous” strength. The failure of water in concrete to evaporate as it normally does shows that it is altered to some degree by the material with which it is in contact. there is a somewhat greater weakening effect due to swelling. that is. a considerable fraction of the total capacity of rock for evaporable water maybe retained. the greater the strength of the cpncrete. particularly the alkalies. which means the lower the air content of the matrix. . that concrete cannot be stronger than the strength of individual aggregate particles. the counterforces corresponding to elastic strains of one kind or another in the solid structure within which the water is held. such forces are balanced by counterforces. the fact underlying the cement-space ratio law for strength given by Feret (1897). and the less general water-cement ratio law given by Abrams (1918). Naturally. Compressive strength. the upper limit tends to be established by th$ strengths of the aggregate particles. two absolutely identical specimens would not be likely to fail at exactly the same stress. the upper limit of concrete strength tends to be established by the upper limit of the density of the matrix. the function being such that strength appears higher the higher the rate of loading. Strength tests of many kinds of concrete show that such is indeed the case. The strength of a given kind of concrete is not a single valued property of the material. different rocks differ considerably in this respect.POWERS ON NATURE OF CONCRETE 71 pores can retain very little water at that humidity.. and therefore the stress existing at time of failure is intrinsically a variable number. and some of these will be discussed in the following paragraphs. as is evident when one considers air bubbles as aggregate. in particular. It would be expected that with a given aggregate the more cement gel per unit volume of paste and the more paste per unit volume of matrix. is maintained without increase. Strength: In the above discussion dealing with cohesion and adhesion we necessarily spoke of strength. is a function of the rate at which stressis applied. the specimen will eventually fail. they are not likely to fail at the same elapsed time . This does not mean. There is good evidence that some of the evaporable water normally held in concrete contributes to its strength. Some of the alteration may be due to dissolved material. but removal of solutes only modifies the situation. the fine textured rocks usually retain a comparatively large amount of water at an intermediate humidity. The principal forces acting on water and preventing it from evaporating into an unsaturated atmosphere have already been identified as van der Waals forces of attraction and capillary-induced tension. or. However. and yet greater than about two thirds of that stress. it was. in other words. For aggm. and earlier by Zielinski (1908). But there are other aspects of the strength of concrete depending on the nature of its structure. There are good reasons to believe that failure is essentially a random (stochastic) process. On the other hand. van der Waals attraction between water molecules and between solid material and water molecules seems to contribute to the total cohesive force. but at humidities upwards of 90 per cent. with aggregates composed of relatively weak particles. Such strains correspond to the reversible part of volume changes due to drying and wetting of concrete. If a stress less than the strength indicated by an ordinary test procedure. Of course. however. gates composed of strong particles.

Specimens of neat cement show evidence of tension failure in a compression test. or both kinds of fractures appear. further increase in compressive stress causes lateral dilation to increase more than can be accounted for by Poisson’s ratio. or fractures appear as cracks parallel to the axis. and again it is not difficult to account for the development of tensile stress as one rough surface is forced to move away from the other as it tends to slide. this paper is concluded without further development of the subject. When such stress begins to exceed tensile strength. If failure under compressive stress were limited only by strength in pure shear. is essentially failure in tension. the principal strains preceding failure would involve only the sliding of one smooth surface over another.Ser. the observed extra dilation with simultaneous internal cracking shows that tensile stress develops across the incipient fracture surfaces and causes separations at such surfaces. simply because of the granular nature of the material. we would still find variation of test results about the mean value from a large number of identical specimens. just as compact. other papers in this publication are concerned with such reviews. cracks. and no doubt interpretations in terms of structure will be found in them. but after the compressive stress becomes about two thirds of the stress at failure. . Thus. in which case the cause of tensile stress is obvious. CONCLUSION after loading. granular systems are intrinsically dilatant. When a concrete cylinder is subjected to a steadily increasing axial stress. the observed increase in diameter at low stress is a certain constant fraction (Poisson’s ratio) of the longitudinal shortening (compressive strain). These considerations amount to classifying cement paste or concrete as an intrinsically dilatant system.72 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE that during a compression test tensile stress necessarily develops around holes. In concrete made of strong aggregate material and weak paste. they have a strong tendency to split. structureless except for flaws. and thus no increase in volume other than that accounted for by Poisson’s ratio would be necessary. but even so the fracture surface is not smooth. vibrations due to internal splitting can be detected with suitable instruments. There is no tensile stress associated with the lateral strain just mentioned. fracture surfaces usually pass through rock particles. and thus tensile stress would develop even in a continuum. and this extra strain does denote the development of tensile stress.1111-l While discussing the structure of concrete and the internal forces that give it stability. Therefore. it is impossible for the surface of a fracture in paste to be smooth. asin the ordinary compression test. it seems that even with a perfect testing machine and with test specimens exactly alike. At failure. in concrete made with strong pastes.R&D. Since the individual particles of which paste or rock are composed are much stronger than the structure. fractures appear as uneven surfaces having an inclination to the axis somewhat less than 45 deg. hence. or when subjected to shear stress. the nominal shearing surfaces are likely to follow the contours of rock particles. Such experimental evidence indicates that the failure of concrete under compression. Without questioning this deduction we can at the same time suggest that tensile stress would arise anyway. however . various properties were discussed. Current theory of fracture indicates PCA. It would be possible to elaborate these brief discussions and to add other topics. uncemented. or flawsin the material.

1. of Chemistry. 14.” by L. 1958).ANKH. M. FORD. “Effect of Mixing and Curing Temperature on Concrete Strength. No. Reprinted from Journal of the American ceedings. 3. Sodium and Potassium Oxide in Cement by Flame Photometry. MANN and L. WEISE. “Petrography of Cement and Concrete. 1959 (Also lists earlie~ research papers of the Portland Cement Association). Laborat- L. 3848 (May. Reprinted from Analytical Cite?nistw. COPELAND. H.Laboru- 110. No.Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete—Chapter 11.” and C. 109. 1958). Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research ories. 108. “Long. 81-84 (July. 102. and Development Labora- Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. “Quantitative Determination Cement by Combined X-Ray of the Four Major Phases of Portland and Chemical Analysis. “Determination of the Apparent Density of Hydraulic Using a Vacuum Pycnometer.’) by FR. 1959). C. “The Flow of Water in Hardened POWERS. Reprinted from Jou?’?zat of the American ceedings. 104. 2-13 (May. MANN. FORD. Pro- 103. 105. E. COPELAND and H. M. E. 2. WEISE. 2. C. 1959). 31. ” by C. 231. KANTRO. and Development 111. L. EDITH G. 107. No. . 106. BROWN. 54.” by L. Concrete Institute (June. 1959). “The Ball-Mill Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate at Room Temperature. “Capillary POWERS. 1521-1530 (September. 54. 57-63 (October. No. D. D.” by PAUL KLIEGER. KANTRO. CoPE- LAND. No. “List of Published Bulletins and Papers of the Research Department. Report on Condition of Three Test Pavements After 15 Years of Service. L. C. Portland Cement Paste.” by T. 1063-1081 (1957-1958). Reprinted from ASTM Bulletin.” by D. 233. 1959). and Development . 1017-1032 (1957-1958). CARLSON. S. 1958). 37. 101. 714-724 (April.70UT?2U1 by STEPHEN BRUNAUER. L.” by C. 1. H. Concrete Institute (June. WEISE. Reprinted from Canadian . 363-376 (1959). 1958). Cement in Water Reprinted from ASTM Bulletin. H. Pro- “The Successive Determination of Manganese. STEPHEN BRUNAUER. L.Bulletins Published by the Research Department Research and Development Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association 100. 308-323 (1958). “Function of New PCA Fire Research Laboratory. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. 23-34 (September. 1. SCHULZ and C. JACKSON. Reprinted from Jou?’na~ of CoWirf Science. “The KANTRO Surface Energy of Tobermorite. Continuity or Discontinuity in Cement Pastes. H.” May. 1959).” by T. L. Reprinted from ffighwau Research f50ard Special Repo~t 40. STEPHEN BRUNAUER and C.” by C. E.

3. 1960). Aspects of the Hydration of Portland Cement. 825-636 (1960). “The Thermodynamic Functions for the Solution of Calcium Hydroxide in Water. E. 115. 3. 245. 2. 1091-1100 (1959). FORD. L. 124. 116. (December. “Some Physical T.112. No. 2.” by I. “A Short Method for the Flame Photometric Determination of Magne. HANSON. 114. 64. KANTRO. 3. T. L. Reprinted from ASTM BuUetin. MONFORE and 1960). 25-29. COPELAND.1059 (August. CHANG and ELAINE ANDERSON. L. “A Gravimetric Method for the Determination land Cement. “Concrete Mix Water—How Impure Can It Be?” by HAROLD H. No. J. Volubility Products. E. H. Reprinted from the Jou?mal of the PCA Research ~ies. 117. 1960). 122. C. 779-796 (1961). Reprinted from ASTM BuUetin. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Resea~ch and Development ‘La boratories. Reprinted from the Jou?mat of the PCA ReseaTch and Development tories. 57. A. POWERS. N.” by Reprinted from the Jowna~ of the PCA Research tories. “Volume Changes of Concrete Affected by Aggregate Type. 56. A. STEINOUR. L. SCHULZ. 125. and Potassium Oxides in Portland Cement.” by HAROLD ROPER. 59.” by S. 3. 57. 71-75 (April. 1960). WEISE and EDITH G. 42-50 (September. 13-19 (September. 250. “The Gravimetric Determination Cement. No. Z. Reprinted from the Journal of the PC’A Research tories. VERBECK. No. GREENBERG and L.” by 1961): PAUL KLIEGER and J. Concrete Institute (March. of Strontium Oxide in Portland Reprinted from ASTM Bulletin. A. 3. “Long-Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete—Chapter 12. Reprinted from Journal of Ph@cat 118. Chemistrg. 32-50 (September. Ray Analysis.” by PAUL KLIEGER. 1959). 2-12 (September. No. Reprinted from JOU?VWof the American Concrete institute (November. 1. “Quantitative Determination of the Four Major Phases in Portland Cement by X. 64. 120. ” by C. I. L. TYLER. No. 1960). No. 121. C. GREENBERC. 1960). and Development Labora. Labora- 119.” by C.” by G. Manganic. Proceedings. 105’7.” by S. 1960). and Development Labora- . 491-515 (1960). 247. “Some Aspects of Durability and Volume Change of Concrete for Prestressing. FORD. COPELAND. “Freezing and Thawing Tests of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete. Sodium. “A Cement-Aggregate Reaction That Occurs With Certain Sand-Gravel Aggregates. Reprinted from Journal of Ph@cat Che?nk’try. D. sium. 77-60 (July. “Corrosion of Prestressed G. L. 1. of Barium Oxide in Port. 1960).” by C. Reprinted from Journal of the American Proceedings. 1660). 1961). “Investigation of Colloidal Hydrated Silicates. No. Concrete Exposed to Sea Water and Fresh Water.” by STEPHEN BRUNAUER. and Development Labo~ato- 123. Reprinted from Joumat of the American Proceedings.” by WILLIAM LERCH. Reprinted from Proceedings of the AmeTican Society for Testing Materials. FORD. 1151-1156 (September. Concrete Institute (January. E. 47-56 (January. 113. 1960). Wire in Concrete.

22-26 (May. and D envelopment Labora- STEINWJR. 2-7 (September. SCHULZ. 60.” of the Hydration Products of Calcium by L. 1. No. E. 2-12 (January. 1962). 2-11 (May. 1962). 81 (June. “Soil-Cement Technology—A Resume. Paper 2640. 22-30 (January. A. E. “Alkali Reactivity of Carbonate tion.” by HUBERT WOODS. 80. “Centralized Control of Test Furnaces in the PCA Fire Research ratory. HELMUTH. 877-682 (June. and Development Labora- 135. 1962). 58-60 (February. ST 11. 3. 1961). 1961). 1020-1035(1880). 1. “Influence of Physical Characteristics of Aggregates on Frost sistance of Concrete. TYLER and BERNARD ERLIN. 130. “Progress in the Chemistry of Portland Cement. TATMAN. 3. No. “Dimensional Changes of Hardened Portland by Temperature Changes. 1881). 53-64 (November. 87. Proceedings of the American Soczetu of Civd Engineers. 3. 1961). S6. L. Reprinted from P?’oceecIhws of the American Soctetv for Testing Mate?+ds. L.” by GEORGE VERBECK and ROBERT LANDGREN. 13-21 (January. Measurements With Felted Asbestos Labora- 137. Reprinted from A?aaWkaI Che?nistw. “Research on Fire Resistance of Prestressed Concrete. D. Reprinted from the American Scientist. 1. and Development LaboLaborat- 133.” by HAROLD H. and ELAINE R. 4. No.” by R. 210-229 (March. 127. S.126. 1887-1960.” by PHIL J. of Hydrated Portland Cements and Calcium Silicates. PASCHKIS. “An X-ray Diffraction Investigation of Hydrated Portland Cement Pastes. ST 2. Reprinted from Proceedings 1063-1079 (1960). ST 5.” by STEPHEN BRUNAUER. Rocks—Expansion and Dedolomitiza40. and author’s closure. 462-474 (1961). Reprinted from the Journat of the PCA Research and Development tories 4. 2. the Permeability and Development of Labora- 134. 50. and C.” by Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research to~ies. 1961). ABRAMS and C. Reprinted from the JournaC of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories. KANTRO. Re. 1961). Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. including discussion by V. 2. 3!3. “Determination of the Free Calcium Hydroxide Contents. of the American SocietV for Testing Materials. CRUZ. COPELAND. 40. “Surface Temperature M. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research ories. 3. ABRAMS. 1. 1962). COPELAND and EDITH G. 8-19 (September. 3. No. L. Reprinted from Jo~rnal of the Structural Division. ANDERSON. Cloeure. 315-336 (1981).” by D. 131. No. 129. S. No. STEPHEN BRUNAUER. 87. 139.” by M. L. No. 128. . No. 7. WEISE. “A Proposed Simple Test Method for Determining Concrete. E. “The Behavior at High Temperature of Steel Strand for Prestressed Concrete. 1961). and Development Labora- 138.” by I. Reprinted from Htghwav Research Cement Pastes Caused 130ard Proceedings. “Electron Optical Investigation Silicates and Portland Cement. No. H. 132. “Tobermorite Gel—The Heart of’ Concrete. 4. 1960). 136. R. 3. Pads.” by MILES D. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories.” by DAVID W. KANTRO. CATTON. Reprinted from Hightuav Research 130ard Proceedings. HADLEY. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. Discussion. PRESSLER.” by E. Proc.

STEPHEN BRUNAUER. ” by D. GREENING. 142. 4. “Development of Surface in the Hydration of Calcium Silicates . WEISE.” by PAUL SELICiMANN and N. Wu and L. 1962). Re rinted from Symposium on Fire Test Methods. H. “A Direct Current Strain Bridge. Reprinted from Ffdunio?s International des Laborutoires d’llssats et de Recherches sur les Mat&iaux et les Constructions. Reprinted from Solid Surfaces and tire Gas. “Thermodynamic YOUNG. Interface. Pu EUcation No. E. C. Theory of Adsorption. and C. by G. 301. of Concrete at Very Low Temperatures.” by L. and Development Labora- Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories.” by C. 2. 4. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. II.219 (1961). 3. C. 4. COPELAND and T. H. “The New Beam Furnace at PCA and Some Experience Its Use. “Air Content of Hardened BERNARD ERLIN. 1962). STEPHEN BRUNAUER. and “Thermodynamics of Adsorption.” by T. 41-59 (1961). “Development of Surface in the Hydration of Calcium Silicates. No. C. and Development Labora- 150. KANTRO. 66. 2-9 (September. 141. POWERS. 4. No. 1982). tories. No. (July. L. POWERS. COPELAND. L. Illinois. “An Optical Method for Determining by C. Concrete by a High-Pressure Method. 4. Research and Development Labora- 148. “A Hypothesis on Carbonation Shrinkage. 1962). No. and Development Labora. R. “New Techniques for Temperature and Humidity Control in X-Ray Diffractometry. 2429 (September. and Development Labora- 144. 1804-9 (October. E. 2.“ by Advances in D. 10. 2-9 (May. Advances in Reprinted from Solid Surfaces and the Gas. 2. ~@&inted from The Jou?mat of Piz@cat Chemistry.140. WEISE. 120-124 (March. MONFORE. 1962). Extension of Investigations to Earlier and Later Stages of Hydration. and C. E. F. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. 147. 1962). TATMAN. 33-39 (May. C.” and Development Labora- Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories.” and “A Biaxial Strain Apparatus for Small Cylinders. 1962). Published by Portland Cement Association. Skokie.” by T. 40-50 (May. Gained from Technical ASTM Special 143. “Physical Properties A. KANTRO. E. R. Labora- MONFORE and Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. No. C. CARLSON and PHIL J.” by Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories.” Advances by in Reprfnted from Solid Surfaces and the Gas. Study A — Influence of Thickness of Concrete Covering Over Prestressing Steel Strand. Solid Interface. 348-356 (1961). RILEM Bulletin 14. Y. CRUZ.” by G. Interface. 149. the Elastic Constants of Concrete. . 151. “Prevention of Frost Damage to Green Concrete.” LENTZ. 3. 145. CARLSON. No. “Fire Resistance of Prestressed Concrete Beams. 1962). Chemistry Series 33. E. 4. and Development 146. 2432 (May.Solfd Chemistry Series 33. 199.Solid Chemistry Series 33.” by C. 2. Barium Sulphate—Water System. 357-368 (1961). No.

9-29 (1963). Paper VI-S2. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. 3. ” by PAUL KLIEGER. 23-26 (May. M. 154. I. Thickness. “Abnormal Cracking in Highway Structures in Georgia and Alabama. 2. Washington. Reprinted from Chemistry of Cement. 5.” by R. Aggregate Panels. “The Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate and &D~lcalcium Silicate Room Temperature. 159. “Rheology of Fresh Portland Cement Pastes: fates.465. GREENBERG. Vol. held at the National Bureau of Standards (U. 329-353 (1963). 429. Number 3. Washington. 1963). 158. POWERS. Session III. D. 153. 577-609.” by 130RJE OST and G.3. A. E. Department of Commerce). Monograph 43. D. I. L. Reprinted from the Jour?tat of the PCA Research tories. E. Monograph 43. by L. 1-25 (1962). MONFORE. 1963). 8-21 (September. Washington. Department of Commerce).. of Prestressed Concrete. C. held at the National Bureau of Standarde (U. “Extensions to the Long-Time crete. D. 1960.. PaPer V-1. HELMUTH. COPELAND. held at the National Bureau of Standards (U. A.” by S.” by STEPHZN BRUNAUER and S. OLESON.” by CALVIN C. L. 5. 1.S.S. 5. D. 731-744. 1963).S. ” by Tec~nicQI Reprfnted from symPosinm on Fire Test Methods. Concrete Institute (March.S. Gage for Measuring Relative Humidity. Reprinted from Chemistry of Cement.” by G.. 1963). Monograph 43. . No. GREENBERG. 155. Session VI. 135-165. Department of Commerce). 5. IL Session v. Reprinted from Chemistry of Cement.” by A. Vol. Reprinted from Journal of the American Proceedings. No. C.S.. 2. and Development 161. C. “Durability Studies of Exposed Study of Cement Performance and Development in Con. Monograph 43. “Effect of Restraint on Fire Resistance S. 2. Monograph 43.152. C.. Department of Commerce). 855-869. Vol. 11. ISBERNER. D. ” by MOSHE ISH-SHALOM and S. “A Small Probe-Type MONFORE. Proceedings of the Fourth International Svmpostum. “A Sonic Method to Determine Pavement Influence of Calcium Sul- Reprinted from IJightoau Research Record. C. and Development Labora- Reprinted from the JOUTW21 of the PCA Research tories. Labora- Reprinted from the JousvraCof the PCA Research to~ies. 60. 1963). Department of Commerce).” by T. Paper III-1. “The Rheology of Fresh Portland Cement Pastes. 163. 1960. II. and of Hydration of Portland Cement. Washington. 14-22 (May. ASTM Special Publication No. No. and Development Labora- 160. Labora- Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. 156. held at the National Bureau of Standards (U. GREENBERG and L. Reprinted from Chemistry of Cement. 41-47 (May. CARLSON. 1960. MEYER. A. 157. paper V-S4. A. Washington. at Reprinted from Chemistry of Cement. E. C. “Physical Properties of Cement Paste. 1960. VO1. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium. “Capillary Size Restrictions on Ice Formation in Hardened Portland Cement Pastes.Proceedings of the Fourth international Symposium. 2-14 (January. 1960. 162. C.” GEORGE VERBECIC.” by RICHARD Labora- MUENOW. D. “Chemistry KANTRO. Vol. No. 1963). 5. 344. Proceedings of the Fourth International SUmposium. W. No. “Corrodibility of Prestressing Wire in Concretes Made With Type I and Type IS Cements.Proceedingsof the Fourth International Svmposium. Paper IV. and Development 164. Session V. SELVAGGIO and C. Session IV. held at the National Bureau of Stendards (U.

1. “Alkali Reactivity of Dolomitic Carbonate Rocks. Reprinted from Ifigiwau Research Record. “Petrographic Studies on Concrete Containing Shrinking Aggregate. and Development Labora- 166. 171. 6.L. Ifluence of Aggregate and Load Intensity. and STEPHEN BRUNAUER. by and Devetop?nent Labora- 173. SH. L. 1964). “Corrosion of Aluminum Conduit in Concrete. Skokie. 170. 7. 2. t~TwentYYear Report in Concrete. E. 1964) 6. No. May. E. KANTRO. C. “Quantitative Determination of the Major Phases in Portland Cements by X-Ray Diffraction Methods. No. Cox and BERNARD ERLIN.” by T. L. 10-22 (January. 1964).” by HAROLD H. Labora- 172. ontheLong-Time Study of Cement performance 175. 1965). HADLEY. 2-9 (May. Number 45. 2. 1965). No. tories. 426-438 (February. “Topics in Concrete Technology — 1. MONFORE. 1964). MIKHAIL. 6. No. tories. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research and Development tories. Reprintedfrom the Journal of the PCA Resea~ch and Development LUbOTQtories. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories.” by D. COPELAND. 6. No.10t4TT2d of the PCA Research tories. H. W. Research and Development Labora- 176.” HAROLD ROPER.165. 3347 (1963).” by G. 23-41 (January.” by DAVID W.” by DAVID W. Illinois. 19. Reprinted from Canadian Journal of Chemtstru. No. Analysis of Plastic Concrete Mixtures. 1964).20-40 (January. CARLSON. and 7. No. 1964). 46-64 (May. Illinois. and De. Reprintedfrom ~@lwav Research Record. 2. STEINOUR.” by PAUL KLIEGER and WILLIAMPEREIJCHIO. E.” by Advisory Committee. C. May. Reprinted from Highwag Research Record. 6. 1-19 (1964). Long-Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete. WEISE. 1. C. 2-15 (January. 1.ReaCtiVe gation. ” by S. Gypsum. “Silicone Influence on Concrete Resistance to Freeze-Thaw Icer Damage. 10-25 (May. 2. 41-64 (January. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. 1964). MONFORE and and Development Labora- BORJE OST. L. HADLEY. “Fire Resistance of Prestressed Concrete Beams. ” b Y WILLIAM PERENCHIO. 42. “Properties and of Expansive Cement Made With Portland Cement.” by G. POWERS. ” by R. and 6. SELVAGGIOand C. 3. 6. 1964). Chairman. Skokie. No. Research and Development Labora- 169. Mixtures Containing Intentionally Entrained Air. ~~Alkali. J. 3. HANSEN. 1964). ~~pore Structures and Surface Areas of Hardened Portland Cement Pastes by Nitrogen Adsorption. 2. Reprinted from the .42 (September. 1. 1. No. 174. Published by Portland Cement Association. 1965. COPELAND. and STEPHEN BRUNAUER. Carbonate Rocks in Indiana—A Pilot Regional ~vesti177. Labo~a- Calcium Aluminate Cement. No. and 4. E. 2-18 (September. 6. and Deoetop?nent Labora- 167. No. Geometric Properties of Particles and Aggregates. 1964). Number 45. . 8. 168. 196-221 (1964). Characteristics of AirVoid Systems. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research and Development tories. No. i~rnfluence of the Cement on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel in COn- crete. Reprinted from the JouraaL of the PCA Research tories. “Effect of Surface Grinding and Joint Sawing on the Durability of Paving Concrete. 3. 16-19 (January. Publiehed by Portland Cement Association. Number 16. 1. Study B. 1964. C. E.

” by R. S. 180. No. 47-85 (May 1965). 64. 39-46 (May 1965). Reprintedfrom the JoumaC of the PCA Resea~cit and Development Labora. 2. 186. HANSON. 162-166(January. 181. and Development Labor- 184. at Very Low Temperatures. by Reprinted from Moisture of Materials tn Relation to Fire Teets. 385. “Thermal Conductivity of Concrete A. PFEIFER. N. 7. No. 1965). and Development Labor- 185. “Application of a Small Probe-Type Relative Humidity Gage to Research on Fire Resistance of Concrete. 182. 2. 7. tories.” by VENICEK. 183. “Cement Hydration Reactions at Early Ages. “Expansive Concrete—Laboratory Tests of Freeze-Thaw and Surface Scaling Resistance. 830-845 (1964). No. ABRAIWS and G. A.” by GEORGE VERBECK. 1. “Investigation of Colloidal Hydrated Calcium Silicates. KLIEGER. Reprintedfrom the Journalof the PCA Research and Development Laboratories. “Particle Size Distribution of Portland Cement from Wagner Turbidimeter Data. 3. E. 1. 7. G. 7. 189. LANDGREN. 8.” by ROEERT LANDGREN. MONFORE. No. S. 64. No. MONFORE. GUSTAFERRO. 52-73 (1965). HIME and E. H. of Combustion Air in Rotary Kilns. II.” and Development by Labor- Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research atories. GREENING. No. A. Aggregates Reprinted from Proceedings of the American Society for Testing and Materials. 7. “Oxygen Enrichment GAYDOS. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. E.and D. LENTZ and G. No. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research atories. 3. 188. 179. “Concrete Drying Methods and Their Effect on Fire Resistance. ” by M. GREENING. No. 66-75 (May 1965). J. L. W. and Development Labora- 187. 49-56 (September 1965). 846-865 (1964).36 (January 1966). ASTM Special Technical publication No. Volubility Relationships in the Calcium Oxide-Silica-Water System at 25° . 80-105(1964). LABONDE. Number62. CHANG. GREENBERG and T.” M. 3. ” by W. G. “Studies of Early Hydration Reactions of Portland Cement by X-Ray Diffraction. 57-63 (September 1965). 24-31 (September 1965).” by ROBERT A. Reprintedfrom the Journalof the PCA Research and Development Laborato~ies. “Water-Vapor Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of Selected Lightweight Concrete Aggregates. 69. ABRAMSand D. “A Rapid Method for Studying Corrosion Inhibition of Steel in Concrete. 7.178.” by A.” by PAULSELIGMANN and NATHAN R. 2. Reprinted from Jow?salof Phwtcal C7te?nist?’v. 3. and P.” by ROBERT LANDGREN. GOUDA and G. 10. and Development Labora- Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. ORALS.“ by S. 2-12 (September 1965). 190. N. Reprinted from Proceedings of the American Socfetu for Testing and Materials. Reprintedfrom HtgitwavResearcltRecord. E. MONFORE. E. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research stories. “An Improved Procedure for Proportioning Mixes of Structural Lightweight Concrete. No. 7. “Determining the Water Absorption of Coarse Lightweight for Concrete. .

Reprinted from ASTM Jormna2 of Materkzk. 395. HIME.191.3-17(1966). 194. 169-A. . MIVEI. 37-45 (January 1966).” by T. “Use of Infrared Spectrophotometry for the Detection and Identification of Organic Additions in Cement and Admixtures in Hardened Concrete. F. 1.AZ.” by W. No. “The Nature of Concrete. CONNOLLY. “Methods Used in Petrographic Studies of Concrete. 1. Reprintedfrom AnalyticalTechniquesfor Hydratic Cement and Concrete.” by W. POWERS. 180-202 (March 1966). Reprintedfrom the Journa& of the PCA Research tories. Reprinted from Significance of Tests and Propertied of CONCRETE ANDCONCRET& MAKING MATERIALS. 192. ASTM Special Technica~ Publication No. No. E. 61-72 (1966). “Improved Method of Testing Tensile Bond Strength of Masonry Mortars. W. “Elastic CRUZ. KUENNING. “Penetration and Development of Chloride into Concrete.29 (1966).” by CmLos R. C. 46-52 (January 1966). 395. Labora. 8.A. and J. ASTM Special Tec%nicat Publication No. Properties of Concrete at High Temperatures. ” by BERNARD ERLIN. Reprintedfrom AnalyticalTechniquesfor HydraulicCement and Concrete. G. 1.” by BORJEOST and G. 1. 196. MONand Development Labora- FORE. 8. H. 18. 193. Reprinted from the Journal of the PCA Research tories. 195. D. No. Printed in U. ASTMS~ecia~ TechnicalPublicationNo.S.