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Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS

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Introduction

PANSS

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Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Overview
 The PANSS, developed by SR Kay et al is a 30-item rating scale that is specifically developed to assess individuals with schizophrenia and is used very widely in research settings. The PANSS is an adaption from earlier psychopathology scales, including the Brief Psychopathology Rating Scale (BPRS).

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Overview
 PANSS is based upon the premises that schizophrenia has two distinct syndromes, a positive and a negative syndrome. The positive syndrome includes those productive features such as delusions and hallucinations, while the negative syndrome includes those features which are lacking/poorly developed in individuals with schizophrenia, such as social withdrawal and flattened or blunted affect.

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Overview
    Target Population: patients with schizophrenia. Time taken: 45 to 50 minutes Main indication: Determines presence of symptom, frequency and influence on activities / functioning Rating performed by: Trained health professionals.

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Symptoms
 PANSS obtains specific information about range of symptoms:
• Poor impulse control • Poor impulse control • Somatic concerns • Depression • Feelings of guilt • Grandiosity • Anxiety • Delusions • Unusual thought content • Suspiciousness/persecution • Passive/apathetic social withdrawal • Active social avoidance

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Symptoms
 Before rating are assigned it is important to establish presence & severity of symptoms
    Prominence of abnormal manifestations Frequency of occurrence Disruptive impact on daily functioning, Disorientation, difficulty in abstract thinking, judgment, insight

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Item Points
 The Seven Positive Symptom : Items (P1-P7)
       P1 Delusions P2 Conceptual Disorganization P3 Hallucinatory Behavior P4 Excitement P5 Grandiosity P6 Suspiciousness/persecution P7 Hostility

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Item Points
 The Seven Negative Symptom: Items (N1-N7)
       N1 Blunted affect N2 Emotional withdrawal N3 Poor rapport N4 Passive/apathetic social withdrawal N5 Difficulty in abstract thinking N6 Lack of spontaneity and conversation flow N7 Stereotyped thinking

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Item Points
 General Psychopathology: Items (G1-G16)
• G1. Somatic concerns • G2. Anxiety • G3. Guilt feelings • G4. Tension • G5. Mannerisms/ posturing • G6. Depression • G7. Motor retardation • G8. Uncooperativeness • G9. Unusual thought content • G10. Disorientation • G11. Poor attention • G12. Lack of judgment and insight • G13. Disturbance of volition • G14. Poor impulse control • G15. Preoccupation • G16. Active social avoidance

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

References
 Main reference: Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:261-276, 1987a.