You are on page 1of 84

A PROJECT REPORT ON “LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF STEEL INDUSTRY”

BY, SWARUP MUKHOPADHYAY

INST ITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT & STUDIES YEAR OF SUBMISSION –2003-04

-2-

“LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF STEEL INDUSTRY”

-3-

CERTIFICATE FROM THE GUIDE

This is to certify that project work titled “Life cycle Assessment of Steel Industry” is a bonafide work carried out by Swarup Mukhopadhyay, a candidate for the Post graduate Examination of Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment under my guidance and direction.

SIGNATURE OF GUIDE: NAME: DESIGNATION: ADDRESS: DATE: PLACE:

-4-

ENVIRONMENTAL, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY TATA STEEL REAFFIRMS ITS COMMITMENT TO PROVIDE SAFE WORK PLACE AND CLEAN ENVIRONMENT TO ITS EMPLOYEES AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF ITS BUSINESS PHILOSOPHY & VALUES. WE WILL CONTINUALLY ENHANCE OUR ENVIRONMENTAL, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY (EHS) PERFORMANCE IN OUR ACTIVITIES, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES THROUGH A STRUCTURED EHS MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK. TOWARDS THIS COMMITMENT, WE SHALL; • • • • Establish and achieve EHS objectives and targets. Ensure compliance with applicable EHS legislation and other requirement and go beyond. Conserve natural resources and energy by constantly seeking to reduce consumption and promoting waste avoidance & recycling measures. Eliminate, minimize and / or control adverse environmental impacts and occupational health and safety risks through adopting appropriate ‘State-of-theart’ technology and best EHS management practices at all levels and functions. Enhance awareness, skill and competence of our employees & contractors so as to enable them to demonstrate their involvement, responsibility and accountability for sound EHS performance.

as a highly material and energy intensive technology oriented sector. A major portion of the raw-materials and other resources used in steel making via the integrated production route get converted into and discharged as polluted air. A material balance of a typical integrated steel plant indicates that the production of one . international competition has become sharper with many new players entering the arena with high quality steel. There has been a simultaneous shift in consumer expectations with regard to quality of products and services that a steel maker offers. In the present scenario. water and solid wastes at considerable energy and capital cost. so is its potentially major impact on environment.-5- Date: 31st January 2003 (B MUTHURAMAN) MANAGING DIRECTOR ABSTRACT The Iron and Steel industry is facing a serious challenge today both in the developed countries as well as in the newly industrialized parts of the world. the steel industry. innovation and adaptation to new technology but also has to refocus its attention on its overall responsibility to the society in terms of environmental performance. In India. The pervasive nature of steel industry because of the magnitude of its operations and its intensive use of energy and raw materials is readily appreciated by all and. not only needs to address the obvious questions of profitability.

By this Cradle to Grave approach LCA provides an objective diagnostic tool to . provides a new perspective on products and processes as it examines the industrial systems and evaluates their performance starting from the extraction of raw materials through all the varied operations until their final disposal as wastes back into the ecosystem. Life Cycle Assessment and Natural Resource Accounting became widely accepted.-6- tonne of finished steel product generates roughly 420 kg waste stream-mainly slag. Environment Audit. profitability and resource optimization through Cleaner Technologies. in particular. energy and. Management tools like Impact Assessment. Excessive water. LCA. Compared to its Western counterparts the Indian steel sector is beset with problems of higher energy consumption (40GJ Vs 18GJ/tonne of crude steel). More importantly. The emergence of the first energy crisis in mid Seventies and the growing awareness about the environmental accountability led to the search for new interventions for improved productivity. This is probably so because many of the Indian plants were designed when the cost of water. dust and sludges. energy and raw materials was low and the need for effluent treatment could be ignored. higher raw material consumption. designs were based on discounted cash flow calculations with long term high running costs. raw material usage seemed an acceptable price to pay for short term savings in initial capital investment to procure rather outmoded technology and machinery. higher pollution load (3-6kg of dust Vs 1kg/tonne of crude steel) and.

switch over from end-of-the pipe treatment to cleaner production initiatives. environmental bench marking and uncover trade-off. therefore. Requisite interventions emerging from the study are also detailed with emphasis on integration of the upstream processes. This paper presents the methodology adopted. policy initiatives. wastes minimization initiatives through recycling and reuse for promoting Cleaner Production. material choices. up gradation of skills and reorientation of marketing and decision making policy and processes etc. improvements in house-keeping. . emissions generated and estimated as per the common basis of measurement suggested in the global study etc. Special attention is given to handling and management of wastes and. An LCA study involving three integrated steel plants in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment & Forests was initiated in 1997 in India.-7- take strategic market decisions. relative performance of our steel sector in relation to International Bench Marks regarding raw material and energy consumption per unit of crude steel.

IV. VIII IX X XI TITLE PAGE CERTIFICATE ABSTRACT CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES NOMENCLATURE .-8- CONTENTS I II III. V VI. VII.

(1-7) 1 2 5 1.2 STEEL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1.1 LIFE CYLCE ASSESSMENT 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE INDIAN STEEL SECTOR STUDY (8-17) 8 9 12 .1 LCA AND THE STEEL INDUSTRY:INITIATIVE AT IISI 2.4 BASIC FRAME WORK OF LCA 7 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION 1.2 NEED FOR AN LCA STUDY FOR THE INDIAN STEEL SECTOR 2.-9- CHAPTER TITLE PAGE No.3 LCA AS AN ENVIRONMENTALTOOL5 1.

4 GROWTH TRENDS 4..0 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THE US STEEL INDUSTRY 4.3 PLANT CATEGORIES 4.0 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THE INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY 3.3 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF STEEL 3.5 INVESTMENT 4.2 GENERAL 4. 4.4 MATERIAL RECYCLING AND REUSE 3.10 - 3.1 ENERGY USAGE 3.6 INDUSTRIAL FINANCIAL PROFILE (27-70) 27 28 28 29 32 32 .2 WATER USAGE TREND 3.1 MACRO ECONOMIC LOOK AT STEEL MAKING 4.5 FUTURE CHALLENGES (18-26) 20 20 20 24 26 CONTENTS (CON…) CHAPTER TITLE PAGE No.

0 REFERENCES 71 ..15 INTEGRATED VS SEMI INTEGRATED.10 INVENTORY OF INTEGRATED STEEL MAKING 4.11 - 4. COMPARISION 4.13 INVENTORY OF SEMI-INTEGRATED STEEL MAKING 4.16 IMPROVEMENT ANALYSIS 4..) CHAPTER TITLE PAGE No. 4.9 INTEGRATED STEEL PRODUCTION PROCESS 4.7 LCA STUDY OF STEEL INDUSTRY 4.14 IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR SEMI-INTEGRATED STEEL MAKING 4.12 ALTERNATE WAYS OF STEEL MAKING 4.8 GOAL AND SCOPE 33 33 4.17 ACTIVITIES INCLUDE 34 37 49 50 51 59 60 67 70 CONTENTS (CON.18 CONCLUSION 70 5.11 IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR INTEGRATED STEEL MAKING 4.

. TITLE PAGE NO.6 TOXIC RELEASE INVENTORY CHEMICALS FOR SEMIINTEGRATED STEEL 4.12 - LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.3 4.9 INTEGRATED VS SEMI-INTEGRATED INPUT COMPARISION 62 58 58 (54 –57) .8 SEMI-INTEGRATED SLAG OUTPUT BLAST FURNACE AND STEEL MILL AIR POLLUTANTS EMISSIONS 4.2 INPUT INVENTORY FOR INTEGRATED STEEL PRODUCTION TOXIC RELEASE INVENTORY CHEMICALS FOR STEEL MAKING FACILITIES 4. NATURAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION PER TON OF STEEL 16 2.4 INTEGRATED SLAG OUTPUT BLAST FURNACE AND STEEL MILL AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS 4.5 INPUT INVENTORY FOR SEMI-INTEGRATED 53 48 49 42 (44-47) 17 STEEL PRODUCTION 4.1 4.1 IMPORTANT INFLOWS AND OUTFLOWS PER TONNE OF STEEL MAKING SYSTEM 4.7 4.

TITLE PAGE No..10 TOXIC RELEASE INVENTORY CHEMICALS COMPARISION (63-66) LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE No.1 4.13 - 4.2 RAW STEEL PRODUCTION BY FURNACE TYPE TYPICAL FLOW OF INTEGRATED STEEL PRODUCTION 31 36 NOMENCLATURE AISI BOF BSP CDQ American Iron and Steel Institute Basic Oxygen Furnace Bhilai Steel Plant Coke Dry Quenching . 4.

.1 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Life cycle assessment is a technique used to assess potential environmental. economic and technical implications associated with a specific product or service. This type of assessment has become a valuable tool for producers’ studies in industrial ecology .14 - DIOS EAF EIA EPA IISI LCA LCI NERI NRA OHF PCI RINL TRI JIT Direct Iron Ore Smelting Electric Arc Furnace Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Protection Agency International Iron and Steel Institute Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle inventory National Environmental Research Institute Natural Resource Accounting Open Hearth Furnace Pulverized Coal Injection Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited Toxic Release Inventory Just in time CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.

. recycling. to assess the impact of those energy and material uses and releases on the environment. or an activity by identifying and quantifying energy and material usage and environmental releases. The assessment includes the entire life cycle of the product. there are three formal steps in the analysis. building maintaining. encompassing extracting and processing raw materials. process or activity. The first very important part of the study is defining the goal and scope of the project. 1995) As defined by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. product or activity. compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and . Also in defining the goal and scope of the project. Product stewardship involves “designing. this gives a detailed overview of the process.15 - and with the rising popularity of practicing product stewardship. an LCA is as follows: “The life-cycle assessment is an objective process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product. transportation. and final disposal”. and distribution. After defining the goal and scope. use/re-use/maintenance. and which parts will be focused on in the analysis. manufacturing. 1995) This type of analysis is a very large and detailed one. (Graedel. and recycling products in such a way that they pose minimal impact to the wider world. and to evaluate and implement opportunities to effect environmental improvements. who.” (Graedel. where and how the study will be conducted are key points that need to be defined. These steps include: inventory analysis. process. and can typically be defined into a series of steps.

impact analysis. Molten iron is converted into a range of applications in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) which uses the rapid injection of oxygen to remove the excess amount of carbon and silicon in the iron. Steel making was a highly profitable and vital component of national economies. . The starting point for the production of steel is the smelting of iron ore in a blast furnace. while scrap based production using electric arc furnaces was confined to the lowest grades of steel and played only a marginal role. Integrated steel production was the norm.16 - outputs. Liquid steel at over 16000 C is then cast into different shapes before passing through a series of finishing mills to give it its final dimensions and mechanical properties. The recycling of scrap in an electric arc furnace (EAF) also produces steel. evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs.. These process alone uses 70 per cent of the total energy used in steel making. environmentally responsible and durable products. 1. which uses coal in the form of coke to reduce iron ore to molten iron.2 STEEL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Steel is essential for economic development and its versatile range of physical properties and chemical resistances make it the main structural and engineering material in different sectors of development. interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study. Steel is a strong material and is continuing to provide benefits to society through safe. Some 25 years ago. steel making was at its zenith. Today the situation is rather different. and improvement analysis.

The blast furnace is a very efficient mechanism for making virgin iron units. Over the course of the twentieth century. the capital costs required to refurnish or build new blast furnaces will mean the gradual reduction in the number of ones which are operating. On the other hand. However. the USA was producing 37% of the world steel. the electric arc furnace route of steel making has lower capital costs per tonne of output. In addition. There are over 350 steel companies. its role in the developed world will decline. The size of this industry will be significant in the years to come.. which have a steel making capacity of half a million tonne or more per year. production of crude steel has risen at an astounding rate. this region accounts for almost 40 % with Europe producing 36% and North America 14. The steel industry too is facing a challenging time. although the precise nature of these challenges is different in different parts of the world. Steel use . With post war industrial development in Asia. Today. In 1900. over two thirds of the steel is produced through the blast furnace route.5 %. now fast approaching a production level of 800 million tonnes per year. works on a variable cost basis and can be increasingly supported in the future through supplements to scrap in the form of alternative iron units produced through direct reduction processes. as environmental pressures will force continued reduction in the use of coal reserves for coke making. Our present time has brought in additional changes and challenges for virtually allindustrial activities.17 - There is a significant shift in the geography of steel making. on a worldwide basis.

increased emphasis on ''just in time. In India too. In the present scenario. building and industry. innovation and adaptation to new technology. steel use (and hence production) increases when economies are growing as Governments invest in infrastructure and transport. as a highly material and energy intensive technology oriented sector not only needs to address the obvious questions of profitability.. All the enterprises in the chain from raw material extraction to the consumer are putting emphasis on cycle time reduction. 2001)(1).18 - strongly reflects major economic forces .Put simplistically. but also has to refocus its attention on its overall responsibility to the society in terms of environmental performance. 1. Concomitant with these developments there has been a simultaneous shift in consumer expectations with regard to quality of products and services that a steel maker offers. increased efficiencies in the manufacturing process.'' and cleaner production. international competition has become sharper with many new players entering the arena with high quality steel. the steel industry.3 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL TOOL . Economic recession meets with the dip in Steel production as such investments falter. (IISI.

becoming increasingly useful for objective analysis related to policy strategies development. which can hopefully be achieved. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Natural Resource Accounting (NRA) are. Today EIA has become mandatory in many countries. and demand for a cleaner environment. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) or commonly known "Cradle to Grave" analysis. business strategies including investment plans and product and process design etc. Environmental Audit. industry managers and governments have discovered that this is not enough. or by the Government to lead the industry towards resource optimization and Cleaner Production. Tools such as Impact Assessment. These instruments can be used by the industry either to better design and manage its operations and products. therefore. including India. and that a wider tool basket is needed to support informed decision making in response to increased regulatory and public pressure.. has emerged as a powerful analytical tool for material development and product substitution to . With experience. have their limitations. however. product policy development.19 - The search for innovation and cost effective ways to improve industry's performance has led to the development of a wide array of concepts. Since. and management tools for decision making. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was one of the first such tools developed to predict the impacts of new industrial facilities on the environment. EIA’s. an environmental impact assessment considers potential environmental effects during the planning phase before the operations actually start it essentially projects a scenario.

however. Government pressure and process/environmental benchmarking. Steel fraternity world over is engaged in developing rigorous methodologies to appropriately utilize this tool to uphold the competitive position of steel in the world market. has its origins in the premise that the only sensible way to examine industrial systems is to examine their performance starting with the extraction of raw materials through all the varied operations until their final disposal as wastes back into the ecosystem (cradle to grave). . Most studies have so far been in the Western world where LCA is attracting attention in response to devising product promotion strategies. use. material choices. it essentially seeks to determine the impact of a product or a process on the environment through its entire life cycle from the cradle to the grave. policy initiatives and uncover trade offs. disposal and recycling of products including the materials from which they are made and assessing the burdens assignable to these over their entire life cycle. LCA is a new way of looking at products and processes. meeting customer demands. It. LCA provides an objective analysis to make strategic market decisions. and anticipating competitor reaction. Also called Ecobalance.. By seeking to consider comprehensively the issues associated with the production.20 - meet the twin objectives of resource optimization and sustainable development.

21 - 1. 2. necessary to aggregate the data according to known and significant . It is. 4.. the LCI phase (the drawing up of a process tree. An LCI is essentially the backbone of any LCA and requires an exhaustive listing and quantification of energy and raw material requirements.e. filling in the process data and drawing up an intervention table) is the most crucial step in an LCA exercise. air emissions. The raw output from the model provides enormous amount of data. the functional unit of the study as also the identification of the target group for whom the study is intended. the identification of the boundaries. The next step i. effluents and other environmental releases. 3. Goal definition Inventory analysis or life cycle inventory (LCI) Impact assessment and Improvement analysis The starting step for any LCA is goal definition and scooping. therefore. A number of advanced models are available which help divide the industrial system into specific unit operations which can each be studied and linked back together to form the complete life cycle datasheets for any individual system. It involves defining the scope of the study. which can be overwhelming for the average user.4 BASIC FRAMEWORK OF LCA A review of international practices in the field of LCA indicates that the standardized framework being promoted as code of practice comprises of a four-step process: 1.

22 - impact indicators. embarked on an ambitious global LCI study on steel industry products in 1997 with the primary objective of building a data base and developing a common worldwide methodology for cradle to gate steel product LCIs across member companies within IISI.1 LCA AND THE STEEL INDUSTRY: INITIATIVES AT IISI LCA has been a topic of growing interest to the steel industry. Several steel companies and associations have already independently carried out LCA studies. These issues are taken care of in the impact assessment and improvement analysis phases of the study.. The principal aims of the project were to 5. 7. 8. Produce worldwide LCI data for steel industry products 6. The International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI). Provide a basis for carrying out impact assessments Obtain life cycle information requested by customers Support communication with industry stakeholders . system boundary and methodology. An exercise of this magnitude is considered to be the first of its kind undertaken globally for life cycle assessment of any material. CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Assist industry benchmarking and environmental improvement Programs. 9. each different in purpose. Brussels.

Steel production involves various processes that result in extensive consumption of natural resources as shown in Table 2. Train industry in the field of life cycle assessment. water and solid waste at enormous energy and capital cost. so is its potentially major impact on the environment.23 - 10.1 A material balance of a typical integrated steel plant indicates that the production of one tonne of finished steel product generates roughly 420-kg waste stream-mainly slag. and major expansions were planned every where. Energy considerations became quite important and environmental issues occupied center stage. when steel making was at its peak. The steel processing technology has undergone changes in order to adapt to these . Support response to environmental claims against steel and 11.. dust and sludge. Two and a half decades ago. A major portion of the raw materials and other natural resources used in steel making get converted into and discharged as polluted air. energy and environmental considerations were secondary. However. 2.2 NEED FOR AN LCA STUDY FOR THE INDIAN STEEL SECTOR The pervasive nature of the steel industry because of the magnitude of its operations and its intensive use of energy and raw materials is readily appreciated by all and. with the first energy crisis in the mid 70's the situation changed.

In India the steel industry accounts for nearly 35% of the total energy consumed by the industry. This is probably so. labor productivity and pollution control. Moreover poor quality input energy especially coal results in higher specific energy consumption . higher pollution load (3-6 kg of dust Vs 1 kg/tonne of crude steel) .In fact in the Indian integrated steel plants. because many of the Indian plants were designed when the cost of water. energy and raw materials was low and the need for effluent treatment could be ignored. designs were based on discounted cash flow calculations with long term high running costs.24 - new requirements. Compared to its western counterparts. nearly 67% of the energy in this process is consumed up to the iron making stage with rolling mills and steel making accounting for another 14% & 8% respectively.. There has been major improvements in energy utilization efficiency. over the last two decades. energy and raw material usage seemed an acceptable price to pay for short term savings in initial capital investment to procure rather outmoded technology and machinery.3% of the . More importantly. and higher raw material consumption. 14. Excessive water. Since steel in India has been traditionally produced through the conventional BF-OHF/BOF route. The need for technological intervention in the steel sector can be illustrated using energy inputs in the steel industry as an example. the Indian steel industry is beset with problems of higher energy consumption (40 GJ Vs 18 GJ/tonne of crude steel).

related issues in the steel sector through integrative and diagnostic tools such as LCA so that timely interventions can help steel companies to increase their profitability and improve the quality of their products. energy conservation as well as pollution control and waste recycling plans in such a key sector such as steel. This is a clear pointer towards the need to address a number of technology .. (SAIL). water and manpower. Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) of the Steel Authority of India Ltd.25 - steel is still being made through the energy inefficient Open hearth steel making process with energy consumption ten times more than the BOF process. Considering that the concept of LCA could be gainfully used for drawing up raw material. Similar scenarios are available for raw material consumption and pollutant release from the steel making processes. The study also envisaged . MECON. the first multiinstitutional and multidisciplinary LCA study for the steel sector was launched by the Ministry of Environment and Forests in India in 1997 with the active participation of three integrated steel plants namely. Optimal utilization of natural resources is now imperative for sustainable development and this is all the more necessary in the case of developing countries where development operations are still accompanied by avoidable waste of minerals energy. (TISCO) and Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. the energy burden gets tremendously increased. Tata Iron & Steel Co. Dastur Co and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI). (RINL) along with leading national consultants in the field of environmental engineering and steel technologies namely. With over 50% of the steel still being cast through the ingot casting route.

.leading international LCA consultants. Devise protocols for Life Cycle Assessment for steel and to generate databases and a widely applicable methodology for Life Cycle Assessment of steel that could 1. Provide ways and means to reduce energy consumption per tonne of steel manufactured 3. 2.26 - active interaction with the International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI) and Ecobilan.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE INDIAN STEEL SECTOR STUDY The main objectives of this study are to: 1. Serve as a quantitative baseline for the producers and manufacturers to assess the environmental consequences of potential process changes and improvements. Provide guidance in pollution prevention programs through waste reduction and resource conservation opportunities 4. Paris. 2. Guide product process technology choices compatible with region specific factors .

TISCO & RINL. 4. . discrete process units (modules). 2.. Modeling of the steel industry processes at each site.27 - 2. define process unit boundaries and define input/outputs at the boundaries of each process unit etc.4 METHODOLOGY The first multi disciplinary. Appointment of an LCA Manager (Nodal Officer) at SAIL. breakdown into independent. Ministry officials and the consultants. Formation of a Central LCA Core Group within each participating institution Formation of LCI field teams at each participating steel plant site including mines. The jointly funded study was then launched simultaneously at the three steel plants as per the following schedule STAGE 1: GOAL DEFINITION AND METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 1. multi institutional LCA study for the Indian Steel Sector was evolved through several brainstorming sessions with the top management of the three steel plants. 3.

Production of LCI spread sheets STAGE 4: TRAINING SESSIONS 1. Validation of Results Impact Assessment & Improvement Analysis Report Preparation The study is a <cradle -to -grave> study which covers all the production steps from raw materials in the earth to the steel gate. Application of LCI methodology rules to steel industry Procurement of software from M/s Ecobilan. Training & Interactive Sessions with Ecobilan Experts for Gap Analysis using Ecobilan Model STAGE 5: CREATION OF ECOBALANCES 2.. Entering and treatment of data on a computer based LCI/LCA software (TEAM) 4. STAGE 2 1. 4. Paris Installation and operationalisation of software at participating institutions STAGE 3: DATA BASE BUILDING (LCI) 1. Questionnaire distribution to LCA field teams drawn from different process units from the cradle to steel gate 2. 2. 3. Data collection on site by the steel industry personnel & consultants 3.28 - 5. Within the scope of the study the system .

is 1 Kg of crude steel at the factory gate. energy sources and consumables on the steel works. 'Site ' refers to the steel works boundaries. facilities and capacity of the . The 'Route' refers to the full cradle to grave system including upstream supplies. air and water emissions. oxygen plants. Terminology has been developed for the various system components as follows. including the production and transportation of raw materials. waste products and by -products etc.29 - function has been defined as the production of crude steel at the factory gate. The questionnaires were organized for all process stages and ancillary units including the power plants.. which enables the system performance to be quantified. Site data were collected with the custom designed questionnaires available with ‘TEAM’. The plant have also used the LCA methodology to inventorise product specific data relating to the production of slabs. billets sections and rails depending on the plant specific product mix. etc. There are some differences in the process parameters. The functional unit. The steel product manufacturing system encompasses the activities of the steel making process and all major upstream and downstream processes for the intermediate products. The participating plants have made important assumptions depending upon the site-specific conditions prevailing at each site. each of which contained lists of material and energy inputs. 'Modules' are the component unit processes within 'Site' and the 'Route'. transport and by-products credits.

3t 0.0 m3 8.5 G Cal 1800 m3 Table 2. The external consultants associated with the respective steel plants participating in this study carried out data validation for the years 1997-98 and 1998-99. the Energy Audits.1: NATURAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION PER TON OF STEEL PRODUCTION . Data gaps found were clarified and the verified data for the years 1997-98 and 1998-99 was supplied to the steel plants for a final Ecobilan run.3t 0.6t 1. Performance and Technology Audits did primary data validation.4t 0.. Checking the shop wise log sheets and secondary data was checked using various audits at the steel plants namely.30 - individual process units between the years 1997-98 and 1998-99 which have a marked impact on the LCI results obtained at the sites.1t 10. Emission Audits. NATURAL RESOURCE Iron ore Coking coal Non coking coal Limestone Dolomite Water Energy Air CONSUMPTION PER TONNE OF STEEL 1.

16 2.015 0.482 CHAPTER-3 2.48 0.96 -0.025 0.82 3.191 0.325 0.084 2902 10900 17523 28430 T Kg MJ MJ MJ Kg Kg Kg 2.153 2.246 0.47 0.27 3.246 0..2 0.599 0.08 TABLE 2.2: IMPORTANT INFLOWS AND OUTFLOWS PER TONNE OF STEEL MAKING SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THE INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY .06 2.31 - Inflows Iron ore Coal Limestone Dolomite Middling coal Scrap Outflows Waste(Total) T Scrap sold Carbon Dioxide Energy Feed stock energy Fuel energy Total primary Energy Other Emissions NOX SOX Particulates Unit T T T T T T Global Average 1.42 0.03 0.140 0.09 2562 14410 14730 29142 1998-99 1.28 1.049 0.16 0.0 0.05 0.021 1921 22482 1997-98 1.91 -0.354 1.

the steel industry accounts for over 10% of total energy consumption. . the focus on energy efficiency has been very strong and as a result. Replacement of obsolete steel making such as open hearths (OH)'s with (BOF) and EAF. 3. 2.1 ENERGY USAGE Steel is a major user of energy.5 % of global energy consumption. reheating furnaces and optimization of operating practices & rationalization of products. This is the result of a number of factors namely: 1.. BOF.32 - Some of the emerging trends in the Indian steel sector are briefly discussed below along with the identification of the technological interventions required at the process stages. In the case of Japan for e. As a consequence.80 x10GJ which equates to 5. blast furnaces. savings of nearly 20 % in total specific energy consumption have been achieved since the 1970's in major steel plants around the world. 3.g. Replacement of ingot casting with the continuous casting of steel (the % of Continuous cast steel in the Western World has increased from 10% in 1970 to over 80% now). Steel industry consumes directly and indirectly (upstream included) 1. Installation of waste heat recovery units on major production units such as Sinter strands.

Some of the contributing factors for this quantum reduction at the steel plant have been the reduction in the fuel rates in the blast furnaces.2 WATER USAGE TRENDS . higher boiler efficiencies.5-0.33 - The results of the Life Cycle inventory calculated for one tonne of product (slab/billet) at Plant A for the years 1997-98 and 1998-99 have been presented. use of cleaner & more energy efficient technologies such as concast over ingot casting resulting in saving of 0.27% due to reduction in specific energy consumption at TISCO. Trends indicate that it is possible to further bring down the energy consumption by nearly 18% up to the hot metal stage and 60% in the rest of the areas through use of both short term and long term measures.8Gj/tonne of crude steel. the energy cost per tonne of saleable steel has dropped by 2. power petro-fuel etc. The global averages of 26 sites for the year 1994-95 culled out of the IISI study have also been included in the same table for comparison. Results show that despite the increase in the cost of various energy inputs such as coal. however. high compared to the regional and world averages. programmed ladle heating control etc. The LCA results for the Indian steel sector study show that the total primary energy consumption at the steel plants is within the range of world consumption The average energy consumption is. reduction in the specific petro fuel consumption for turbo blowers. 3.. reduction in the specific petro fuel consumption by 35%.

Many companies operate highly integrated recycling systems aimed towards reducing water consumption and discharge volumes. a substantial decline in water consumption from 25. no process can be 100 % efficient. a high recycling ratio is essential.At TISCO.93m3/tss in 98-99 has been achieved.1 RAW MATERIALS Coal. pickling/cold rolling/annealing/tempering. for gas cleaning and for process reagents. Trends indicate that it is possible to achieve water-recycling rates of more than 95 % . In just one year (1998-99) resource conservation interventions at TISCO have brought down the water consumption by nearly 4 %. coke making. 3. coating and ancillary operations such as power and steam generation. As a consequence. continuous casting. Since. At Bhilai steel plant. there is demand for water throughout steel production i. production of one tonne of steel in an integrated steel plant requires several . blast furnace iron making. hot rolling. the interventions identified have brought down the water consumption to 5. BOF/EAF steel making. raw material handling/preparation sintering/palletizing.3 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF STEEL 3. iron ore and recycled Steel (scrap) dolomite/limestone are the basic raw materials for steel production. Raw Material consumption and conversion in steel making processes can be measured through estimations of yield.28m3/tcs making it one of the best internationally.34 - The iron and steel industry uses water for direct and indirect cooling. In terms of pollutant control.3..9 m3/tcs in 1990-91 to 10.e.

tempering (82.8%) pickling. Advanced technologies such as stamp charging and PBCC which can use inferior grade coking coals efficiently in place of prime coking coal reserves can play an equally significant role in resource conservation and optimization in the steel sector.93%) and coating (plates .35 - times that quantity of raw materials. the average consumption of coal is high at Plant A for the years 1997-98 and 1998-99 as compared to the global average. Range of yields for some selected steel processes (BOF steel making (86-95%). In mass terms. Possible reasons for these high values are the high coke rate in the blast furnaces and the grid electricity supply from the thermal power plants. 1998)(3).74.5-98. Use of technologies such as direct coal injection using non coking coal into the blast furnace alone is likely to extend the horizon for coking coal reserves by hundred of years. annealing. the IISI results indicate that iron ore and coal consumption dominate the resource use via the BF route. Hot rolling (84.8%) reveal areas where significant improvements can be brought about through identification of factors affecting yield and measures to contain yield loss (Kakkar.6-98%). continuous casting (76. cold rolling. As can be seen in Table 4.4 . LCI results indicate general trend of increased resource use as products undergo further processing from simple to more complex products.. . Emerging trends in the Indian study reveal that the raw material consumption in the iron and steel industry can benefit significantly through use of cleaner technology interventions in the coke making and BF stages.1-94.

the situation in the steel industry in the so-called " developing countries has been very different. emissions have dropped from 9. 000 million. the problem was tackled through retrofitting of gas and dust collection systems to existing plants.4 kg/ton by the late 1970's and below 1 kg/ton today. In Germany. It is estimated that over the last decade.000 tons of material in 1960 to 2.EMERGING TRENDS The steel industry of the 1950's and the early 1960's was a major source of pollution. The late 50's and the early 60's saw a period of rapid industrialization in India. Initially. In contrast. in the western steel plants. over 10% of the total capital expenditure by the steel industry on such environmental control have been over $20. Investments to remove dust emissions have gone alongside removal of gases such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. which incorporate in their design and operation. there was a perceptible shift towards replacement of obsolete plants with newer facilities. Later. The demand for steel (required for "progress") outstripped the .36 - 3. North America and Japan. Addressing the problem of air pollution has accounted for over 50 % of total expenditure on environmental control by the steel industry over the last two decades.3 kg/ton of crude steel or over 300.2 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL . for example.3.. particularly air pollution in the densely populated areas in which steel production is concentrated in Western Europe. the best currently available environmental practice.

The suspended particulate matter in stack emissions at TISCO. ecofriendly.71kg/ tonne of acid produced. Replacement of OHF's by BOF has brought about twin benefits of energy conservation and pollution prevention .75kg/tcs in 1995-96 to 3. 3. broad similarities among BF steel products and greater emissions for BF over EAF production.3 CO2 EMISSION . for example. LCI analysis indicates that it is possible to bring down stack emissions per tonne of product through closure of polluting units and adoption of cleaner technologies. environmental pollution and concerns did not really figure on the agenda. replacement of the single conversion single absorption Sulphuric acid plant with a double conversion double absorption plant has brought down the SO2 emissions from 10-12 kg/ tonne to nearly 1..0kg/ tcs in 1998-99. The production of large quantities of steel was the primary objective. In general. energy conserving and cleaner technologies under the modernization programmes initiated in the recent past are leading to tangible benefits in terms of reduction in pollution load at the steelworks. has shown a downward trend from 6. the ore based process requires more material and energy inputs to its operations and gives rise to greater emissions than the scrap-based process.37 - supply by a large margin. At Bhilai steel plant.3. The IISI study shows escalating emissions with rising product complexity. At SAIL although older technologies might still be in use.

These are likely to lead to carbon equivalent savings of 6%. 5% and 1. Possible reasons include higher coke rates.38 - A number of countries are considering programmes to control the emissions of the 'greenhouse gas ' carbon dioxide despite the scientific uncertainty over the magnitude of the.4 MATERIAL RECYCLING AND REUSE Steel is 100% recyclable.The data presented in Table 4 indicates that the CO2 emissions in case of Plant A are much higher than the world average. 3. For the BF steelmaker the most significant improvements are likely to come from the cleaner technologies such as pulverized coal injection (PCI). The Indian steel plants are integrating these emission reduction strategies into their modernization packages so that the twin objectives of resource optimization and pollution containment can be simultaneously met. causes and consequences of global warming. With regard to the steel industry it has been long recognized that carbon inputs (& therefore CO2 outputs) are required as chemical feedstock (reductants) and for energy units. and is the world's foremost recycling industry. Trends indicate that the carbon consumed (& CO2 released) by the EAF route is substantially less than that for the BF route . dry quenching of coke (CDQ) and coke moisture control. Steel is recycled . On a world basis.. the recycling ratio of steel (defined as the ratio between the total quantity of scrap arising and the actual quantity of scrap recycled) is estimated to be about 80%. It can be repeatedly used without downgrading to a lower quality product.5% respectively. associated with the use of high ash coking coal blends supply of grid electricity from the thermal power plants etc.

However. gases and chemicals. . followed by other solid residues. saves energy equivalent to 160mt of hard coal and avoids CO2 emissions of 470mt. By recycling nearly 300mt of scrap each year. The largest volume of by-products is slag. On an average 90% of the BF and 70% of the steel melting slags can be put to use. The IISI study confirms that the energy required to produce scrap based (EAF) steel is less than to produce ore based (BF) steel.39 - in both electric arc and basic oxygen steel making and in the former it represents between 90% and 100% of the raw materials charged while in the latter it constitutes up to 30%. An integrated steel plant can produce up to 500-700 kg of byproducts and sludge for every tonne of steel.. the steel industry does not have to extract 475mt of iron bearing ores. Multiple recycling scenarios in the context of the Indian steel sector study are being worked out. The scrap recycled via the BOF plant is effectively replacing the energy and emissions associated with the hot metal produced via the blast furnace route. It is estimated that replacing every tonne of Portland cement with blast furnace cement brings about a reduction of 96kg of CO2 emissions. the recycling of scrap as an integral part of the BOF route must not be overlooked or underrated. The utilization of the steel plant wastes at the Indian plants has tremendous scope for improvement The waste generation figures have improved in the years 1998-99 due to an increase in the amount of BF slag used for steel making and cent percent utilization of BOF sludge in sinter making and increase in the amount of flue dust being sold off to outside parties.

The Indian Steel sector study will surely emerge as a path-breaking endeavor in this direction. 3. setting up of cast house slag granulation facilities. top management support. As a result of these measures.. . employee education and training are all contributing towards enhanced environmental performance. the use of new and innovative management tools such as LCA will increase. Around 70-75% sinter is used in the blast furnace cutting down on precious coke consumption. It is hoped that in the coming years. use of LD slag as railway track ballast and use of wastes such as iron fumes.5 FUTURE CHALLENGES The challenges posed by a competitive market are forcing steel makers to switch over to cleaner production by adopting the best practices at each stage in the life cycle of steel making. This shift may be gradual but is unmistakable. Heavy investment programmes. coke breeze. Principals among these are. the solid waste utilization at Bhilai steel plant has shown an upward trend with nearly 59% of the wastes being put to constructive use. efforts towards byproduct management have been intensified in the recent past.40 - At SAIL. mill scale as recycled inputs in the blast furnace.

Steel can be made resistant to heat.41 - CHAPTER-4 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THE U. It can be made springy as the steel in springs or strong enough to withstand a pull from extremely high weights.S. What may be most impressive is its . So important is this basic metal to modern American life approximately one out of every four person’s lives in a community where there is a plant of the iron and steel industry. it can be made hard enough to cut glass or as pliable as the steel wire in a paper clip. STEEL INDUSTRY Thanks to nature’s abundance supply of iron ore. bituminous coal and limestone. Steel is the most adaptable material at the command of man. steel has become man’s most useful servant. It can be welded into pipe over twelve feet in diameter or as small as one-fiftieth of an inch in diameter for hypodermic needles.. rust and chemical breakdown.

and this trend doesn’t look to be changing any time soon.1 MACRO ECONOMIC LOOK AT STEEL MAKING To provide background for completing a life cycle assessment for the steel industry. (Little. 4. Grouped together with associated . 4. followed by a detailed life cycle assessment. third will be growth trends. This section will be broken down into five subtopics. second will be plant categories. First will be the introduction or general background.. and finally a comparison between integrated and mini-mill technology in regard to total environmental impacts. fourth will be investments. This will be helpful in understanding how the steel mill fits in with the rest of the economy. In 1950 the United States produced nearly 50% of the worlds steel. Although the United States is among the top two producers of steel there production has diminished over the years. 1975) About 130 steel-making plants account for the production of raw steel in the United States.2 GENERAL The United States has consistently ranked in the top two among world producers of steel. and lastly we will talk about the industry financial profile.42 - ability to be recycled. This paper will provide a background of the steel industry by giving a macroeconomic snapshot of the industry. we should first look at macroeconomic trends in the industry. but by 1973 that number dropped to only 20%. by illustrating how the industry interacts in the world economy.

(Little.000 tons.S. These mills limit their production to bar mill products.. most semiintegrated plants in the United States use electric arc furnaces.43 - steel rerolling and steel finishing plants.mills have annual capacities of less than 200. the molten pig iron is then charged into steel-making furnaces. the semi-integrated plants charge cold metal raw materials. Both iron and steel-making operations are dealt with in the integrated process. but for the purpose of this paper we will discuss only two of them. This raw steel is then fabricated to finished steel products. these are then heated in a blast furnace to produce molten pig iron (or hot metal). rebars and merchant bars. mini. Along with any scrap.000 people in 37 states. 1975) 4. Small semi-integrated plants also known as mini-mills are included in this category as well. Because of there size. industry is composed of some 400 plants employing approximately 500. Integrated plants normally start with iron ore and coking coal. These materials include scrap. (Little. Unlike the integrated plants. 1975) .3 PLANT CATEGORIES Raw steel making plants can be categorized into three main groups. integrated and semi-integrated steel mills. the U. which as a result molten raw steel is produced. Because of the economic advantages and flexibility of operation. pig iron and sponge iron made by direct reduction. The materials are then melted down and refined in the steel-making furnaces.

and the BOF had a substantially faster heat time. most integrated steel production processes used open-hearth (OH) furnaces. steel producers and this was around the time the “mini-mill” was born.present. iron and steel industry continues to supply the domestic demand.S. We first looked at U. Analyzing some statistics from the American Iron and Steel Institute annual statistical reports can easily show this. raw steel production statistics provided by the AISI.S. and as long as the U. showing these statistics over time (1950-present).4 GROWTH TRENDS Assuming that U. We chose the time period to look at to be 1950. you can see total raw steel production rise over time as well as the production from both the EAF and BOF.S. The integrated producers strayed away from using OH furnace because molten iron could be charged in a BOF. Mid-century. We collected and plotted data points for approximately every ten-year interval.. raw steel production. steel requirements continue to grow.44 - 4. When looking at Fig.S. We would like to specifically analyze the total raw steel production of integrated plants vs. This interval was chosen because there were enough data points to show the general growth trend while keeping the data to a minimum. . and how shipment to market classification has evolved. raw steel production will continue to grow as well. We have focused our study on shipments by market classification and U. mini-mills.S. 1. This time period was chosen because the middle of the century was when the EAF started becoming popular among U.

162 8.4 37.000 0 1956 1960 1970 1982 1990 1995 Year FIG.F) 100.216 506 0.S) Integrated Steel Making (B.641 % Mini-mill 40.939 23.3 8.000 60.000 40.523 59.906 58.4.1 74.O.000 80. Raw Steel Production By Furnace Type (thousands of net tons) Year 1995 1990 1982 1970 1960 1956 Total Raw Integrated Steel Making % Steel Production (U.158 20.4 7.1 15.346 3.S) (B.330 48.F) 42.577 45.44 Mini-mills (E.407 36. 1: RAW STEEL PRODUCTION BY FURNACE TYPE: SOURCE: (AISE) .A.6 98.000 Thousands of net tons 120.S..930 62.45 - U.F) Integrated 104.000 Total Raw Steel Production (U.000 20.309 60.282 3.471 59.2 99.5 Raw Steel Production by Furnace Type 140.A.7 131.4 115.4 31.O.379 8.F) Mini-mills (E.514 63.

. and other capital expenditures would be important to look at as well when figuring out total plant expenditures. and to improve product quality. this figure had increased 31% by 1995 to 35. In 1986 additions to plant and equipment cost the steel segments 862.5 INVESTMENT Like any thing else steel producers are required to have capital expenditures to replace obsolescent facilities. for additions to plant and equipment as well as disposals of plant and equipment.0 million dollars. industry after-tax profits as a percentage of revenues generally reflect the cyclic nature . this figure had grown to 2.9 billion dollars. (AISI. 1995) Pollution control costs.5 million dollars and in 1995 it had diminished to 207. iron and steel industry had total revenues of 24.4 billion dollars in 1995.46 - Another method we used to show general growth of the industry in the second half of the 20th century was to collect and plot total shipments and shipment categories over the same time span. 4.S.9 billion dollars in 1986.6 INDUSTRY FINANCIAL PROFILE The U.2 million dollars. 1995) Disposals of plant and Equipment cost the steel segments in 1986 505. 4. 1995) However. (AISI. (AISI. Primarily over the years this has been done to reduce costs.

- 47 -

of the steel industry. After-tax profits have fluctuated over time, from 4.2 billion dollars in 1986 to 1.6 billion dollars in 1995. (AISI, 1995)

4.7 LCA STUDY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY Following the model given above, we have prepared a life cycle assessment for the steel industry. Similar to all LCA studies, the goal and scope of the study was defined first. After the goal and scope of our study are clearly defined, we compiled an inventory containing a detailed list of the major inputs and outputs of relevant processes. We then evaluated these inputs and outputs based upon environmental risks and hazards associated with then. Upon completion of our impact analysis study, we interpreted the inventory and impacts and suggested possible alternatives. 4.8 GOAL AND SCOPE In our LCA of the steel industry, we have analyzed the environmental aspects of producing steel in the United States. Using integrated steel production as a base case, and several sources for LCA data, we have compiled a relatively detailed inventory of inputs and outputs. From our inventory we were able to identify potentially harmful emissions, and analyze sources, toxicity and carcinogenicity. After reviewing emissions produced by a typical integrated mill, we then focused our study on describing actions taken by the industry to lower these emissions. Specifically, we have emphasized on steel

- 48 -

making using the electric arc furnace (EAF), and intern, created a second inventory and impact analysis for mini-mill steel making technology. Based on our findings, we have been able to hypothesize on which steel production technology (integrated vs. mini-mill technology) is more environmentally friendly. Our LCA will first focus on integrated steel making. Originally our plan was to create an inventory using the cradle to gate concept. This concept involves compiling an inventory that includes inputs and outputs from mining of ores and coal, until the finished product is shipped from the steel mill. After finishing our preliminary research we found that data for such an inventory would be too detailed and costly for this study. As an alternative we chose to use a similar scope, we decided to use the “gate to gate” concept. This concept involves tallying an inventory that only contains processes that occur inside the steel mill gates. This approach excludes primarily the mining of ores, and coal. We have compiled an inventory that contains data from several sources. Our consumption data is from the AISI 1995 Annual Statistical Report. Our TRI data was calculated using data from the EPA’s “TRI Comparative Spreadsheet” that corresponds to the 1997 calendar year. From the EPA Office of Air Quality and Planning Standards’ “Source SIC Report” made available January 28 2000, we compiled our air emissions data. Slag output data was found in the AISI’s "Steel Industry Technology Roadmap", that was published in 1998. Several other sources were also used to complete our LCA of the steel industry.

- 49 -

4.9 INTEGRATED STEEL PRODUCTION PROCESS To better understand the gate to gate concept for integrated steel making, we must define process being analyzed. The first step in the integrated steel production is the collection of raw materials. This includes the mining of coal, limestone, and ore (most commonly taconite). Also included in this step is the preparation of these materials is the crushing of limestone, and separating and sintering of ore. These processes will not be analyzed in our LCA because we are only looking at processes that occur in the mill, and these processes usually occur near the mines because of high transportation costs. We will be analyzing the coking of coal, because it usually takes place near the mill, and is a large polluting body. The second step in steel production is the combining the raw materials in a blast furnace to produce pig iron. The blast furnace melts the ore and removes the impurities in the form of slag. The resulting iron is contains around 4-5% carbon. This iron is still too brittle to be mechanically forged so it is refined further to produce steel. Next, pig iron is charged with scrap into a basic oxygen furnace (BOF). This furnace will lower the carbon content enough that it can be mechanically forged. The basic oxygen furnace is charged with liquid pig iron plus scrap onto which oxygen is blown creating carbon dioxide, removing carbon from the iron forming steel. The last step in the production of steel is forming finished product. In can be directly poured into molds to form ingots or continuously cast. Traditionally, ingots where cast then transported to a rolling mill. In continuous casting, liquid metal is poured into a tundish, which supplies a

- 50 -

steady amount of liquid to the caster. As the metal flows it solidifies while passing through rolls, then is cut into slabs. These slabs are then transported to the rolling mill. At the rolling mill the ingots or slabs are rolled to form a variety of finished steel products. Some of these products are sheet steel, pipe, beams, bars, rods and rails. The following flow chart (fig 4.2) gives a step by step depiction of the production process.

are mined. limestone. Molten steel is produced and formed in a continuous caster.. and coal is mined and coked. and limestone are then charged in a blast furnace. . Molten iron is produced and charged in a BOF. coke. to be injected with oxygen.51 - Fig. 4.2: TYPICAL FLOW OF INTEGRATED STEEL PRODUCTION Iron ore. Iron ore.

ammonia liquor.52 - 4. and the inputs and outputs that are encountered each process: COKEMAKING INPUTS • • • OUTPUTS • • Process residues from coke by-product recovery Coke oven gas by-product such as coal tar. • Charging emissions (fine particles of coke generated during oven pushing.. light oil. Coal tar is typically refined to produce commercial and industrial products including pitch.10 INVENTORY OF INTEGRATED STEEL MAKING 4. naphthalene. creosote oil.10. and bitumen. refined tar. and the remainder of the gas stream is used as fuel. loading and unloading of coke that are captured by Coal Heat Quench water . conveyor transport.1 QUALITATIVE INVENTORY The first step in compiling an inventory for integrated steel making was to outline the major processes and the inputs and outputs associated with each. Outlined here are the main polluting processes that are encountered while producing steel in an integrated mill.

. Approximately one pound per ton of coke produced are captured and generally land disposed. emitted from stacks of coke ovens Wastewater from cleaning and cooling. • • • • • • • • • Ammonia. tar distillation residues) • IRONMAKING INPUTS • • • • • Iron ore (primarily in the form of taconite pellets) Coke Sinter Coal Limestone Coke oven gas condensate from piping and distribution system . cyanide. ammonia still lime. generated from the ammonia still Decanter tank tar sludge Benzene releases in coke by-product recovery operations Naphthalene residues.53 - pollution control equipment. generated in the final cooling tower Tar residues Sulfur compounds. phenol. (contains zinc. or decanter tank tar. and hydrogen sulfide Oil Lime sludge.

manganese. dolomite. a metals bearing waste Iron is the predominant metal found in the process wastewater Blast furnace gas (CO) .. primarily for the use in the construction industry. which is either sold as a by-product. and others OUTPUTS • Basic oxygen furnace control dust and sludge. or landfilled • • Residual sulfur dioxide or hydrogen sulfide Particulates captured in the gas.54 - • Heated air OUTPUTS • Slag. may include fluorspar. including air pollution control dust or waste treatment plant sludge • • STEELMAKING INPUTS • • • • Molten iron Metal scrap High-purity oxygen Fluxes and alloys added. and alloying agents such as aluminum.

These processes include firing of blast and steel making furnaces. the largest output being produced. As seen above there are a large number of outputs coming from coke production. During iron making there also are several outputs that are emitted. and is useless for the steel production process. in coke production there are also a large number of pollutants being emitted.55 - • • • Slag Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides and ozone. Off gases from the blast furnace are also collected and used in other steel making processes. such as certain off gases are collected and reused in other production processes.2 QUANTITATIVE INVENTORY .10.. But the off gas is comprised mostly of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. The slag is generally dealt with in a similar manner as blast furnace slag. From our compiled inventory data we can start our impact analysis. Our data from the EPA and our other sources found in our secondary resources will allow us to compile a detailed list of inputs and amounts based on industry averages. which are generated during the melting process This preliminary inventory of the integrated steel industry covers three of the highest polluting sectors of production. Intern. The BOF also produces a large amount of slag and off gas. The last area of concern in integrated steel making is the BOF. Slag. is tapped off the steel and used as aggregate or deposited in a landfill. 4. Some outputs.

The data in fig.. the right column contains the amount of input consumed per pound of steel produced. The second inventory that we compiled was toxic release inventory (TRI) chemical data.” The left-hand column displays the total yearly output. We started by producing a table containing the largest and most important inputs. and fuel consumption. ore consumption. oxygen consumption. . This data was calculated from raw data provided by the EPA’s “TRI Comparative Spreadsheet” that corresponds to the 1997 calendar year. as well as the outputs. These included coke consumption. This spreadsheet gave the amount of TRI chemical produced at every integrated steel firm in the United States.56 - Using several sources we were able to compile a relatively detailed quantitative inventory for the integrated steel industry. Our main focus was on the inputs. It also gave the production capacity of each integrated mill. 3 is from the AISI 1995 “Annual Statistical Report. This number was found by dividing the total yearly consumption of input by the total steel production from integrated firms. In all the spreadsheet gave data for 70 different TRI chemicals. flux consumption. for integrated steel production.

57 - ..

654 215.442 1.U. per cubic foot TABLE 4.936 12.U.1: INPUT INVENTORY FOR INTEGRATED STEEL PRODUCTION SOURCE: (AISI.T.187 90.252 1.707 1. per cubic foot *** Millions of cubic feet based on 95 B.515 13.489 0.00448 1.451 1.523 Raw Steel Production (thousands of net tons) Coke Consumption (thousands of net tons) Flux Consumption (thousands of net tons) Fluorspar Limestone Lime Other Fluxes Ore Consumption (thousands of net tons) Natural Ore Pellets Sinter and Others Oxygen Consumption (millions of gaseos cubic feet) .313 20 1.698 124. 1995) .959 * Millions of cubic feet based on 1.U.997 Blast Furnace Steel Furnace Fuel Consumption Fuel Oil (thousands of gallons) Natural Gas (millions of cubic feet) * Cok e Oven Gas (millions of cubic feet) ** Blast Furnace Gas (millions of cubic feet) *** 108.73 1.T.0177 0.393 4.0212 1.0465 0.905 280 89.069 0. per cubic foot ** Millions of cubic feet based on 500 B.326 74.Input Inventory for Integrated Steel Production Integrated Steel Production Blast Furnace/BOF 62.108 2.192 0.796 1.000 B.T.196 106.698 121.568 0.061 810.58 Net tons of input Per ton of steel produced N/A 24.218 3.000312 0.436 0.

To correct for this. and each average TRI chemical release was calculated from all the firms that data was available for. 4 shows the averages TRI chemical releases for integrated steel production. We did this by using the following formula: Average TRI R C = (RCF1 + RCF2 +…+ RCFi)/ (PF1 + PF2 +…+ PFi) This equation takes the sum of the total release (R) from each firm for a chemical (C) and divides them by the sum of total production capacity (P) of each corresponding firm to get the Average TRI release for a certain chemical (C). We then could calculate the average using an algorithm set up to automatically calculate each sum of production capacities and chemical releases. we created an algorithm in Microsoft Excel that would show all production capacities and chemical releases for each firm in columns. This raw data. /short tons of steel produced.59 - Since the focus of our study was to analyze a typical U. Before making a calculation we had to manually delete production capacities for firms which we did not have chemical release data for. leaving blanks in the spreadsheet. integrated mill we wanted to find an average of TRI releases for each chemical. The third inventory we calculated for integrated steel production was the slag output. though. This average is reported in lbs. was incomplete in some instances.S. Not all of the mills reported their emissions to the EPA. found by using the method above. We obtained this data from AISI’s "Steel Industry Technology Roadmap" which .. Fig. and divide them to get the average.

2 shows slag output from integrated steel production in lbs.000869 0.0746 0. Instead of giving industry averages AISI reported this information in intervals.00164 0.60 - uses 1997 slag output data.00811 0.79 0.022 0.00229 0. Table 4..973 0.00366 0.0131 0./short ton) 3.0447 0.0336 0.0486 0.0227 0.000417 0.021 0./short tons of steel produced. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals for Integrated Steel Making Facilities TRI Releases and Transfers (lbs.0441 0.00172 0.00829 0.000715 0.00816 0.00301 Chemical MANGANESE COMPOUNDS CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS ZINC COMPOUNDS NICKEL COMPOUNDS AMMONIA PHOSPHORIC ACID ETHYLENE BENZENE HYDROCHLORIC ACID (>=1995 "ACID AEROSOLS" ONLY) LEAD COMPOUNDS NAPHTHALENE ETHYLENE GLYCOL PHENOL CYANIDE COMPOUNDS METHANOL ANTHRACENE TOLUENE XYLENE (MIXED ISOMERS) ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC COMPOUNDS STYRENE ALUMINUM (FUME OR DUST) COPPER COMPOUNDS MOLYBDENUM TRIOXIDE .125 0.00218 0.

.00418 0.00183 0.4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE BIPHENYL CARBON DISULFIDE CHROMIUM LEAD NICKEL ANTIMONY CADMIUM CALCIUM CYANAMIDE COBALT COMPOUNDS CUMENE DIETHANOLAMINE HYDROGEN CYANIDE Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals for Integrated 0.) Chemical TRI Releases and Transfers PYRIDINE SULFURIC ACID (1994 AND AFTER "ACID AEROSOLS" ONLY) ZINC (FUME OR DUST) 1.0000607 0.00305 0.61 - PHENANTHRENE BARIUM COMPOUNDS CHLORINE CRESOL (MIXED ISOMERS) ETHYLBENZENE SODIUM NITRITE COPPER MANGANESE PROPYLENE 1.4-DIMETHYLPHENOL 2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE ARSENIC COMPOUNDS BERYLLIUM CARBONYL SULFIDE (lbs/short ton) 0.00936 0.00204 0.19E-07 .00789 0.000802 0.0000259 N/A 0.0000259 0.2.00229 0.3-BUTADIENE 2.004 0.0000241 Steel Making Facilities (cont.00527 0.00222 0.00162 0.05E-07 0.157 0.0217 4.000627 0.000547 N/A 0.00776 0.0000527 0.000827 9.00792 0.4E-08 5.0000651 0.00122 0.

.00216 0.46E-07 DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE HYDROGEN FLUORIDE MERCURY COMPOUNDS NITRATE COMPOUNDS O-XYLENE QUINOLINE THIOUREA VANADIUM (FUME OR DUST) Total TRI Releases N/A N/A 0. 1998) These averages were calculated by using the formula Average TRI R C = (RCF1 + RCF2 +…+ RCFi)/ (PF1 + PF2 +…+ PFi) Integrated vs.000114 5.2:TOXIC RELEASE INVENTORY CHEMICALS FOR STEEL MAKING FACILITIES TABLE 4.340 Mini-mill Steel Production EAF 110-420 Total 550-1. Mini-mill Slag Output Comparison Total Slag Produced (lbs/short ton) Slag Produced by Blast Furnace Slag Produced by BOF Slag Produced by EAF Integrated Steel Production Blast Furnace/BOF 400-1.3: INTEGRATED SLAG OUTPUT: SOURCE (AISI.611468464 TABLE 4.62 - CERTAIN GLYCOL ETHERS COBALT N/A 8.0000451 0.0000259 0.113 0.760 300-700 N/A 100-440 N/A N/A 110-420 .0000292 0.

though. that was made available January 28. This data.5 29267 59412 215582 43987 TABLE 4. there is typically one large polluting body and that’s the steel-making process itself. Blast Furnace And Steel Mill Air Pollutant Emissions Industry Total 116 Number of Facilities Air Pollutant Emissions (in tons per year) CO Emissions NO2 Emissions PB Emissions PM10 Emissions PT Emissions SO2 Emissions VOC Emissions 940055 105880 290. This data was collected from the EPA’s Office of Air Quality and Planning Standards’ “Source SIC Report.11 IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR INTEGRATED STEEL MAKING Like its counterpart (EAF).4: BLAST FURNACE AND STEEL MILL AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS SOURCE: (EPA.63 - The final inventory we compiled for integrated steel making was air pollution emissions data. Like the electric .. Table 4. 2000) 4. is an industry total for both integrated and mini-mill steel operations.4 shows air pollutant emissions from blast furnace and steel mill operation. when using the basic oxygen furnace (BOF). Even though it does not focus on integrated production alone it should still be examined in this inventory. 2000.

phenol and hydrogen sulfide are all examples of air pollution caused by the cokemaking process. Types of pollution control can be broken down into three groups. this wastewater contains zinc. as well as blast furnace gas (CO) which contributes to global warming. Ammonia. charging emissions.2 WATER POLLUTION The major water pollutants include wastewater from cleaning and cooling.1 AIR POLLUTION Oxygen furnaces emit gaseous and particulate pollutants. and solid wastes.11. In the cokemaking process. and pollutants given off by air pollution control equipment. In the ironmaking process. The other major pollutants would have to be the leaking of pollutants into the neighboring water itself. the basic oxygen furnace too has several types of pollution. still lime. residual sulfur dioxide or hydrogen sulfide..11. 4. as well as distillation residues. Treatments for water pollution are the same for BOF as they were for EAF. 4. with several controls to compliment each type. these pollutants are spread throughout the steel making process. water pollution. Treatments include fabric filters and high-energy scrubbers. or decanters tank tar. which are generated during the melting process. And finally the steelmaking process. . ammonia. air pollution.64 - arc furnace. carbon monoxide along with nitrogen oxides and ozone. are the main air pollutants in this stage. coke oven gas.

manganese. we have decided to narrow our study down to Electric Arc Furnaces.. and dust and sludges from air and water pollution control systems. electric energy and graphite electrodes. we plan to compile an inventory for semi-integrated steel making (mini-mills).1 QUALITATIVE INVENTORY Similar to inventorying the integrated firm.13 INVENTORY OF SEMI-INTEGRATED STEEL MAKING 4.13.65 - 4. (EPA. 4. generated from the ammonia still. Fluxes and alloys are also added. dolomite. and may include fluorspar. (EPA. the first step in compiling an inventory for semi-integrated steel making was to outline the major processes and the inputs and .11. and alloying agents such as aluminum. 4. 1995) Similarly to the inventory done with the integrated base case. The inputs of the steel-making process that uses electric arc furnaces (EAF) include scrap. and others.12 ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF STEEL MAKING For complexity reasons. With this second inventory we will be able to complete an impact analysis and compare it with the integrated base case. decanter tank tar sludge. this number may be as high as 40 pounds depending on the scrap that is used. Like the mini-mill many of these solids may be reused by the manufacturing operations and may be resold as by-products for use in other industries.3 SOLID WASTES The Solid wastes include lime sludge. 1995) Electric Arc furnace emission control dust and sludge. slag. 20 pounds of dust per ton of steel is expected.

. scrap consumption and oxygen consumption. The data is also from the AISI 1995 “Annual . as well as the outputs. we were able to compile a relatively detailed quantitative inventory for the semi-integrated steel industry. for semiintegrated steel production. looking closely at the inputs. an the inputs and outputs that are encountered each process: STEELMAKING INPUTS • • • Scrap metal Electric energy Graphite Electrodes OUTPUTS • • • • Electric Arc Furnace emission control dust and sludge Slag Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides and ozone.13. which are generated during melting process.2 QUANTITATIVE INVENTORY Similar to integrated steel making. We started again by producing a table containing the largest and most important inputs. and fuel consumption.66 - outputs associated with each. These included flux consumption. 4. Our focus was the same as the integrated sector. Outlined here are the main polluting processes that are encountered while producing steel in an semi-integrated mill.

We found again. It also gave the production capacity of each semi-integrated mill.” The left-hand column again displays the total yearly output. This number was found by dividing the total yearly consumption of input by the total steel production from integrated firms. This gave us the average TRI release for each chemical using as much raw data as possible. In all the spreadsheet gave data for 70 different TRI chemicals. .. along with the right column containing the amount of input consumed per pound of steel produced. This spreadsheet gave the amount of TRI chemical produced at every semi-integrated steel firm in the United States. The second inventory for the semi-integrated sector that we compiled was toxic release inventory (TRI) chemical data.67 - Statistical Report. that all mills did not report each chemical release so we had only divide each total TRI release by the sum of all the reporting mills production capacities. This data was calculated from raw data provided by the EPA’s “TRI Comparative Spreadsheet” that corresponds to the 1997 calendar year.

398 0.455 1.600 55.349 0.0283 0.0205 0.000755 0.0377 1. Instead of giving industry averages AISI reported this information in intervals.00314 0./short tons of steel produced.200 870 880 1. 9 shows slag output from semi-integrated steel production in lbs.00379 1.0311 0.306 0 1.200 1. We obtained this data from AISI’s "Steel Industry Technology Roadmap" which uses 1997 slag output data.0234 0. as well as integrated steel production.0208 0. Fig. .5: INPUT INVENTORY FOR SEMI-INTEGRATED STEEL PRODUCTION The third inventory we calculated for semi-integrated steel production was the slag output.407 net tons of input per ton of steel produced N.68 Mini-mill Steel Production EAF 42.306 Blast Furnace Steel Furnace TABLE 4.319 32 133 993 161 61.Input Inventory for Mini-mill Steel Production .A Raw Steel Production (thousands of net tons) Flux Consumption (thousands of net tons) Fluorspar Limestone Lime Other Fluxes Scrap Consumption (thousands of net tons) Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Alloy Steel Iron Scrap Other Grades Oxygen Consumption (millions of gaseos cubic feet) 1.700 57.398 0 55.

0712 0 0 0 MANGANESE COMPOUNDS CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS ZINC COMPOUNDS NICKEL COMPOUNDS AMMONIA PHOSPHORIC ACID ETHYLENE BENZENE HYDROCHLORIC ACID (>=1995 "ACID AEROSOLS" ONLY) LEAD COMPOUNDS NAPHTHALENE ETHYLENE GLYCOL PHENOL CYANIDE COMPOUNDS METHANOL ANTHRACENE TOLUENE XYLENE (MIXED ISOMERS) ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC COMPOUNDS STYRENE ALUMINUM (FUME OR DUST) COPPER COMPOUNDS DIBENZOFURAN MOLYBDENUM TRIOXIDE PHENANTHRENE BARIUM COMPOUNDS CHLORINE CRESOL (MIXED ISOMERS) ETHYLBENZENE SODIUM NITRITE .0109 0 0.0812 0.00938 0 0 0.0728 4.118 0.207 4.0205 0 0.044 0 0 0 0..69 - Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals for Mini-mill Steel Making Facilities Chemical TRI Releases and Transfers (lbs.00265 0.931 0.765 0.0189 0 0.0256 0 0 0.0934 0 0./short ton) 0.0173 0.245 0.

424 PROPYLENE 0 1.00222 0.4-DIMETHYLPHENOL 2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE ACETONITRILE ARSENIC COMPOUNDS BERYLLIUM BROMOTRIFLUOROMETHANE CERTAIN GLYCOL ETHERS COBALT DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE HYDROGEN FLUORIDE LITHIUM CARBONATE MERCURY COMPOUNDS NITRATE COMPOUNDS O-XYLENE 0 0 0 0.353 0.34 0.0303 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4..2.0619 0.70 - COPPER MANGANESE 0.0801 0.0111 0 0.095 0 0 5.101 0.4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE BIPHENYL CARBON DISULFIDE CHROMIUM LEAD NICKEL ANTIMONY CADMIUM CALCIUM CYANAMIDE COBALT COMPOUNDS CUMENE DIETHANOLAMINE HYDROGEN CYANIDE PYRIDINE SULFURIC ACID (1994 AND AFTER "ACID AEROSOLS" ONLY) ZINC (FUME OR DUST) 2.00129 0 0.816 0 0 0 0 0.811 0 .

This data. 2000.86074 TABLE 4. but it is important to also look at when assessing semi-integrated production . Mini-mill Slag Output Comparison 300-700 N/A 100-440 N/A N/A 110-420 TABLE 4.. This data was collected from the EPA’s Office of Air Quality and Planning Standards’ “Source SIC Report. is the same as Table 4.7:SEMI-INTEGRATED SLAG OUTPUT: SOURCE (AISI.760 Integrated vs.71 - QUINOLINE VANADIUM (FUME OR DUST) 0 0 Total TRI Releases 22. that was made available January 28.6: TOXIC RELEASE INVENTORY CHEMICALS FOR SEMI-INTEGRATED STEEL These averages were calculated by using the formula Average TRI R C = (RCF1 + RCF2 +…+ RCFi)/ (PF1 + PF2 +…+ PFi) Total Slag Produced (lbs/short ton) Slag Produced by Blast Furnace Slag Produced by BOF Slag Produced by EAF Integrated Steel Production Blast Furnace/BOF 400-1. following the same inventory for integrated steel production.340 Mini-mill Steel Production EAF 110-420 Total 550-1. .7. 1998) The final inventory we compiled for semi-integrated steel making was air pollution emissions data.

1 AIR POLLUTION Arc furnaces emit gaseous and particulate pollutants.Blast Furnace And Steel Mill Air Pollutant Emissions Industry Total 116 . 4. The furnace size. air pollution control.14 IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR SEMI-INTEGRATED STEEL MAKING Due to the process of steel making used by mini-mills.8: BLAST FURNACE AND STEEL MILL AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS 4. Because industrial water can often be recycled many times. with several controls to compliment each type. melt down. power. Treatments include fabric filters and high-energy scrubbers. principally during charging. using the electric arc furnace (EAF).5 29267 59412 215582 43987 TABLE 4. fluorides. 4. steel-making itself. and solid wastes. Metal transfer and teeming may also give off emissions.2 WATER POLLUTION The major water pollutants include suspended solids.14. refining. and zinc from air pollution control equipment. there is typically one large polluting body.14. This process has several types of pollution. . water pollution control. Types of pollution control can be broken down into three groups. and tapping. and melt rate all play a factor in the quantity and type of emissions.72 - Number of Facilities Air Pollutant Emissions (in tons per year) CO Emissions NO2 Emissions PB Emissions PM10 Emissions PT Emissions SO2 Emissions VOC Emissions 940055 105880 290.

It will encompass the entire semiintegrated industry. First we looked at a comparison of the inputs.14. SEMI-INTEGRATED COMPARISON After completing each inventory for each sector of steel production.15 INTEGRATED VS. such as transportation and rolling operations. not just pollution associated with the EAF. We found that per ton . After looking at the impact analysis for each sector we could see which harmed the environment more.3 SOLID WASTES The Solid wastes include dust and sludges from the air and water pollution control systems. 1975) A malfunction in any of the above phases is likely to cause the whole system to be ineffective. An effective arc furnace emission control system consists of the following phases: • • • • Emissions gathering by hoods and/ or direct evacuation Pretreatment (usually for temperature control) Ducting to collection unit Disposal (Little.. 4. Most of these solids are reused by the manufacturing operations and may be sold as by-products for use in other industries. we analyzed the data we found and tried to find out which sector produced more environmental steel. Our final assessment will also include upstream and downstream inputs and outputs. 4.73 - the possible combinations of individual technologies into a wastewater treatment system are exceptionally large.

We found this number to be high. we think that semi-integrated is a better production technology though. Overall. for the most part. We believe that. integrated production needs more oxygen. TRI chemical releases can be eliminated by better cleanup techniques implemented within the plant. This is due to. We found that on average semi-integrated production produced about 4 times more TRI chemical output than integrated firms. . and needs ore and coke.74 - of steel produced integrated production used more input.. Next we compared the TRI outputs for each sector of production. or it could have been true due to the smaller amount of total production from semi-integrated firms. We also think that the higher amount of input needed by integrated firms is more of an environmental concern than the higher TRI emission by semiintegrated firms. where semi-integrated production only needs scrap. This could have been due to the calculation we used to find the industry average.

0283 0.00314 0. SEMI-INTEGRATED INPUT COMPARISON .0212 1.000 B.U.069 0.997 0.0311 0.T.306 0 1.0234 0.393 0 Flux Consumption Fluorspar Limestone Lime Other Fluxes Ore Consumption Natural Ore Pellets Sinter and Others Scrap Consumption Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Alloy Steel Iron Scrap Other Grades Oxygen Consumption (millions of gaseos cub ic feet) 0.75 - Raw Steel Production (thousands of net tons) Coke Consumption Integrated Steel Production Mini-mill Steel Production Blast Furnace/BOF EAF 62.306 Blast Furnace Steel Furnace Electric Consumption (millions of k ilowatt hours) Generated Purchased Fuel Consumption Fuel Oil (thousands of gallons) Natural Gas (millions of cubic feet) * Cok e Oven Gas (millions of cubic feet) ** Blast Furnace Gas (millions of cubic feet) *** 1.Integrated vs.0177 0.0208 0.U.00379 0 0 0 0 1.407 0. per cubic foot *** Millions of cubic feet based on 95 B.000755 0.436 0.936 12.455 1.0465 0.349 0. per cubic foot ** Millions of cubic feet based on 500 B.707 1.00448 1.T.192 0.442 1.T.73 1.959 N/A N/A N/A N/A * Millions of cubic feet based on 1.000312 0.523 42.451 1.218 0 0 0 0 0 0 3. Mini-mill Input Comparison (tons input per pound of steel produced) .0377 1.0205 0.9: INTEGRATED VS.U. per cubic foot TABLE 4.

00301 0. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals Comparison Chemical MANGANESE COMPOUNDS CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS ZINC COMPOUNDS NICKEL COMPOUNDS AMMONIA PHOSPHORIC ACID ETHYLENE BENZENE HYDROCHLORIC ACID (>=1995 "ACID AEROSOLS" ONLY) LEAD COMPOUNDS NAPHTHALENE ETHYLENE GLYCOL PHENOL CYANIDE COMPOUNDS METHANOL ANTHRACENE TOLUENE XYLENE (MIXED ISOMERS) ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC COMPOUNDS STYRENE ALUMINUM (FUME OR DUST) COPPER COMPOUNDS DIBENZOFURAN MOLYBDENUM TRIOXIDE PHENANTHRENE BARIUM COMPOUNDS CHLORINE CRESOL (MIXED ISOMERS) ETHYLBENZENE SODIUM NITRITE COPPER Integrated TRI (lbs.0712 N/A N/A N/A 0.000869 0.0934 N/A 0.245 0.000627 0.0189 N/A 0.0447 0.00829 0.021 0.00183 0.00527 N/A N/A 0.0205 N/A 0.0728 4.0173 0..00172 0.765 0.0109 N/A 0.022 0.207 4.00164 0.931 0.000715 0.125 0.79 0.00816 0.00789 0.00938 N/A N/A 0.0619 .118 0.973 0.00811 0.0486 Mini-mill TRI (lbs.00776 0.0256 0.00265 0.044 N/A N/A N/A 0.00218 0.00229 0.000417 0.00366 0.0000527 0./short ton) 3.0812 0./short ton) 0.76 - The shaded boxes show the higher intake.0227 0.0000651 0.0131 0.0746 0.000224 0.0441 0.0336 0.

0303 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A (cont.00129 N/A 0.00229 0.00222 0.) Chemical Mini-mill TRI (lbs.00418 0.00305 0.77 - 0.095 N/A .46E-07 N/A N/A 0.05E-07 0.00122 0.0000259 N/A N/A 0./short PYRIDINE SULFURIC ACID (1994 AND AFTER "ACID AEROSOLS" ONLY) ZINC (FUME OR DUST) 1.0000292 4.0000607 ton)/year N/A N/A 0.004 0.816 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0..00162 0.0000259 0.101 0.0000241 Steel Making Facilities Integrated TRI (lbs.000827 9.0217 4.34 0.000802 0.3-BUTADIENE 2.19E-07 N/A 8.4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE BIPHENYL CARBON DISULFIDE CHROMIUM LEAD NICKEL ANTIMONY CADMIUM CALCIUM CYANAMIDE COBALT COMPOUNDS CUMENE DIETHANOLAMINE HYDROGEN CYANIDE Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals for Mini-Mill 0.2.424 MANGANESE PROPYLENE 1./short N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.4-DIMETHYLPHENOL 2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE ACETONITRILE ARSENIC COMPOUNDS BERYLLIUM CARBONYL SULFIDE CERTAIN GLYCOL ETHERS COBALT DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE HYDROGEN FLUORIDE MERCURY COMPOUNDS ton)/year 0.00204 0.4E-08 5.000547 N/A 0.00222 0.353 0.00792 0.0801 0.157 0.00936 0.0111 N/A 0.

produces 4 times more TRI chemicals. and the industry as a whole. We have decided to narrow our study down to the improvement of three main pollutionemitting sectors. on average. In response to expanding regulatory constraints. ..10:TOXIC RELEASE INVENTORY CHEMICALS COMPARISON Our calculations show that per ton of steel produced. 4.611468464 N/A N/A 22.0000451 0. Two of the major problems with the coke making process are with coke oven air emission and quenching wastewater. U.000114 5.811 NITRATE COMPOUNDS O-XYLENE 0. 4.1 INTEGRATED One of the steel industry’s greatest environmental concerns is the coke making process.113 0.0000259 N/A THIOUREA VANADIUM (FUME OR DUST) Total TRI Release 0.S.16. Unfortunately eliminating and preventing pollution altogether is impossible.78 - 5.86074 TABLE 4.16 IMPROVEMENT ANALYSIS There is no better way to reduce pollution than to prevent it from occurring in the first place. semi-integrated steel production process. the integrated steel making process.00216 N/A QUINOLINE 0. semi-integrated steel making process.

95). The first is known as the Pulverized coal injection process. Second. This process uses ore fines and coal. and is amenable to a variety of coal types. By allowing the gasses given off from the coke making process to combust. This process has complete coal desulfurizing. A second example of this type of cokeless technology is the Hismelt process. (EPA. In this process molten iron is produced directly with coal and sinter feed ore. The power that is generated by this process exceeds what an iron and steel mills require. The excess power can then be sold to local power grids.79 - steel makers are turning to new technologies to decrease the amounts and sources of pollution. An example of this would be the Japanese Direct Iron Ore Smelting (DIOS) process. The third and final example of this type of process is known as the Corex process. is the Nonrecovery coke battery. which substantially reduces emissions. There are several technologies that are available or that are under development to reduce the emissions from coke ovens. Eliminating coke with cokeless technologies is another way to reduce pollution generated during the steel making process. and by using ore directly in the smelter. the by-products that are typically recovered are consumed. alternate . Lastly. Another step that can be taken in the reduction of pollutants is by reducing coke oven emissions. The main focus on pollution prevention in the coke making process has been narrowed down to two main areas: reducing coke oven emissions and developing cokeless iron making techniques. it has achieved a production rate of 8 tons per hour.. The substitution of pulverized coal for a portion of the coke in the blast furnace can replace about 25 to 40 percent of coke in the blast furnace.

Other areas in the manufacturing of iron and steel where opportunities may arise for pollution prevention are process modifications. Other fuels such as natural gas.80 - fuels can be used. 4. and the state of the steel industry. 4.16. Because of its high concentrations of Pb and Cd. These alternate fuels can only replace coke in limited amounts. oil. Unfortunately because of the major construction changes. and recycling. An example of this would be. replacing single-pass . Some plants in Europe have decided to shift from water quenching to dry quenching in order to reduce energy costs. Redesigning or modifying process equipment. another area of significant environmental concern is quenching water from coke making. and tar/pitch can be injected into the blast furnace.16. Dust generation and its disposal are a serious problem. pollution output. materials substitution. though not yet technically or economically competitive for all mills is the in-process recycling of EAF dusts. One process. but one that has potential for pollution prevention through material recovery..2 SEMI-INTEGRATED The main pollution producer in the semi-integrated category is the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). maintenance costs.3 INDUSTRY In addition to air emissions. This involves palletizing and then reusing the pellets in the furnace. and energy consumption can be reduced. the likely hood of this pollution prevention opportunity being adopted in the United States is not good. EAF dust is a RCRA listed waste.

Use a bipolar membrane/electrodialytic process to separate acid from metal byproducts in spent NO3 –HF pickle liquor. 4. Some of these recycling 4. such as using scrap steel with low lead and cadmium content as a raw material instead of using desulfurized slag. Using less toxic materials in the production process.81 - wastewater systems with closed-loop systems to minimize chemical use in wastewater treatment and to reduce water use.18 CONCLUSION . Last and in our opinion the most crucial part of eliminating pollutants is recycling. In the iron and steel industry scrap and other materials are recycled extensively to reduce the raw materials required and the pollutants associated with it..17 ACTIVITIES INCLUDE • • • Recycle or reuse oils and greases Recover acids by removing dissolved iron salts from spent acids. • Recover sulfuric acid using low temperature separation of acid and metal crystals.

82 - After completing our LCA for the steel industry using the integrated sector as a base case and following up with a similar analysis for the semi-integrated sector. we hopefully will have a clearer perception as to which process is more environmentally friendly. we plan to compare these two ways of steel making. By doing this.. .

mi.org/fact/main. -Annual Steel Statistics.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-us.pdf 2.83 - CHAPTER-5 REFERENCES 1.gov/Reports/Steel/cd91a. (2) 89-96.Environmental Protection Agency.htm 3. USEPA. 5. 1995 "Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry.K. American Iron and Steel Institute. 2.C.C. Worldwide LCI database for Steel Industry Products Kakkar M. Env Studies & Policy Vol I. 4.epa. 3. D. http://www.ltvsteel. Washington D.doc.ta.newsteel. http://www.com/features/NS9912f3. American Iron and Steel Institute.html 6. http://www. http://www.lib.. INTERNET 1.gov/econ/www/manumenu.html . http://www. Anonymous (1999).html 8. IISI. 2001.html 4.htm 9.pdf 7. J.us/~stewarca/steelynx.gov/prod/2/manmin/mp94.gov/oeca/sfi/irondata. (1998). http://es.com/htmfiles/enduser. Annual Statistical Report..htm 5.census. http://www.recycle-steel. http://www. Best Practices for Cleaner Production in Iron and Steel Industry.mlc. Washington.census.census. http://www.

. http:// Tata Steel internet/144.0.1.102 .84 - 10.