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THE EFFECTS OF THE TEMPERATURE AND THE TIME OF INITIAL HEATING ON THE YIELD OF LAUREL NUT (Calophyllum inophyllum

) OIL EXTRACTION USING A HYDRAULIC PRESS
Thesis to fulfill a part of the requirements in reaching the academic degree of master (S2) Study Program of Master of Engineering System Faculty of Engineering Sciences

Proposed by: Siti Rachmawati 07/262299/PTK/4428

To:

POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2009

.

Sc. M. the Chief of Master Program of Engineering System. Engineering Faculty of Gadjah Mada University of Yogyakarta. Agus Maryono. Tumiran. Ir. Ph. The writing process of this thesis could not have been completed without the assistance of many parties. Concentration of Municipal Waste/Rubbish Utility and Treatment Technology. Study Program of Master of Engineering System. Ir. Ir. I would like to thank God for His mercy and bounty so that the author could complete the research and the writing of this thesis titled “ The Effects of the Temperature and the Time of Initial Heating on the Yield of Laurel Nut (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil Extraction Using a Hydraulic Press”..INTRODUCTION First of all. iii . Agus Prasetya. This thesis was written in order to meet one part of the passing requirements in reaching the academic degree of master in Postgraduate Program of Gadjah Mada University. 3. the Dean of Engineering Faculty of Gadjah Mada University of Yogyakarta. Dr.D. therefore the author wants to sincerely convey my appreciation to the following: 1. 2. Faculty of Engineering Sciences.Eng. the Chief of Concentration of Minicipal Waste/Rubbish Utility and Treatment Technology that had given guidance and advice to the author. Dr-Ing.

Yogyakarta. 10. my mother. TIKM.Eng. Dr. Finally. My father.Sc. March 2009 Author iv . 6. The manager of MST UGM program who gave the representative facilities during the education. Panut Mulyono. Ir.. the author realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect in spite of the thought and energy that had been devoted. My other friends who provided much help to the author in finishing the writing of this thesis. Therefore. supervisor II who also gave the author much valued guidance and advice during the writing of this thesis. My friends from Angkatan IV of the concentration of TP2SLP. Suyitno. The owner and staff (Mas Rifai and Mas Ahmad) of the Bengkel Inovasi (Innovation Workshop) who assisted the author in the construction process of the research equipment.Eng. the author welcomes critics and suggestions for the perfection of this thesis. M. the supervisor I who also gave me guidance and advice during the writing of this thesis.4. 5. my brother and sisters especially mbak Nur who gave the author much assistance in completing this thesis. D. 8. and Mikrohidro of MST-UGM program who helped the author during the education and the writing of this thesis. M. Prof. 7. 9.

v .DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my parents who patiently raised and tended me throughout my life. that have gave me support and care. And also to all of my friends and family.

... 1................………………........ TABLE OF CONTENTS.............……………………..1.......…………........... 1.......………….............1 Book Review .......... DEDICATION........…………… xiv CHAPTER I PREFACE 1...........1 Problems.....……………..…………....……………………………….………....….....1........................… ii iii v vi ix xi LIST OF ATTACHMENTS………………..……….…………….....…………….....2 Authenticity of Research.……….. 1.……............5 Problem Formulation…….. 1........……………………..3 Benefits of Research.......……………………..………….......... 1 1 7 8 8 9 10 CHAPTER II BOOK REVIEW AND THEORY FOUNDATIONS 2...………….....……………………..…………...TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages PAGE OF STATEMENT.... 11 vi .... 1...…………………...…..…………………....………………..……………….…………………….…………………........1.……......……. INTRODUCTION ..2 Objectives of Research............................1............ xiii ABSTRACT………………………………. 1...............……………………..............………………………....... LIST OF FIGURES....................……..……….....................………………………….4 Problem Limitations......1 Background ..1..…..…….…….………………….............................……...... LIST OF TABLES............

.……....1...1.....2 Screw Press……….............................. 2.…………………… 2.................. 3...........................................................4..........................2...............................................1 Nut Size Reducing................................................. 2..4 Extraction..............…………........1 Hydraulic Press .…….......... 37 37 38 41 45 vii ........... 3.2 Extraction with Solvent.........……..........……........1....... 3........…….................2............................ 11 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 18 20 21 24 33 33 33 35 36 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH 3....... 2..................................6 Lubricating Oil Classification.......1............................................2 Place of Research..………... 2...............1.......................4............................................4.....1.... 2..1............................................................................4 Methods of Research.7 Lubricating Oil Specification...........3 Hydraulic Press...............1...........................1..............2 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Laurel Nut Oil...................... 2.......2...... 3.....………...............1 Material of Research..…….........................……… 2.... 2..............3 Tools of Research...2 Temperature and Time of Initial Heating………………….........……….....4..…………....................1...............................................4..2 Theory Foundations............1.....2.........…….......1 Mechanical Extraction ... 2............3 Benefits of Laurel Nut Trees............................. 2.. 2.................. 2....................1..4 Yield............1 Laurel Nut(Calophyllum Inophyllum) .............................................5 Lubricating Oil…………………....2....…....5 Variables of Research..3 Extraction by Heating (rendering)………......1..……… 2.......................................... 2...1............. 2......……………..

..........................2.......1 Free Variables..........................................4 Test Result of Gas Chromatography (GC)........2 Suggestion........2...............................................................................................6 69 Solution to Obtain a Good Quality Lubricating Oil from Laurel Nut Oil …………………………………………........................ 4................... 73 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTION 5................... 4.....................................................................2............................3 Results of the Advanced Analysis of Laurel Nut as a Lubricating Oil Base Material……..........................…………………........ 5................2 Discussion.......1 Results of the Research....1 Conclusions......................................................................2.......................................................2 Fixed Variables......2...1 46 49 Relation between Temperature and Time of Initial Heating on Oil Yield ...........2................................ 65 68 4........................................ 4.... 59 4.............................. 75 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY .....................5 Analysis of Viscosity Index of the Lubricating Oil Base Material Based on the Standard of SNI…………………………………………..5.................... 3..5........................ 45 45 CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION 4...3............. 77 ATTACHMENTS viii ............................ 4...2 Results of the First Analysis of the Laurel Nut Feasibility as a Lubricating Oil Base Material………………………………....... 49 4.........................................................

.....2 Data of Yields Obtained from the Pressing with the Initial Heating Temperature of 105 ˚C and the Times of Heating 15..............LIST OF TABLES Table 2............ and 60 Minutes ………………………………………………………… Table 4.... Table 4. 15 22 Table 2................ and 60 Minutes....3 Specification of the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Lubricating Oil for the Working Method Quality of API SG .. Table 2................................ 46 Table 4...................4 Data of Yields Obtained from the Pressing at a Room Temperature without an Initial Heating... 30... 47 Table 4. 32 Table 4.......................... Data of the Results of the Physical and Chemical Characteristics Analysis of the Oil Obtained from the Varied Temperatures of Heating.......... Dec 1999... 45..…......1 Components of Fat Acid in Laurel Oil ……….. 45..........3 46 Data of Yields Obtained from the Pressing with the Initial Heating Temperature of 120 ˚C and the Times of Heating for 15....... 48 47 ix .....................2 Classification of Lubricating Oil based on SAE J300................ 30................................ and 60 Minutes …………………………………………………………...1 Data of Yields Obtained from the Pressing with the Initial Heating Temperature of 90 ˚C and the Times of Heating for 15. 45. 30........................5................

......... 70 Table 4........................................................... 72 x ............... and Group III ……...................................... 70 Table 4..... Table 4.11 Minimum Viscosity Index of Lubricating Oil for Motors Using Base Lubricating Oil of Group IV and Group V …...12 Comparison of the Laurel Oil Characteristics with the Standard of SNI.....................13 Comparison of the Laurel Oil with MESRAN 20W and MESRAN 30..........6 Results of the Analysis of Laurel Oil Obtained from the pressing with the Initial Heating Temperature of 120˚C...8 Data of the Yields from the Pressing with the Varied Temperatures and Times of Heating ….................................. 72 Table 4..... Table 4......10 Minimum Viscosity Index of Lubricating Oil for Motors Using Base Lubricating Oil of Group I..... 55 69 48 49 Table 4............... ..........9 Category of Base Lubricating Oil………………………………..............................Table 4..................... Table 4........................................7 Contents of Fat Acid in the Laurel Oil................................................ Group II........................

............. Figure 4............................................4 Diagram of the flow of laurel nut oil extraction process..........2 Graph of the relation between the yields and the times of initial heating at the temperature 105 ˚C........4 Graph of the effects of the initial heating temperatures on the yields..1 Graph of the relation between the yields and the times of the initial heating at the temperature 90 ˚C............................. 14 Figure 2......................................1 Laurel Fruit used in the Research........................................... 39 Figure 3............................ 40 Figure 3......3 Hydraulic Press with the capacity 250 gram.............. 34 Figure 3... Figure 4................................... 44 51 52 54 56 xi .........3 Graph of the relation between the yields and the times of initial heating at the temperature 120 ˚C.............2 Green and ripe (yellow in color) Laurel Fruit.3 Part of Laurel Tree................................................................4 Graph of the realtion between the yields and the times of the initial heating with the varied temperatures........................................... 37 Figure 3.........2 Heater of Rotary Drier.. 11 Figure 2........... Figure 4........................................................ 12 Figure 2.............................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2......... Figure 4..................................1 Laurel Nut Tree with shining green leaves ..........

...... Figure 4.... Figure 4..................................Figure 4........................... Figure 4............................................................................... Figure 4.................. 65 65 64 63 61 xii .......................11 Graph of the relation between flash points and the initial heating temperatures.............................. Figure 4......................................5 Graph of the relation between the yields and the initial heating temperature by the varied times of heating..........9 Graph of the relation between water content and the initial heating temperatures...........................................................................12 Graph of the relation between pour points and the initial heating temperatures....6 Laurel nut extraction by the Hydraulic Press...8 Graph of the relation between specific gravity and the initial heating temperatures..................................7 Pouring the Laurel oil resulted from the pressing into containers..10 Graph of the relation between the kinematic viscosity at the temperature 40 ˚C and the initial heating temperatures.. Figure 4.......................................... 60 58 60 Figure 4..........................................................

...... Attachment 8 Calculation of Sulfur Content and Sulfate Ash Content of the analysis results...................................... 79 81 82 84 86 88 89 90 91 xiii ................... Attachment 4 Flash Point Measurement Procedure (ASTM D 93).........................................................LIST OF ATTACHMENTS Attachment 1 Spesific Gravity Measurement Procedure (ASTM D 1298) Attachment 2 Kinematic Viscosity Measurement Procedure (ASTM D 445) Attachment 3 Viscosity Index Calculation (ASTM D 2270)................. Attachment 9 Acid number Measurement Procedure.............. Attachment 5 Pour Point Measurement Procedure (ASTM D 97)................... Attachment 6 Water Content Measurement Procedure of Oil (ASTM D 95) Attachment 7 Procedure of Sulfate Ash Content and Sulfur Content Measurement.........................................................................

it fulfills the requirements of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for kinematic viscosity at the temperature 100 °C. The method stages of Laurel nut oil extraction include blendering. and pour point. Besides that. The highest yield from this result was 29. The objectives of this research are to find the optimum temperature and time of initial heating to obtain the highest yield of Laurel nut (Calophyllum Inophyllum) oil. Therefore it needs further research and process so that Laurel nut oil can be utilized as a lubricating oil. laurel nut. such as a vegetable oil. 90. flash point.83 %. The lubricating oil existing today still uses base material from petroleum that can pollute the environment. for the total base number and sulfate ash content do not meet the SNI requirements. it needs an environmentally friendly base material for a lubricating oil. Meanwhile. obtained from the initial heating at the temperature 120 °C for 45 minutes. lubricating oil xiv . and 120°C for 15. Keywords: yield. to find the feasibility of the Laurel nut oil produced as the base material of lubricating oil for 4-gear motorized vehicles. e. and 60 minutes. Therefore. initial heating with the varied temperatures and times of the initial heating. 30. Based on the test result of Laurel nut oil feasibility as a lubricating oil for 4-gear motorized vehicles. viscosity index. 105. The next step is pressing in a hot condition using an hydraulic press.g.THE EFFECT OF THE INITIAL HEATING TEMPERATURE AND TIME ON THE YIELD OF THE LAUREL NUT (Calophyllum Inophyllum) OIL EXTRACTION USING A HYDRAULIC PRESS ABSTRACT By: Siti Rachmawati 07/262299/PTK/4428 The rapid increase of vehicles affects the rise of lubricating oil usage. 45.

dan 60 menit.PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PEMANASAN AWAL TERHADAP RENDEMEN PADA PENGAMBILAN MINYAK BUAH NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum) DENGAN MESIN PRESS HIDRAULIK INTISARI Oleh: Siti Rachmawati 07/262299/PTK/4428 Peningkatan jumlah kendaraan bermotor yang cukup pesat berpengaruh pada peningkatan jumlah pemakaian minyak pelumas. Berdasarkan hasil uji kelayakan minyak nyamplung sebagai minyak pelumas bensin 4 langkah kendaraan bermotor telah memenuhi persyaratan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) untuk viskositas kinematis pada suhu 100 °C. 45. pemanasan awal pada berbagai variasi suhu dan lama pemanasan awal yaitu 90. Sedangkan untuk angka basa total dan kadar abu sulfat belum memenuhi persyaratan SNI. nyamplung. Oleh karena itu. diantaranya adalah minyak nabati. Minyak pelumas yang ada saat ini masih menggunakan bahan dasar berasal dari minyak bumi yang dapat mencemari lingkungan. perlu penelitian dan proses lebih lanjut agar minyak nyamplung dapat digunakan sebagai minyak pelumas. 30. untuk mengetahui kelayakan minyak nyamplung yang dihasilkan sebagai bahan dasar minyak pelumas bensin 4 langkah kendaraan bermotor. indeks viskositas. Kemudian dilakukan pengepresan dalam kondisi panas dengan menggunakan alat pengepres hidraulik. dan 120 °C selama 15. 105. Urutan metode pengambilan minyak buah nyamplung meliputi pemblenderan. Karena itu diperlukan bahan dasar minyak pelumas yang lebih ramah lingkungan. titik nyala. Selain itu. Kata kunci: rendemen. minyak pelumas xv . Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui suhu dan lama pemanasan awal yang optimum sehingga dihasilkan rendemen minyak nyamplung (Calophyllum Inophyllum) yang tertinggi. dan pour point.83 %. Rendemen tertinggi dari hasil penelitian ini adalah sebesar 29. diperoleh dengan pemanasan awal pada suhu 120 °C selama 45 menit.

Various designs of latest motorized vehicles are still being produced by the producers.1 Background 1. 10 March 2009).180. it increased to 38. the usage of fuels also increases.com.8 million units in which the largest composition was contributed by motorbikes that reached 82. 10 March 2009). With the increasing number of motorized vehicles. The data in the Statistic Central Board (BPS) shows that in 2000 the number of motorized vehicles was only 18. Today. But the society does not fully realize that the waste of lubricating oil used to lubricate their vehicles is a source of pollution as the lubricating oil is made from petroleum that is a non-degradable raw material.1. the people in Indonesia as in other countries around the world feel that the world is getting hotter that is usually termed as global warming and is due to the existence of pollution.46 % (www. On the other hand.156.178.1 Problems The increasing usage of motorized vehicles today cannot be avoided.co.kabarindonesia. People become worried and try to get out of the 1 . In 2007.344 and in 2005.id. The data shows the increase of motorized vehicles was 19.CHAPTER I PREFACE 1. the need for lubricating oil will also increase.bni. The world society wants a system of transportation that is fast and easy. the total number of motorized vehicles in Indonesia reached 63.934 from 2000 to 2005 or there was an increase more than one hundred percent in 6 year period of time (www.975.

sea. Surabaya and Medan.5 microgram/cubic meter (mg/m3). Now. Carbon Monoxide (CO). As reported by the Indonesian Environmental Society (WALHI). in every liter of premium produced it contains lead (Pb) as much as 0. the world carries out a number of anticipating measures such as by substituting fuels from fossils with an alternative and environmentally friendly energy. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 70 % of the capital people in the world have breathed dirty air and the rest breathes marginal air (www.930 tons. To cope with this condition. in the water. Besides death. The smoke coming from motorized vehicles using fossil fuels becomes the biggest contributor of pollution in the world.republikaonline. According to a research done by the Jakarta Urban Development Project (2000). 15 March 2009). Pollution is everywhere.com.45 gram so that the total amount of Pb released in the air was 5. ground and air. the concentration of lead in Jakarta reached 1. environmental pollution has also caused TBC. asthma and other respiratory diseases. and Ozone now have exceeded the standard threshold of the ambient air quality. about 50 – 100 thousand people die per year due to air pollution. Hydrocarbon. Environmental pollution has caused millions of people to be sick and even have caused to death. Bandung. several other cities in the world are not free from these problems. bronchitis. Those types . the air pollutants such as Particulate Matter (PM). phenomonia. In a study carried out by researchers in University of Harvard in the United States of America in 2005.2 situation.181. In Jakarta.7 – 3. emphysema.

Nowadays. it starts to be known the lubricating oil synthesized from calona oil. But up to the present. water or air are alarming. Consequently. the soil will become infertile and the water content in the ground becomes polluted. Two kinds of lubricating oil managed to be synthesized and the planning of the . The availability of petroleum is limited and constitutes nonrenewable natural resources so that the price is getting more expensive. The Palm Research Center tried to synthesize raw material of lubricating oil from palm oil.republikaonline. if it leaches into the ground. Included is the substitution of lubricating oil base materials from petroleum that can cause pollution for environmentally friendly materials e. the advantage of lubricating oil base material from vegetable oil is that it is renewable so that the resources will not diminish. the usage of lubricating oil base materials derived from petroleum is not environmentally friendly and not degradable by microbes. Now. Furthermore.com. the materials made from vegetable oil. 15 March 2009). Lubricating oil and vegetable oil are known as environmentally safe products. especially in European countries. good quality vegetable oil resources to be used as a lubricating oil base material are still not found.3 of pollutants above besides reducing the comfort in general also have bad effects on the health of people (www. rapeseed oil and sun flower oil. lubricating oil circulating in the markets is generally synthesized from petrochemical products using base materials derived from petroleum. Substitutions of many kinds of materials that can pollute the environment for more environmentally friendly materials today must be performed as the levels of pollution in the ground. Besides that.g.

boat construction. The lubricating oil produced has the characteristics approaching the characteristics of conventional lubricating oil mainly M-SAE 10 (Motor . the timber the timber can be used in the building industry. Laurel trees are found abundantly in the Province of Yogyakarta mainly in beach areas such as in Bantul and Kulonprogo. This system is suggested to constitute a series by the supermini palm processing/production system and supermini fractionation process.100 liters per batch.15 °C. The development of these products in a small scale industry can be done by using the batch system with the capacity of reactor between 50 . and for furniture and so are its fruit. Moreover. Laurel tree with its Latin terms Calophyllum Inophyllum has not been optimally utilized. the leaves of Laurel tree are good to inhale CO2 from the free air so that they can reduce pollution. e. Up to the present. index viscosities 138. mainly in the District of Beran. It was proved by how easily the author could obtain the Laurel nuts in the area of Sleman. that is each has the viscosity at 40 °C as much as 24. Actually.Society of Automotive Engineers 10).03 and 195. the fruit are good for health and produces oil (biofuel) that is high in octane content. Despite many trees have been cut down but the existence of the Laurel trees is still abundant.g. The Sleman Regency is an area on the . Laurel tree is a multiuse type of tree.95 cSt. between 8 .85 cSt and 34. Besides being able to stop abrasion around the beach.4 process managed to be made.95 and flash points 209 and 198 °C. Yogyakarta Province. But the two types of the vegetable lubricating oil have the pour point values far from the values of conventional lubricating oil pour points.