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Chapter 13 Power and Politics

MULTIPLE CHOICE A Definition of Power 1. Power is: a. ability to influence others. b. dependency upon others. c. equal to sexual harassment. d. being rewarded by others. (a; Easy; p. 366) 2. Which one of the following is not implied in the definition of power? a. influence b. potential c. dependency d. discretion (d; Moderate; p. 366)

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The most important aspect of power is that it: a. is needed to get things done in an organization. b. is a function of dependency. c. tends to corrupt people. d. is counterproductive. (b; Moderate; p. 366) 4. Which of the following is true concerning power? a. The most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependency. b. A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire. c. The threat of writing family members out of the will is an example of power. d. all of the above (d; Moderate; p. 366) Contrasting Leadership and Power 5. Leaders achieve goals, and power is: a. an indicator of a good leader. b. usually used by poor leaders. c. a means of achieving the goals. d. counterproductive to goal achievement. (c; Easy; p. 366) 6. _____ does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. a. Leadership b. Communication c. Information d. Power (d; Moderate; p. 366)

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_____ requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led. a. Leadership b. Communication c. Information d. Power (a; Easy; p. 366) 8. _____ focuses on the downward influence of one’s followers. a. Leadership b. Communication c. Information d. Power (a; Easy; p. 366) 9. _____ research emphasizes style; whereas research on _____ focuses on tactics for gaining compliance. a. Power; persuasion b. Communication; politics c. Leadership; power d. Politics; leadership (c; Challenging; p. 366) 10. _____ is based on an individual’s position in an organization. a. Leadership b. Formal power c. Informal power d. Influence (b; Easy; p. 367) 11. Formal power can come from: a. the ability to coerce or reward. b. formal authority. c. control of information. d. all of the above (d; Moderate; p. 367) Bases of Power 12. Bases of power refer to: a. power characteristics. b. whether the power position has a good foundation. c. sources of power. d. the elements of power. (c; Moderate; p. 367) 13. One reacts to _____ power out of fear of the negative ramifications that might result if one fails to comply. a. knowledge b. coercive 23

rewards. d.” describes someone with what type of power? a. and you want to avoid getting him angry. referent b. persuasive. knowledge. 367) 24 . 367) 17. fear. (c. coercive. reward c. assuming that B values his or her job. coercive (d. The opposite of coercive power is _____ power. a. When a bank robber points a gun at a bank employee. Moderate. persuasive (b. reward c. (a. c. coercive (b. 367) 18. knowledge. c. position. reward c. Moderate. b. b. his base of power is: a. referent b. p. p. reward power. Moderate. suspend. 367) 19. p. coercive (d. legitimate d. c. legitimate d. p. (c. 367) 16. influence d. coercive power. or demote B. Legitimate power is based on: a. persuasive power. Moderate. positive reinforcement power. 367) 15. p. referent b. The statement “That person can make things difficult for people. p. The control of discretionary funds involves the power base known as: a. Moderate.c. d. b. Moderate. Moderate. d. position. legitimate d. p. A has ______ power over B if A can dismiss. a. 367) 14.

p. c. p. Moderate. referent power. coercive power. When your superior offers you a raise if you will perform additional work beyond the requirements of your job. 367) 24. 367) 23. Legitimate power d. (c. Expert power (c. 367) 21. a. Moderate. p. p. they have _____ power. reward power. When people in organizations have data or knowledge that others need which makes those others dependent upon them. coercive power. Expert power (c. reward b. Moderate. The power that the College Dean has been granted by the University over the faculty is termed: a. b. Moderate. 367) 22. (c. Coercive power b. 367) 26. (c. d. Information power d. Moderate. a. d. 367) 25. Moderate. c. legitimate power. ____ power and ____ power are actually counterparts of each other. _____ power is broader than the power to coerce and reward. c. Coercive power b. a. expert power. Expert. Reward power c. _____ power comes from access to and control over information. legitimate power. Reward power c. b. expert (c. reward power. p. The power a person receives as a result of position on the organizational chart is known as: a. information d. b. p. d. reward power. coercive power. reward c. Referent. reward c. expert power. expert power 25 . Coercive. coercive b. he/she is exercising: a. Reward. a.20. coercive d. expert power.

expert d. reward (b. Legitimate c. Easy. referent c. Charismatic b. a. reward d. p. Reward (a. 368) 28. p. You comply because of her _____ power. educational institutions. 367) 27. special skills or knowledge. 368) 29. 369) 32. p. politics. Celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials because the advertisers believe the celebrities have _____ power. p. Referent d. a. Personal b. Moderate. Expert (c. Expert (a. Reward c. Your physician has advised you to take a series of medications. Expert power refers to influence that derives from: a. Moderate. _____ power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. expert (d. (b. legitimate c. 369) Dependency: The Key to Power 26 . Moderate. p. Moderate. position. 368) 30. Coercive b. d. Legitimate d. Expert d. Moderate. a. Moderate. c. a. b.(c. 369) 31. _____ power is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style. a. ______ power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. p. p. coercive b. Referent c. coercive b.

independence (b. Challenging. c. (b. (d. All of the above are variables that create dependency. scarcity-dependency c. substitutability b. how to translate power bases into specific actions. a. perceived as nonsubstitutable. Dependency is decreased when the resource you control is: a. c. dependency c. scarce. p. important. Challenging. a. (c. The _____ relationship can be seen in the power of occupational categories. knowledge. highly substitutable. p. referent power d. importance-dependency (b. knowledge b. power.33. Dependency is inversely proportional to: a. Challenging. p. 369) 35. 370) 39. power d. p. Which of the following is not a tactical dimension? a. scarcity c. d. 370) Power Tactics 38. Power tactics define: a. c. 369) 34. b. p. importance b. the sources of power. In occupations where supply is low relative to demand. Moderate. p. (b. financial resources. 369) 36. Challenging. compensation is more attractive. nonsubstitutability d. organizational structural characteristics. 370) 37. Avoidance of _____ is why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather than give their business to only one. d. Which of the following is not a variable that creates dependency? a. Moderate. what powerholders desire. d. reason 27 . b. b. the alternative sources of supply.

Vivian has not been handling one portion of her duties in a satisfactory manner. Which power tactic is being used? a. c. the manager’s relative power c. Easy. c. 371) 44. The most popular power tactic used by managers to influence subordinates is: a. friendliness. p. p. b. 371) 45. (b. (d. penalties. p. higher authority. assertiveness c. (d. how to translate power bases into specific actions. the things that motivate people to seek power. sanctions d. bargaining (b. 371) 42. Which is not a contingency variable that affects the selection of a power tactic? a. her manager threatens to withhold her promotion. reason (c. the manager’s objectives for wanting to influence d. Sanctions are most synonymous with: a. higher authority d. p. 371) 40. b. the organization’s formal policies and procedures b. pp. authority. reason. b. Moderate. Moderate. As a result. Power tactics explain: a. bargaining. sanctions. (a. group support. 371) 43. Challenging. p. d. c. reason. the personality of the leader. friendliness. how to organize power functions. d. c. Easy. The power tactic of using flattery and creating goodwill before making a request is: a. legitimate position c. coalition. Moderate. 370-371) 41. rationality. 371) 28 . d.b. higher authority b. p. b. the organization’s culture (a. Easy. d.

p. Easy. 371) 51. d. Higher authority (c. friendliness b. 371) 29 . b. (d. Bargaining c. Which of the following is not a tactic for gaining power? a. reason. bargaining. Challenging. persuasion. assertiveness. rudeness (d. c. assertiveness. friendliness. 371) 47. used when the target of influence refuses or appears reluctant to comply with the request. 371) 50. He reminds you that company policy supports his position. (a. p. d. d. coercion. 371) 49. p. they tend to use: a. higher authority (c. p. b. All other things equal. bargaining d. Moderate. (c. 371) 48. bargaining c. managers with greater power use which power tactic more frequently than managers with less power? a. Friendliness b. assertiveness. p. assertiveness d. p. Moderate. reason b. Challenging. Assertiveness d. reason. b. friendliness. bargaining. coalition. c. Challenging. friendliness c. When managers seek benefits from a superior.46. c. James approaches his supervisor with data and a logical presentation supporting his request for additional personnel. _____ is a backup strategy. a. He is using the tactic of: a. Joe comes to you with a request for funds for a project. He is using: a.

c. Moderate. People in different countries tend to prefer different power tactics. 372) 54. When managers attempt to persuade their superiors to accept new ideas. Moderate. b. When past experience indicates a high probability of success. they tend to use: a. friendliness. Which one of the following is true about coalition formation? a. p. bargaining d. individual influence. assertiveness c. managers use _____ to gain compliance. 372) 57. p. c. 372) Power in Groups: Coalitions 55. d. the next response is likely to be: a. p. friendliness (b. 371) 53. Coalitions seek to minimize their size. d. friendliness (a. Coalitions usually precede uses of individual power. Unwelcome advances. Moderate. (b. a. c. bargaining d. a. 372) 56. (b.52. c. efforts to increase uncertainty. knowledge. (b. d. goal attainment. b. (d. reason c. Coalitions are more likely to be created where there is interdependence. d. an intimidation ritual. sanctions. simple requests b. a coalition. Coalitions are most synonymous with: a. Coalitions are more likely to form where tasks are non-routine. b. Challenging. collaboration. p. p. and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual 30 . simple requests b. seeking a managerial position. Easy. 373) Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 58. requests for sexual favors. reason. If individual efforts at gaining power fail. Americans perceive _____ to be the most effective. Challenging. assertiveness. p. b.

374) Politics: Power in Action 61. Moderate. Easy. b. a supervisor. Moderate. d. c. c. 375) 63. 373) 59. legitimate. a coworker. An individual could be subjected to sexual harassment perpetrated by: a. a. sex c. c. locus of control (a. abuse of power. d. functional. p. (b. strategic planning activities. d. counterproductive to individual goals. b. 375) 64. Moderate. (a. outside of one’s specified job requirements. part of each job requirement. 374) 60. p. a subordinate. b. p. 31 . Most studies confirm that the concept of _____ is central to understanding sexual harassment. politics d. _____ is a form of illegitimate political behavior. all of the above (d. Challenging. b. illegal. c. tactical planning activities. p. sexual harassment. power b. Bypassing chain of command b. p. 375) 62.nature that affect an individual’s employment is: a. c. political behavior. Forming coalitions c. all of the above (d. human resources. Obstructing organizational policies through excessive adherence to rules (c. Most political activities in organizations would be described as: a. Moderate. p. Political behavior is: a. b. illegitimate. Activities that influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization are: a. Sabotage d. a. d. seen only in large organizations.

p. ______ is the term used to refer to establishing effective relationships with key people inside and/or outside the organization. Moderate. a low need for security. less skilled in political behavior than low self-monitors c. p. appraises an individual immediately following performance c. 377) 69. Which of the following is not an individual factor related to political behavior? a. p. Demonstrating disloyalty b. (c. an internal locus of control. a. Encouraging change and innovation d. declining organizational resources d. exhibits higher levels of social conformity d. more sensitive to social cues b. Exh. Interest groups (a. Developing dysfunctional working relationships (b. In-group c. a high ability to self monitor. expectations of success (c. 377) 68. 13-4. Which of the following does not describe a high self-monitor? a. “playing hardball.” (b. 378) 70. a. (b. Networking b. Moderate. mistreats employees d. 377) 67. a high need for power. Moderate. uses subjective criteria in appraisal b. 376) 66. p. perceived alternatives c. p. Politicking c. Politicking d. Moderate. p. 375) 65. personality traits b. emphasizes an overall performance measure 32 . Moderate. Moderate.d. An individual most likely to engage in political behavior would have all of the following except: a. c. All of the above describe a high self-monitor. the greater the likelihood that an employee can get away with politicking. b. a. _____ occurs when people within organizations use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. The more an organization _____. d.

Which of the following is not considered an example of a defensive behavior intended to avoid action? a. p. playing safe d. The more an organization’s culture emphasizes the zero-sum allocations. b. overconforming (a. buffing b. a climate is created that rejects politicking. depersonalization d. p. coalitions. The greater the role ambiguity. p. Individuals who rigorously document activity to project an image of competence and thoroughness are using which of the following defensive behaviors? a. Challenging. 379) 72. the physicians are using which of the following defensive behaviors? a. Which of the following defensive behaviors is a way of avoiding action? a. the more likely they are to engage in politicking. depersonalization c. b. d. (b. especially when they do so successfully and are rewarded for it. impression management. d. When employees see their superiors engaging in political behavior.(a. (c. 13-6. 13-6. political behaviors. When physicians refer to patients by their room number or disease. justifying d. Moderate. misrepresenting d. buffing c. c. scapegoating (a. or change are termed: a. 382) 75. the more employees will be motivated to engage in politicking. Challenging. 382) 76. stalling (b. blame. p. Exh. 382) 74. defensive behaviors. p. Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action. escalation of commitment 33 . c. playing dumb c. p. passing the buck b. justifying b. buffing b. The more pressure that employees feel to perform well. Moderate. Which of the following is not true? a. 381) 73. Moderate. justifying c. Exh. the more one can engage in political activity with little chance of it being visible. Challenging. 379) 71.

“I’ve got two tickets to the game tonight that I can’t use. conformity (a. c.” This is an example of which impression management behavior? a. Is the action legal? c. (False. Each of the following is a question your text suggests to analyze ethical questions except: a. 366) 34 . Which of the following is not an example of an impression management technique? a. p. Moderate. favor b. Exh. d. favors (b. Challenging. p. Moderate. Exh. Power is a function of dependency. acclaiming. p. accounts d. 383) 80. 13-7. p. Does the action conform to standards of equity and justice? (b. misdirection. p. accounts. c. 13-7. Take them. (a. acclaiming b. (True. 382) 77. defensive behavior. 381) 78. 383) 79. p. mirroring c. When a person explains favorable events in order to maximize the desirable implications for himself. flattery c. (c. Easy. 383) 81. Is the action consistent with the organization’s goals? b. The process by which individuals attempt to control the impressions others form of them is: a. 385) TRUE/FALSE A Definition of Power 82. conformity. flattery d. 13-8. Power needs to be used for its existence to be validated. Exh. Exh. Does the action violate rights of other parties? d. d. b. 13-6. Moderate. he is using the impression management technique of: a. perception management.(a. 366) 83. favors. p. Easy. 13-7. Consider it a thank you for taking the time to talk with me. Moderate. impression management. Moderate. Exh. p. b.

(True. p. p. Moderate. Moderate. The managerial position gives its incumbent legitimate power. (False. (False. p. Moderate. p. the rewards must be financial. p. (True. 368) 35 . A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire. (False. Moderate. Moderate. 368) 96. (True. Moderate. (True. Power. 367) 93. Easy. unlike leadership. 366) 86. p. 367) 88. (True. p. p. (True. or treat B in a manner that B finds embarrassing. p. p. Easy. Power. The robber’s power is coercive power and is based on fear. Expertise has become one of the most powerful sources of influence as the world has become more technologically oriented. Moderate. p. unlike leadership. Moderate. A possesses expert power over B. Reward power rests on the allocation of things others view as valuable. You must have a formal position in an organization to have power. 368) 95. p. 366) Bases of Power 87. Challenging. (True. 367) 90. For reward power to be effective. Information power is a source of formal power. (False. focuses on downward influence patterns. If A can assign B work activities that B finds unpleasant. (True. merely dependence. Easy. The expert power of an individual is weakened when another individual with the same job-related knowledge and skills is hired by the organization. 367) 94. (True. Legitimate power represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources. 367) 91. Easy.84. p. 367) 89. (True. Personal power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. 366) Contrasting Leadership and Power 85. 368) 97. 367) 92. p. does not require a significant degree of goal compatibility. Easy.

p. 370) 111. Easy. p. the more power control over that resource provides. 370) 110. 369) 102. (True. The greater B’s dependence on A. (True. are able to exert influence over others because of the strength of their heroic qualities. (False. (False. p. Moderate. 369) 101. Challenging. 369) 105. Moderate. Easy. To create dependency. p. while not in formal leadership positions. (True. The more a resource has no viable substitutes. 370) 109. Labor negotiators become less powerful within the personnel area and the organization as a whole during periods of labor strife. Challenging. respect. 369) 99. p. pp. Dependency explains why organizations use single suppliers. p. (True. An understanding of dependency is central to understanding power. 369) 104. Many organizations will have people with charismatic qualities. the thing you control must be perceived as being important. and admire you. Moderate. p. The scarcity-dependency relationship can be observed in supply/demand relationships between various occupational categories. 370) 112. p. who.98. nevertheless. 370) 107. If you can make people dependent upon you. (False. (True. Moderate. 369) 100. A famous NFL quarterback’s power to influence your buying behavior through commercial endorsements is based on his expertise at leading a football team and his ability to throw a football. Dependency is inversely proportional to the supply of alternatives. (True. the greater is B’s power in the relationship. p. (False. Challenging. you have referent power over me. If I like. Moderate. Charismatic power is an extension of referent power. your power is increased. Easy. p. Moderate. (True. Power is increased by possession of something that is plentiful and easily available. 369) 106. p. (False. Easy. (True. Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. 36 . Moderate. 369-370) 108. 369) Dependency: The Key to Power 103. p. p. (True.

(False. (False. 373) 37 . 372) 121. (True. p. p. are inappropriate when individuals attempt to influence their superiors. Moderate. p. Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions are termed coalitions. Moderate. (True. 371) 116. p. 371) 118. Moderate. 370) 115. (True. Successful coalitions have been found to contain fluid membership. p. (True. Moderate. (False. Coalitions in organizations should be expanded to include as many interests as possible. (True. People in different countries tend to prefer different power tactics. Moderate. (True. Moderate. p. p. 371-372) 117. The organizational culture in which a manager works will not have a significant bearing on defining which tactics are considered appropriate. p. as a power tactic. it can be said that a department head’s power over a faculty member is inversely related to the member’s publication record. p. 372) 124. 372) 119. In universities where there are strong pressures for the faculty to publish. Easy. 372) Power in Groups: Coalitions 123. Easy. Moderate. p. 372) 122. (False. p. 370) 113. the most popular power tactic is the use of reason. (True. use a greater variety of tactics than do those with less power. When two or more individuals together seek to increase their power as a group.(True. or who are perceived to be in positions of dominance. Moderate. p. Moderate. 372) 125. Managers with power use assertiveness with less frequency than those with less power. the alternative is to form a subculture. Moderate. Managers vary their power tactics in relation to their objectives. p. 370) Power Tactics 114. Sanctions. Managers who control resources that are valued by others. 372) 120. Moderate. (False. (True. Moderate. pp. Regardless of the direction of influence. Reason is the power tactic that uses flattery.

374) Politics: Power in Action 133. Coalitions in organizations often seek to minimize their size. p. 375) 140. 375) 137. 373) 127. 375) 135. p. (False. all political behavior is considered an illegitimate activity. 375) 138. 373) 131. Easy. 373) 129. Legitimate political behavior refers to actions that are specified in one’s formal job description. p. Moderate. the greater the likelihood that coalitions will form. Politics is a fact of life in organizations. Easy. When employees in organizations convert their power into action. 375) 139. p. Moderate. 38 . (False. Moderate. By definition. and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature is termed sexual harassment. (True. It is not possible for a subordinate to sexually harass his/her supervisor. Unwelcome advances. 375) 136. (False. 373) Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 128. (False. Moderate. Moderate. p. p. we describe them as being engaged in politics. 374) 134. (True. p. p. (True. If no mention is made of a sexual act. (True. p. (True. Moderate. The vast majority of all organizational political actions are of the legitimate variety. Political behavior is one way to react to limited resources. (False. Moderate. 374) 132. Power is defined as the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. Sexual harassment is frequently concerned with power abuse. p. (True. Moderate. requests for sexual favors. 373) 130. (True. Political behavior is outside one’s specified job requirements. p. The problems today are likely to surface around more subtle forms of sexual harassment. p. Moderate. Easy. The more routine the task of a group. p. p. (False. (True. sexual harassment has not occurred. Moderate.126. Moderate.

The existence of alternative job opportunities and illegitimate political actions would tend to be positively correlated. Networking refers to establishing effective relationships with key people inside and/or outside the organization. Politicking by top management. When people perceive politics as a threat rather than an opportunity. p.(True. p. Challenging. (False. Employees with an external locus of control are more likely to engage in political behavior. Moderate. Moderate. they often respond with defensive behaviors. p. 377) 143. gives permission to those lower in the organization to play politics by implying that such behavior is acceptable. in a sense. (True. Politicking is most likely to be used when decisions are made in a climate of ambiguity. Challenging. In the last twenty-five years. Moderate. 380) 153. Moderate. 376) 142. p. For people who want to get ahead or build their political power within an organization. p. Moderate. p. (True. p. Moderate. p. Most managers are very comfortable with the move toward less autocracy in organizations in North America. (True. 379) 151. there has been a general move in North America toward making organizations less democratic. (True. 378) 147. Political activity is probably more a function of the organization’s characteristics than of individual differences. p. p. they should spend time and effort in developing a network of contacts. Moderate. 377) 144. (False. Objective performance appraisal criteria tends to encourage politicking. 377) 145. 377) 146. Political behavior can be stimulated by individual personalities and characteristics in the organization’s internal environment. (False. 381) 39 . Moderate. Moderate. (True. 375) 141. Cultures emphasizing the zero-sum approach to reward allocations will create breeding grounds for politicking. (True. Moderate. (True. 378) 148. (False. Moderate. 379) 152. (True. p. 379) 150. Easy. p. p. 379) 149. p. (True.

Moderate. 385) SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS Application of the Bases of power Your colleagues at work are constantly talking about the vice president in your area. 384) 165. 381) 155. 382) 164. Easy.” (True. p. (False. p. p. p. Exh. The evidence seems to demonstrate that impression management techniques work. Moderate. In impression management. p. p. Applicants using submissive styles during interviews were offered more positions than those using controlling styles. p. 384) 159. p.154. Moderate. (True. 382) 157. Moderate. Moderate. He is feared throughout the organization as a ruthless man who is not to be antagonized. Ethical decisions may include concern about the privacy rights of others. p. (True. (True. 13-7. 382) 163. Moderate. 13-7. 382) 162. Exh. blame. Challenging. Easy.” (False. p. Defensive behavior when you “cover your rear” is termed “playing safe. Moderate. Moderate. “Misrepresenting” as a defensive behavior has been used when the employee blames his/her computer for not having a project submitted on time. (True. (False. or change are termed impression management. There are clear-cut ways to differentiate ethical from unethical politicking. (False. 384) 160. p. Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action. Easy. Another way to describe impression management might be “personal/individual public relations. p. 382) 158. (False. High self-monitors are good at reading situations and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation. It is necessary for you to bring him a report and you are very nervous about having to deal with him. 13-7. 40 . Rigid adherence to rules exemplifies the “over-conforming” defensive behavior. 384) 161. (True. 381) 156. Exh. (True. individuals use association and conformity to manipulate information about themselves. The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them is called impression management.

abusing his power. 367-369) Application of Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace Marie’s supervisor embarrasses her by constantly telling sexual jokes and by making sexual comments. (b. all of the above (d. 373-374) 171. b. impressing you (a. Moderate. a. expert. pp. Although he has never directly asked her to sleep with him. Moderate. (b. d. reward. Moderate. Marie’s perception is probably very different form her supervisor’s. The vice president’s major base of power seems to be: a. c. expert. c. legitimate (d. c. This is part of his _____ power. this is not clearly sexual harassment since he has not requested that she give him sexual favors. politics d. a. b.166. b. Marie’s clothes are probably too suggestive. Moderate. referent. there is an unequal power relationship between Marie and her supervisor. reward. 367-369) 167. 367-369) 168. d. One basic problem in this situation is: a. power b. pp. 373-374) 170. 373-374) 41 . pp. she feels threatened and is so uncomfortable that it is difficult for her to do her job. b. pp. Studies show that this situation is probably more about _____ than about sex. referent. reward b. Easy. (b. 169. Marie was shocked when she observed that he had sexually explicit material on his computer screen during working hours. coercive. sexual harassment. pp. d. pp. c. coercion c. Moderate. You know that the vice president has the authority to accept or reject your report. legitimate. expert d. The one base of power which the vice president does not seem to have is: a. coercive c. creating a hostile work environment. Marie’s supervisor is guilty of: a. d.

his power base. 175. b. b. Challenging. pp. competent and capable. She sees him differently. He agrees with the supervisor’s opinion most of the time and is always doing nice things for him. 375-376) 174. pp. practical minded. c. Challenging. Jerod is attempting to use: a. 375-376) Application of Impression Management Jerod is relatively new to Xenon Corporation and wants to make sure that he makes a good impression on his coworkers and supervisor. (b. What Catherine views as “arrogant” is probably described by Bernice as: a. d. Jerod makes sure that he associates with the “right” people and is constantly complimenting others about their good work. acclaiming 42 . (b. 375-376) 173. c. career minded. b. fixing responsibility. (c. astute. pp. confident. delegating authority. c. She describes him as a man who passes the buck. fixing responsibility. Bernice believes that he is an effective manager. 172. is scheming and arrogant. astute. pp. Catherine believes that he is always engaging in political activity that is not in the best interests of the college. encouraging change and innovation. Bernice’s label for what Catherine describes as “passing the buck” might be: a. Moderate. d. defensive behavior. (a. competent. Bernice’s effective management label for Catherine’s phrase “scheming” is probably: a. Challenging. politics. d. excuses b. d. b. impression management. c. planning ahead.Application of Politics: Power in Action Catherine and Bernice are faculty members at a local college who feel very differently about their academic dean. Jerod is engaging in which of the following impression management techniques? a. 381-384) 176.

Exh. c. association. b. playing dumb c. excuses. avoiding blame. avoiding action. p. 382) Application of Dependency: The Key to Power Gerald knows that an understanding of dependency is central to understanding power in his organization. conformity (d. The defensive behavior that he is engaged in is termed: a. avoiding change. avoiding change. Thomas has decided to play it safe and engage in buffing if he has to. b. p. 369-370) 43 . c. proposes that the greater B’s dependency on A. 382) 179. (a. 13-6. explains why his organization develops multiple suppliers rather than give their business to only one. c. the greater the power A has over B. pp. waffling. d. Moderate. (c. 382) 180. The general dependency postulate: a. Challenging.c. all of the above (d. Moderate. (c. Thomas has decided that avoiding blame is his best defense. Moderate. 181. Challenging. d. 381-384) 177. pp. suggests that dependency is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of power. avoiding action. flattery. protecting turf (c. 178. scapegoating d. 13-6. apologies d. avoiding blame. Exh. 13-6. d. d. 381-384) Application of Defensive Behaviors Thomas recognizes that his firm is plagued by organizational politics. Which of the following behaviors are included in defensive behaviors termed “avoiding blame?” a. pp. c. Exh. He is not good at playing games and instead frequently engages in defensive behaviors in order to protect himself and protect his interests. conformity. b. p. Challenging. These defensive behaviors are part of: a. Thomas has had some success by passing the buck and stalling. Jerod is engaging in all of the following impression management techniques except: a. b. overconforming b. avoiding risk.

novel. emphasizes style. When the supply of personnel is low relative to demand. a capacity or potential. pp. Challenging. This implies a potential that need not be actualized to be effective and a dependency relationship. Contrast leadership and power. 185. It minimizes the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns. Dependency is increased when the resources you control meet all of the following conditions except: a. you gain power over them. It has gone beyond the individual as exerciser because power can be used by groups as well as by individuals to control other individuals or groups. for the most part. Power may exist but not be used. important. When you possess anything that others require but that you alone control. therefore. therefore. 186. d. the greater the power A has over B. A person can have power over you only if he/she has something you desire. It seeks answers to such questions as: How supportive should a leader be? How much decision making should be shared with followers? In contrast. the scarcity-substitutes relationship. so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. How is power defined? (Page 366) Power is a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B. What is the general dependency postulate? (Page 366) The general dependency postulate states that the greater B’s dependency on A. Leadership research. b. nonsubstitutable. c. possession 44 . This is an example of: a. the research on power has tended to encompass a broader area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance. the scarcity-dependency relationship. 369-370) SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 184. pp. Still another difference deals with research emphasis. requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led. d. (a. (c. Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers. Power does not. c. A second difference relates to the direction of influence. on the other hand. merely dependence.182. Dependency. Leadership. (Page 367) Power does not require goal compatibility. then. scarce. Moderate. b. individuals can negotiate compensation and benefit packages which are far more attractive than can those in occupations where there is an abundance of candidates. One can have power but not impose it. alternatives. you make them dependent upon you and. is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. 369-370) 183. It is. If something is plentiful. importance.

191. and groups of employees simultaneously calling in sick. whistleblowing. bypassing the chain of command. 192. it is the only way they know how to behave. forming coalitions. and sanctions. or change. assertiveness. blame. (Page 375) Legitimate political behavior refers to normal everyday politics – complaining to your supervisor. higher authority. They respond with reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action. or attempt to influence. What is political behavior? (Page 375) Political behavior in organizations is defined as those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization. In the short run. Political behavior is outside one’s specified job requirements. 187. Why do coalitions form? (Page 373) Those “out of power” and seeking to be “in” will first try to increase their power individually. The logic is that there is strength in numbers. obstructing organizational policies or decisions through inaction or excessive adherence to rules. Defensive behaviors are often associated with negative feelings toward the job and work environment. and clients. There are seven tactical dimensions: reason. 189. (Pages 381-382) The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them is called impression management. the alternative is to form a coalition – an informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue. and symbolic protests such as wearing unorthodox dress or protest buttons. Define power tactics. 45 . the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. there are also illegitimate political behaviors that violate the implied rules of the game. they lose the trust and support of their peers. and developing contacts outside the organization through one’s professional activities. friendliness. 190. But if this proves ineffective. bosses. At that point. Those who pursue such extreme activities are often described as individuals who “play hardball. but that influence. But in the long run. Explain impression management and give an example of its use in the workplace. What are defensive behaviors? (Page 381) Defensive behaviors occur when people perceive politics as a threat rather than an opportunity. employees. IM techniques are especially widespread in the employment interview. Distinguish between legitimate political behavior and illegitimate political behavior. On the other hand. coalition. 188.of it will not increase your power.” Illegitimate activities include sabotage. bargaining. employees may find that defensiveness protects their self-interest. (Pages 370-371) Employees translate their power bases into specific actions with power tactics.

once hired. possession of it will not increase your power. or from control of information. List and discuss the bases of formal power. People comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive benefits. and admire you. superior salary increases and more rapid promotions. from formal authority. or knowledge. Charismatic leaders get others to follow them because they can articulate attractive visions. It represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources. therefore. assuming that B values his or her job. 196. or demote B. If I like. Charismatic power is really an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style. People in an organization who have data or knowledge that others need can make those others dependent upon them. it’s not going to create dependency. and charisma. to get favorable evaluations. demonstrate environmental and follower sensitivity. 195. scarce. and nonsubstitutable. What is sexual harassment? What is the role of power? (Pages 373-374) 46 . (Pages 368-369) Personal power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. respect. Three bases of personal power are expertise. Therefore. The more that a resource has no viable substitutes. The opposite of coercive power is reward power. Expertise has become one of the most powerful sources of influence as the world has become more technologically oriented. Describe three things that create resource dependency. the thing you control must be perceived as being important. Information power comes from access to and control over information. the more power that control over that resource provides. (Pages 367-369) Formal power can come from the ability to coerce or reward. suspend. One reacts to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one failed to comply. you can exercise power over me because I want to please you. special skill. To create dependency. If nobody wants what you’ve got. Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 193. List and discuss the bases of personal power. (Pages 369-370) Dependency is increased when the resource you control is important. The coercive power base is dependent on fear. the respect and admiration of others. and are willing to engage in behavior that most others consider unconventional. A resource needs to be perceived as scarce to create dependency. one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others. This can help them initially get the jobs they want in an organization and. take personal risks. If something is plentiful. A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss. 194.People create an impression to be seen as more attractive than other candidates. One’s structural position is called legitimate power. Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise. These rewards can be either financial or nonfinancial.

Friendliness is use of flattery. Bargaining is the use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favors. Discuss the effectiveness of IM techniques as related to interview success. When an organization’s resources are declining. creation of goodwill. The topic of sexual harassment is about power. high pressures for performance. and other factors that are likely to be related to political behavior. Employees who are high self-monitors. Coalition is getting the support of other people in the organization to back up the request. Although co-workers don’t have legitimate power. The supervisor-employee dyad best characterizes an unequal power relationship. threatening to give an unsatisfactory performance evaluation. Sanctions are the use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments such as preventing or promising a salary increase. and being friendly prior to making a request. democratic decision making. Reason is the use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas. and self-serving senior managers will create breeding grounds for politicking. What are some of the individual factors that are related to political behavior? (Pages 377-378) At the individual level. 197. zero-sum reward allocation practices. repeating reminders. where formal power gives the supervisor the capacity to reward or coerce. when the existing pattern of resources is changing. and when there is opportunity for promotions. Most often co-workers harass by providing or withholding information. There are seven tactical dimensions. What organizational factors are related to political behavior? (Pages 378-379) Political activity is probably more a function of the organization’s characteristics than of individual difference variables. It’s about an individual controlling or threatening another individual. An individual’s investment in the organization. cultures characterized by low trust. Because of power inequities. ordering individuals to do what is asked. needs. and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior. role ambiguity.Sexual harassment is defined as any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment. In addition. and support. cooperation. Higher authority is gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to back up requests. unclear performance evaluation systems. sexual harassment by one’s boss typically creates the greatest difficulty for those who are being harassed. 200. or withholding a promotion. Assertiveness is the use of a direct and forceful approach such as demanding compliance with requests. they can have influence and use it to sexually harass peers. and pointing out that rules require compliance. perceived alternatives. acting humble. What power tactics can employees use to translate their power bases into specific actions? (Pages 371) Employees translate their power bases into specific actions with power tactics. (Page 384) 47 . 198. COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS 199. researchers have identified certain personality traits. politics is more likely to surface. possess an internal locus of control. and expectations of success will influence the degree to which he or she will pursue illegitimate means of political action.

and they seemed somewhat more inclined to hire these people. Another study confirmed the value of a controlling style over a submissive one. The evidence indicates IM behavior works. In one study. even after adjusting for grade point average. Specifically. If they used IM techniques. and job type. gender. It was the IM techniques alone that influenced the interviewers. Those applicants who used the controlling style were rated higher by interviewers on factors such as motivation. interviewers felt that those applicants for a position as a customer service representative who used IM techniques performed better in the interview.The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them is called impression management. 48 . recent college graduates that used more self-promotion tactics got higher evaluations by interviewers and more follow-up job site visits. enthusiasm. and even technical skills – and they received more job offers. It didn’t seem to matter if applicants were well or poorly qualified. they did better in the interview.