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History of India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the history

of the Indian subcontinent prior to the partition of India in 1947. For the modern Republic of India, see History of the Republic of India. For Pakistan and Bangladesh, see History of Pakistan and History of Bangladesh. "Indian history" redirects here. For other uses, see Native American history. Part of a series on the History of India

Chronology of Indian history Ancient India Prehistoric India and Vedic India Religions, Society, Mahajanapadas Mauryan Period Economy, Spread of Buddhism, Chanakya, Satavahana Empire The Golden Age Discoveries, Aryabhata, Ramayana, Mahabharata Medieval India The Classical Age Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Empire Rashtrakuta Empire Art, Philosophy, Literature

Islam in India Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Music, Guru Nanak Mughal India Architecture, Maratha Confederacy Modern India Company Rule Zamindari system, Warren Hastings, Mangal Pandey, 1857 British Indian Empire Hindu reforms, Bengal Renaissance, Independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi Subhas Chandra Bose v·t·e Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent Stone age (7000–3000 BC)[show] Bronze age (3000–1300 BC)[show] Iron age (1200–26 BC)[show] Classical period (1–1279 AD)[show] Late medieval age (1206–1596 AD)[show] Early modern period (1526–1858 AD)[show] Other states (1102–1947 AD)[show] Colonial period (1505–1961 AD)[show] Kingdoms of Sri Lanka[show]

which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and which witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas.000 years ago. Mughal . This period. with various parts ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next 1. with its huge population generating between one fourth and one third of the world's income up to the 18th century. During this period. Magadha. From this time. Much of northern and central India was united in the 4th century CE. under the Gupta Empire.[1] The Indus Valley Civilization. and Pandyas. Pallavas. administration. Most of the subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE.Nation histories[show] Regional histories[show] Specialised histories[show] v·t·e The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75. and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia.[4] setting the stage for several successive invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 15th centuries CE. and for several centuries afterwards. or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500. Mughal rule came from Central Asia to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent.[2] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period. culture. witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence. southern India. This is known as the classical period of Indian history. Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE and propagated their śramanic philosophies. is known as the "Golden Age of India". which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. In one of these kingdoms. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Pakistan and northwest India. and remained so for two centuries. It became fragmented. during which time India has sometimes been estimated to have had the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world. experienced its own golden age. Kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around 77 CE.[3] This Bronze Age civilization collapsed before the end of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization. Muslim rule in the subcontinent began in 8th century CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab in modern day Pakistan. under the rule of the Chalukyas. was the first major civilization in South Asia. leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire.500 years. from 2600 to 1900 BCE.000 years ago. Cholas. aspects of Indian civilization.

Pakistan. India (c. and Marathas to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia. Prehistoric era Stone Age Main article: South Asian Stone Age Further information: Mehrgarh.[8][9] The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements[10] and some of its major civilizations. large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company. the Maratha Empire. flourished contemporaneously in southern. In addition to the Mughals and various Rajput kingdoms. 30. such as the Vijayanagara Empire. Sikhs. a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and later joined by the Muslim League. eastern and northeastern India respectively. western. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857.000 years ago.[6][7] Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent.[13] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India. which provided opportunities for the Afghans. several independent Hindu states.rulers introduced Central Asian art and architecture to India.[14] . after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states. and Edakkal Caves Bhimbetka rock painting. Eastern Ganga Empire and the Ahom Kingdom. Madhya Pradesh. Bhimbetka rock shelters. The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.[11][12] The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.000 years old) Stone age (5000 BC) writings of Edakkal Caves in Kerala. Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era. and Nepal. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century. India. after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline.000 and 200. somewhere between 500. Balochis. During the first half of the 20th century.[5] Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century.

marking the beginning of urban civilization on the subcontinent. developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products. Pakistan.000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh. in the lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE. and Mohenjo-daro in . Punjab and Rajasthan provinces) and Pakistan (Sindh. and Lothal in modern-day India. Ganeriwala. the Harappans. and in later South India. It was centered on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the GhaggarHakra River valley.[15][16] Traces of a Neolithic culture have been alleged to be submerged in the Gulf of Khambat in India. Kalibangan.[17] However. Neolithic agriculture cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region around 5000 BCE. Punjab. The first confirmed semipermanent settlements appeared 9. and Harappa. radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE. it is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations.[20] and southeastern Afghanistan. The Mature Indus civilization flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE. along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.[22] Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley. Historically part of Ancient India.000 years ago. "Priest King" of Indus Valley Civilization The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilization. The first urban civilization of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilization. lead. Haryana. India. the one dredged piece of wood in question was found in an area of strong ocean currents. and Balochistan provinces). bronze. and tin. Early Neolithic culture in South Asia is represented by the Bhirrana findings (7500 BCE)in Haryana. Rupar. The civilization included urban centers such as Dholavira.[18] Bronze Age Main article: Indus Valley Civilization See also: Economic history of India and Timeline of the economy of India The docks of ancient Lothal as they appear today. spreading southwards and also northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE.[11] the Ganges-Yamuna Doab.[21] The civilization is primarily located in modern-day India (Gujarat. when more extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12.[19] Gujarat. Rakhigarhi. India & Mehrgarh findings (7000 BCE onwards) in Balochistan. seal carving).The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period. and produced copper.

[33] The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds. Karma etc. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts in India[23] and next to some writings in Egypt and Mesopotamia are the oldest in the world. Early historic period Vedic period Main article: Vedic Civilization See also: Vedas and Indo-Aryans Map of North India in the late Vedic period. roadside drainage system. which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. In terms of culture.[24] laying the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. and multistoried houses. The Vedic period lasted from about 1500 to 500 BCE.[28] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later like Dharma. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick. with late Harappan urbanization having been abandoned. or social classes. the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period.modern-day Pakistan.[26][27] Vedic people believed in the transmigration of the soul. the longest single poem in the world. In addition to the Vedas. Aryan society became increasingly agricultural and was socially organized around the four varnas.[30] After the time of the Rigveda. sacred to Hindus. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture associated with the texts of Vedas. trace their root to the Vedas. Early Vedic society consisted of largely pastoral groups.[25] Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the northwest. to the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts.[32] The events described in the Ramayana are from a later period of history than the events of the Mahabharata.[29] The swastika is a major element of Hindu iconography. in part. many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age in this period. the principal texts of Hinduism.[34] . today.[25] Historians have analysed the Vedas to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. and the peepul tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda.[31] The Mahabharata remains.

and Kamboja—stretched across the Indo-Gangetic Plain from modern-day Afghanistan to . as śyāma ayas. called mahajanapadas. Vajji (or Vriji). which existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE. Chedi.[34] The Vedic Period also established republics such as Vaishali. Anga. Indian Religions. Gautama Buddha. By 500 BCE. Main articles: Mahajanapadas and Haryanka dynasty Main articles: History of Hinduism. literally "black metal. Panchala. Matsya (or Machcha). around 1000 BCE. Kosala. It was the center of Buddhist learning and research in the world from 450 to 1193 CE. Nalanda is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history. early Buddhist and Jaina literature as far back as 1000 BCE. Detail of a leaf with. Mahajanapadas Gautama Buddha undertaking extreme ascetic practices before his enlightenment on the bank of river Phalgu in Bodh Gaya. Avanti. The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful kingdoms and republics of the era. Assaka. many mentioned in Vedic. Magadha. Vatsa (or Vamsa). Malla. c. sixteen monarchies and "republics" known as the Mahajanapadas—Kasi. located mainly across the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. and Ancient universities of India In the later Vedic Age." The Painted Grey Ware culture spanned much of northern India from about 1100 to 600 BCE. Kuru. however there were a number of smaller kingdoms stretching the length and breadth of Ancient India. a number of small kingdoms or city states had covered the subcontinent. Bihar. History of Buddhism. The later part of this period corresponds with an increasing movement away from the previous tribal system towards the establishment of kingdoms. Indian philosophy.1375-1400. Surasena. from the Kalpa Sutra. the first Indian text to mention iron.The Kuru kingdom[35] corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Grey Ware cultures and to the beginning of the Iron Age in northwestern India. Gandhara. The Birth of Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism). as well as with the composition of the Atharvaveda. and History of Jainism See also: Adi Shankara. and Mahavira Further information: Upanishads.

549–477 BCE). founder of Buddhism were the most prominent icons of this movement. much of the northwestern subcontinent (present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Indo-Greek Kingdom. and the concept of liberation. Many of the sixteen kingdoms had coalesced to four major ones by 500/400 BCE. Avanti.Bengal and Maharastra. accorded status as the 23rd Tirthankara. This period saw the second major rise of urbanism in India after the Indus Valley Civilization.[40] Mahavira (c. by the time of Gautama Buddha.[39] Increasing urbanization of India in 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of new ascetic or shramana movements which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals.[41] Buddha found a Middle Way that ameliorated the extreme asceticism found in the Sramana religions. and Buddha (c. Many smaller clans mentioned within early literature seem to have been present across the rest of the subcontinent. Alexander the Great. Gandhara and the trans-India region.[38] The older Upanishads launched attacks of increasing intensity on the ritual. Shramana gave rise to the concept of the cycle of birth and death. Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism) propagated a theology that was to later become Jainism. proponent of Jainism. King of the Persian Achaemenid Empire crossed the Hindu-Kush mountains to seek tribute from the tribes of Kamboja.[43] However.[45] By 520 BCE. 563-483). Anyone who worships a divinity other than the Self is called a domestic animal of the gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The area remained under Persian .[44] Persian and Greek conquests See also: Achaemenid Empire. Nanda Empire. Kosala. was a historical figure. during the reign of Darius I of Persia.[37]:183 Upanishads form the theoretical basis of classical Hinduism and are known as Vedanta (conclusion of the Vedas). the Nanda Empire and Gangaridai Empire in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbors. other states elected their rulers. The Vedas are believed to have documented a few Tirthankaras and an ascetic order similar to the shramana movement. Some of these kings were hereditary.[42] Around the same time. the concept of samsara.[36] The 9th and 8th centuries BCE witnessed the composition of the earliest Upanishads. The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit. and Magadha. The Mundaka launches the most scathing attack on the ritual by comparing those who value sacrifice with an unsafe boat that is endlessly overtaken by old age and death. while the languages of the general population of northern India are referred to as Prakrits. These four were Vatsa. Jain orthodoxy believes the teachings of the Tirthankaras predates all known time and scholars believe Parshva. Greco-Buddhism. and Gangaridai Asia in 323 BCE. In 530 BCE Cyrus.

The Persian and Greek invasions had important repercussions on Indian civilization. which lasted until the 5th century CE and influenced the artistic development of Mahayana Buddhism. was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India.[49] Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai Empire of Bengal. Greco-Buddhism. 3rd century BCE. and learning about the might of Nanda Empire.control for two centuries. mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas River) and refused to march further East. exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing larger Indian armies at the Ganges River. There he defeated King Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes (near modern-day Jhelum. became a melting pot of Indian. The Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE). including the administration of the Mauryan dynasty. and Ashoka the Great Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great Ashokan pillar at Vaishali. the region of Gandhara. after the meeting with his officer. Coenus. and Greek cultures and gave rise to a hybrid culture. was convinced that it was better to return. Alexander. His army. Persian.[47] The impact of Persian ideas was felt in many areas of Indian life. or present-day eastern Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. The political systems of the Persians were to influence future forms of governance on the subcontinent. In addition. it stretched to the north to the natural boundaries of the Himalayas . Bindusara. Pakistan) and conquered much of the Punjab. ruled by the Mauryan dynasty. However.[50] The empire flourished under the reign of Ashoka the Great. Alexander the Great had conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire and had reached the northwest frontiers of the Indian subcontinent. The empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha what is now Bihar. Central Asian. Maurya Empire Main article: Maurya Empire Further information: Chandragupta Maurya.[45] Under Persian rule the famous city of Takshashila became a center where both Vedic and Iranian learning were mingled.[48] By 326 BCE.[46] During this time India supplied mercenaries to the Persian army then fighting in Greece. Persian ascendency in northern India ended with Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia in 327 BCE.[51] At its greatest extent. Persian coinage and rock inscriptions were copied by India.

administration. .and to the east into what is now Assam. To the west. is the national emblem of India. The empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara. However.[52] During that time. the Maurya Empire needed to have a unified administrative apparatus. The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are primary written records of the Mauryan times. Archaeologically. war. this policy caused considerable opposition within the government.[54] This war forced Ashoka to abandon his attempt at a foreign policy which would unify the Maurya Empire. one of the greatest treatises on economics. but it excluded extensive unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga which were subsequently taken by Ashoka.[56] The Mauryan Empire was based on a modern and efficient economy and society.[57] Although there was no banking in the Mauryan society. it reached beyond modern Pakistan. military arts. Early Middle Kingdoms — The Golden Age Main article: Middle Kingdoms of India Ancient India during the rise of theSunga and Satavahana empires. the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). annexing Balochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan. Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire for 37 years from 268 BCE until he died in 232 BCE. towards the end of his reign he "bled the state coffers white with his generous gifts to promote the promulation of Buddha's teaching.[55] During the Mauryan Empire slavery developed rapidly and significant amount of written records on slavery are found. Like every state. In this regard Ashoka established many Buddhist monuments.[53] However. and religion produced in Asia. Indeed. usury was customary with loans made at the recognized interest rate of 15% per annum. the sale of merchandise was closely regulated by the government. politics. The Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath. Ashoka pursued an active foreign policy aimed at setting up a unified state.[60] Chandragupta's minister Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra. including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces.[59] Religious opposition to Ashoka also arose among the orthodox Brahmanists and the adherents of Jainism. Ashoka became involved in a war with the state of Kalinga which is located on the western shore of the Bay of Bengal.[58] As might be expected. Ashoka's reign propagated Buddhism. Ashoka's grandson and heir to the throne. foreign affairs. Ashoka put a strain on the economy and the government by his strong support of Buddhism. This opposition rallied around Sampadi.

dominated the southern part of the Indian peninsula at different periods of time. The Kushanas migrated from Central Asia into northwestern India in the middle of the 1st century CE and founded an empire that stretched from Tajikistan to the middle Ganges. Burma. defeated the Sunga Empire of north India. Indo-Scythians. the Indo-Scythians. Northwestern hybrid cultures The founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Demetrius I "the Invincible" (205–171 BCE). the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Vietnam. and Indo-Sassanids The northwestern hybrid cultures of the subcontinent included the Indo-Greeks. and the Indo-Sassinids. the Indo-Parthians. The kingdoms warred with each other and the Deccan states for domination of the south. a Buddhist dynasty. Sumatra. briefly interrupted the usual domination of the Cholas. Cambodia. the warrior king of Kalinga. See also: Indo-Greek kingdom. Satakarni. now in Odisha. and Java.[61] The Kharavelan Jain empire included a maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka. Burma. Cholas. Kushan Empire and Western Satraps of Ancient India in the north along with Pandyans and Early Cholas in southern India. The first of these. Cheras. Pallavas. Kharavela. the sixth ruler of the Satvahana dynasty. and Chalukyas. The Western Satraps (35405 CE) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India. The Kuninda Kingdom was a small Himalayan state that survived from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE. They were the successors of the IndoScythians and contemporaries of the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in central and southern India.The Kharavela Empire. Thailand. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka. Afterwards. and Pandyas in the south. as well as the Maldives and Maritime Southeast Asia. Cheras.[61] ruled a vast empire and was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in the Indian subcontinent. Gupta Empire The middle period was a time of cultural development. Several southern kingdoms formed overseas empires that stretched into Southeast Asia. also known as the Andhras. Different dynasties such as the Pandyans. Kadambas. ruled in southern and central India after around 230 BCE. The Satavahana dynasty. Bali. Indo-Parthian Kingdom. Western Gangas. The Kalabras. was founded when . Borneo.

by the time of Augustus.5. Kanishka. Arachosia. came to control most of present-day Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. and finally into India. So much gold was used for this trade. who were often in conflict with each other. subsequently into Sogdiana. their last known great emperor being Vasudeva I (c. and according to Strabo (II. expanded into the region of present-day Balochistan in Pakistan. up to 120 ships set sail every year from Myos Hormos on the Red Sea to India. in the Gandhara region. Roman trade with India started around 1 CE. which had been India's biggest trade partner in the West. the kingdom was ruled by a succession of more than 30 Greek kings. and Gandhara. and apparently recycled by the Kushans for their own coinage. in the middle Ganges Valley. The Indo-Scythians were a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians) who migrated from southern Siberia. By the time of his grandson. who was contemporaneous with the Gupta Empire. Yet another kingdom. about the middle of the 1st century CE. after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises. South India. first into Bactria. Kashmir. By the 3rd century. where the mingling of Indian culture and the culture of Iran gave birth to a hybrid culture under the Indo-Sassanids. Kujula Kadphises.101) complained about the drain of specie to India: . the Indo-Parthians (also known as the Pahlavas). 127 CE). 190-225 CE).[62] They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China.12. that Pliny the Elder (NH VI. Roman trade with India Main article: Roman trade with India Coin of the Roman emperor Augustus found at the Pudukottai. and probably as far as the Bay of Bengal. during the reign of Augustus and following his conquest of Egypt. their empire in India was disintegrating. they had conquered most of northern India. extending his rule over various parts of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Sassanid empire of Persia. The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing. Their kingdom lasted from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. Kushan Empire Main article: Kushan Empire The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor. (whose era is thought to have begun c. Lasting for almost two centuries. at least as far as Saketa and Pataliputra.[63]).the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the region in 180 BCE.

Gupta rule Main article: Gupta Empire See also: Chandra Gupta I. and painting. and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture. astronomy. Maritime Southeast Asia. depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta. Varahamihira.[70] The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture. and Vatsyayana Further information: Meghadūta. 320–550 CE). Chandra Gupta II. and trade items are described in detail in the 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. art. mathematics.[69] The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors in India.41. The Classical Age refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was reunited under the Gupta Empire (c. religion."India. logic.[68] The decimal numeral system. 335–380 CE. Aryabhata. including the concept of zero. . sculpture. Aryabhata. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and established it as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma. Samudragupta. and Indochina.[72] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. Kumaragupta I.[71] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa. Sri Lanka. harbours. For what percentage of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?" —Pliny. literature. dialectic. and Skandagupta Further information: Kalidasa.84. Varahamihira. Panchatantra. Indian numerals. was invented in India during this period. and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields. Historia Naturae 12. Vishnu Sharma. engineering. China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. Kumārasambhava.[65][66] This period has been called the Golden Age of India[67] and was marked by extensive achievements in science. Aryabhatiya. Vishnu Sharma.[64] The maritime (but not the overland) trade routes. technology. and Kama Sutra Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I. Abhijñānaśākuntala.

Western Chalukyas.[73] They successfully resisted the northwestern kingdoms until the arrival of the Hunas. Muhammad bin Qasim's invasion of Sindh in 711 CE witnessed further decline of Buddhism. and the development of the main spiritual and philosophical systems which continued to be in Hinduism. His kingdom collapsed after his death. King Harsha of Kannauj succeeded in reuniting northern India during his reign in the 7th century. and Vijayanagara Empire Pala Empire under Dharmapala Pala Empire under Devapala Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. The military exploits of the first three rulers—Chandragupta I (c.E. who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century. and Chandragupta II (c. Badami Chalukya Empire The Kanauj Triangle was the focal point of empires . the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa. Eastern Ganga dynasty. after the collapse of the Gupta dynasty. but they also patronized Buddhism.[74] However. Rashtrakuta. The Chach Nama records many . The "Late-Classical Age"[77] in India began after the end of the Gupta Empire[77] and the collapse Harsha Empire in the 7th century CE[77]. 319–335). Badami Chalukyas.The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule. and Manichaeism. and the Palas of Bengal. who followed their own religions such as Tengri. with their capital at Bamiyan. due to pressure from Islamic invaders[78] to the north. 1030 C. Central Asian and North Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century after the White Hun invasion. This period produced some of India's finest art. which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy. Rajput kingdoms. considered the epitome of classical development. Buddhism and Jainism. 335–376).[75][76] Late Middle Kingdoms — The Late-Classical Age Main articles: Middle Kingdoms of India. and ended with the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in the south in the 13th century. Samudragupta (c.the Rashtrakutas of Deccan. 376–415) —brought much of India under their leadership. much of the Deccan and southern India were largely unaffected by these events in the north.

[81] Ronald Inden writes that by 8th century BCE symbols of Hindu gods "replaced the Buddha at the imperial centre and pinnacle of the cosmo-political system. and a southern branch of the Kalachuri. Rajaraja Chola I conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka. The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire. and Kashmir from the mid-7th century to the early 11th century. Bhavya. and the Gurjara Pratiharas fragmented into various states. Kumārila Bhaṭṭa formulated his school of Mimamsa philosophy and defended the position on Vedic rituals against Buddhist attacks. and small Rajput dynasties later ruled much of northern India. the Lakshadweep (Laccadive) islands. northern Pakistan. Rajendra Chola I's navies went even further. One Gurjar[84][85] Rajput of the Chauhan clan. the Pandyan Empire emerged in Tamil Nadu. the Palas of Bengal.[83] From the 7th to the 9th century. and the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. was known for bloody conflicts against the advancing Islamic sultanates. Scholars note Bhaṭṭa's contribution to the decline of Buddhism.[80] His dialectical success against the Buddhists is confirmed by Buddhist historian Tathagata. a series of kingdoms which managed to survive in some form for almost a millennium. occupying coasts from Burma to Vietnam. Prithvi Raj Chauhan. divided the vast Chalukya empire amongst themselves around the middle of 12th century. as well as the Chera Kingdom in parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. three dynasties contested for control of northern India: the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa. The Chalukya dynasty ruled parts of southern and central India from Badami in Karnataka between 550 and 750.[82] Although Buddhism did not disappear from India for several centuries after the eighth. The first recorded Rajput kingdoms emerged in Rajasthan in the 6th century. By 1343. Dignaga and others. . Dharmadasa. last of these dynasties had ceased to exist. The Pallavas of Kanchipuram were their contemporaries further to the south. Kakatiyas of Warangal. their feudatories. The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan. With the decline of the Chalukya empire. giving rise to the Vijayanagar empire. the Hoysalas of Halebidu.[86] the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.instances of conversion of stupas to mosques such as at Nerun[79] In 7th century CE. the image or symbol of the Hindu god comes to be housed in a monumental temple and given increasingly elaborate imperial-style puja worship". Later during the middle period. royal proclivities for the cults of Vishnu and Shiva weakened Buddhism's position within the sociopolitical context and helped make possible its decline.the Eastern Ganga dynasty of Odisha. and then again from Kalyani between 970 and 1190. The Chola Empire at its peak covered much of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Sumatra. Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri. These were the first of the Rajput states. until Indian independence from the British. and the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia and the Pegu islands. who reports that Kumārila defeated disciples of Buddhapalkita.

72 km (45 mi) north of modern Hyderabad in Sindh. while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south. The Muslim rulers were keen to invade India.[89] a rich region with a flourishing international trade and the only known diamond mines in the world. and the clashing of the two systems caused a mingling of the indigenous and foreign cultures that left lasting cultural influences on each other. and Deccan Sultanates See also: Rajput resistance to Muslim invasions and Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur. Bahmani Sultanate. halting their expansion and containing them at Sindh in Pakistan. the Arab Umayyad Caliphate incorporated parts of what is now Pakistan around 720. including Kalinga. Additionally. Pakistan. After conquering Persia. though its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the . has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia. particularly on the western coast where Muslim traders arrived in small numbers. The Islamic Sultanates Main articles: Muslim conquest of India. Later. Arab Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus region in modern day Pakistan for the Umayyad empire. with the Roman Empire to the west and Southeast Asia to the east. The Hindu Vijayanagar Empire came into conflict with the Islamic Bahmani Sultanate. After several wars. Islamic Empires in India.[93] The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan.[87][88] Literature in local vernaculars and spectacular architecture flourished until about the beginning of the 14th century. following Judaism and Christianity.[92] The empire reached its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious. founded by Turkic rulers.[91] Many short-lived Islamic kingdoms (sultanates) under foreign rulers were established across the north western subcontinent over a period of a few centuries. Muslim trading communities flourished throughout coastal south India.The ports of south India were engaged in the Indian Ocean trade. chiefly involving spices. the Hindu Rajput clans defeated the Arabs at the Battle of Rajasthan. incorporating it as the "As-Sindh" province with its capital at Al-Mansurah. flourished in the south. The empire dominated all of Southern India and fought off invasions from the five established Deccan Sultanates.[90] In 712. mainly from the Arabian peninsula. often in puritanical form.[94] It lasted until 1646. This marked the introduction of a third Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion. the Bahmani Sultanate and Deccan sultanates. when southern expeditions of the sultan of Delhi took their toll on these kingdoms. The Vijayanagara Empire rose to prominence by the end of the 13th century as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions.

000 war prisoners were put to death in one day. A Turco-Mongol conqueror in Central Asia. destroyed. It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking Persian. commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty. literature. and the other Muslims. approximately equal in extent to the ancient Gupta Empire. built by the Mughals Mughal Empire Main article: Mughal Empire . 100. and clothing. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked. Delhi Sultanate Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret.Deccan sultanates. Razia Sultana (1236–1240). while the Khilji dynasty conquered most of central India but were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering and uniting the subcontinent. scholars. and left in ruins. attacked the reigning Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city of Delhi.[97] Early modern period Extent of the Mughal Empire in 1700.[96] The Sultan's army was defeated on 17 December 1398. Turkic. and Arabic under the Muslim rulers.[95] The subsequent Slave dynasty of Delhi managed to conquer large areas of northern India. As a result. after Timur's army had killed and plundered for three days and nights. much of the territory of the former Vijaynagar Empire were captured by Deccan Sultanates. Turks and Afghans invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate in the former Rajput holdings. music. Main article: Delhi Sultanate In the 12th and 13th centuries. The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. Timur (Tamerlane). He ordered the whole city to be sacked except for the sayyids. and the remainder was divided into many states ruled by Hindu rulers. Taj Mahal. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to enthrone one of the few female rulers in India. religion.

carrying away many treasures.which fought an increasingly weak Mughal dynasty. his son Islam Shah Suri and the Hindu king Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya. most of whom showed religious tolerance. and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles. the rising successor states . Pakistan. swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire.[98] However. a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan). later emperors such as Aurangazeb tried to establish complete Muslim dominance. who unlike previous emperors. Nader captured and sacked Delhi. Akbar's forces defeated and killed Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat on 6 November 1556. tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus. During the Mughal era. After Sher Shah's death. it went into a slow decline after 1707.In 1526. The Mughal emperors married local royalty. Nader Shah. emperor of Iran. who had won 22 battles against Afghan rebels and forces of Akbar. India and Bangladesh. He rolled back the jizya tax for non-Muslims.[99] The Mughals were perhaps the richest single dynasty to have ever existed. which is what made them successful where the short-lived Sultanates of Delhi had failed. The remnants of the Mughal dynasty were finally defeated during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The famous emperor Akbar. his son Humayun was defeated by the Afghan warrior Sher Shah Suri in the year 1540. and as a result several historical temples were destroyed during this period and taxes imposed on nonMuslims. After this victory. who was the grandson of Babar. This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled over by the Mughal emperors. later on. the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries and. several smaller states rose to fill the power vacuum and themselves were contributing factors to the decline. liberally patronising Hindu culture. had a policy of integration with Indian culture. creating a unique Indo-Saracenic architecture. In 1739. including the Peacock Throne. The Mughals suffered sever blow due to invasions from Marathas and Afghans due to which the Mughal dynasty were reduced to puppet rulers by 1757. It was the erosion of this tradition coupled with increased brutality and centralization that played a large part in the dynasty's downfall after Aurangzeb. and Humayun was forced to retreat to Kabul. During the decline of the Mughal Empire. defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal. from Punjab to Bengal and had established a secular Hindu rule in North India from Delhi till 1556. while often employing brutal tactics to subjugate their empire. Post-Mughal period . imposed relatively non-pluralistic policies on the general population. The Mughals. covering modern day Afghanistan. allied themselves with local maharajas. also called the 1857 War of Independence. Babur.including the Maratha Empire . However. The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by 1600. Akbar the Great was particularly famed for this. Akbar declared "Amari" or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism. which often inflamed the majority Hindu population.

Tipu Sultan. Gordon explains how the Maratha systematically took control over the Malwa plateau in 1720-1760. and Durrani Empire Further information: Shivaji. was defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War. up to levels previously enjoyed by the Mughals. The Maratha Empire (orange) was the last Hindu empire of India. Sikh Empire (North-west) Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple is culturally the most significant place of worship for the Sikhs. Nawab of Bengal and Durrani Empire to further extend their boundaries. the Mughal emperor ceded Malwa to them. They built an efficient system of public administration known for its attention to detail. the Marathas defeated a Mughal army in their capital. The cornerstone of the Maratha rule in Malwa rested on the 60 or so local tax collectors (kamavisdars) who advanced the Maratha ruler '(Peshwa)' a portion of their district revenues at interest. and Ahmad Shah Abdali Political map of Indian subcontinent in 1758. and also by the increasing activities of European powers (see colonial era below). Baji Rao II.[102] The defeat of Marathas by British in three Anglo-Maratha Wars brought end to the empire by 1820. Hyderabad State. Nizam. Maratha Empire Main article: Maratha Empire The post-Mughal era was dominated by the rise of the Maratha suzerainty as other small regional states (mostly late Mughal tributary states) emerged. Main article: Sikh Empire See also: History of Sikhism . The last peshwa. However in 1737. Kingdom of Mysore. By the 18th century. Sikh Empire. it had transformed itself into the Maratha Empire under the rule of the Peshwas (prime ministers). There is no doubt that the single most important power to emerge in the long twilight of the Mughal dynasty was the Maratha Empire. They started with annual raids.[101] By 1760. Ranjit Singh. Nizam. the domain of the Marathas stretched across practically the entire subcontinent. collecting ransom from villages and towns while the declining Mughal Empire retained nominal control. Rajputs. Nawab of Oudh. Nawab of Bengal. The Marathas continued their military campaigns against Mughals. a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhonsle clan who was determined to establish Hindavi Swarajya (self-rule of Hindu people). It succeeded in raising revenue in districts that recovered from years of raids.[100] The Maratha kingdom was founded and consolidated by Shivaji. Delhi inteslf.Main articles: Maratha Empire. and as a result.

in the 19th century. Ranjit Singh proved himself to be a master strategist and selected well qualified generals for his army. most of them were bound to pay regular tribute to the Marathas. under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780– 1839) from an array of autonomous Punjabi Misls. Other kingdoms There were several other kingdoms which ruled over parts of India in the later medieval period prior to the British occupation. based around the Punjab region. His came in the face of the powerful British East India Company. He primarily used his highly disciplined Sikh army that he trained and equipped to be the equal of a European force. he added the central Punjab. with Mysore receiving some aid or promise of aid from the French. Around the 18th century. In stages. This was among the last areas of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British. Both Mysore and Hyderabad became princely states in British India. Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined forces of the British and Marathas. Under their rule. and the Derajat to his kingdom. was a political entity that governed the region of modern-day Punjab.[102] The rule of Wodeyar dynasty which established the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India in around 1400 CE by was interrupted by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan in the later half of 18th century. the Peshawar Valley. The Nawabs of Bengal had become the de facto rulers of Bengal following the decline of Mughal Empire. the modern state of Nepal was formed by Gurkha rulers. The empire. ruled by members of the Sikh religion. However. on the foundations of the Khalsa. The first and second Anglo-Sikh war marked the downfall of the Sikh Empire. the provinces of Multan and Kashmir. a Mughal official. However. Colonial era . to Sindh in the south.The Punjabi kingdom. but mostly against the British. It was forged. Following a brief Mughal rule. seized control of Hyderabad and declared himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. their rule was interrupted by Marathas who carried six expeditions in Bengal from 1741 to 1748 as a result of which Bengal became a vassal state of Marathas. existed from 1799 to 1849. Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in 1591. and Himachal in the east. Asif Jah.[103][104] At its peak. It was ruled by a hereditary Nizam from 1724 until 1948. to Kashmir in the north. He consolidated many parts of northern India into a kingdom. the empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west.

French troops attacked and captured the British city of Madras located on the east coast of India on 21 September 1746. the British supported Nasir Jung in this conflict.[108] The Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah. The First Carnatic War extended from 1746 until 1748 and was the result of colonial competition between France and Britain. two of the countries involved in the War of Austrian Succession. The next to arrive were the Dutch. Daman and Diu. with the exception of the French outposts of Pondichéry and Chandernagore. they eventually lost all their territories in India to the British islanders. Daman.[105] The Portuguese soon set up trading posts in Goa. Vasco da Gama successfully discovered a new sea route from Europe to India.[107] Gradually their increasing influence led the de jure Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar to grant them dastaks or permits for duty free trade in Bengal in 1717. the de facto ruler of the Bengal province. Following the capture of a few French ships by the British fleet in India. The war was eventually ended by the Treaty of Aix-laChapelle which ended the War of Austrian Succession in 1748. . Nasir Jung. In 1617 the British East India Company was given permission by Mughal Emperor Jahangir to trade in India. the British—who set up a trading post in the west coast port of Surat[106] in 1619—and the French. the Second Carnatic War broke out as the result of a war between a son. Although these continental European powers controlled various coastal regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century. Muzaffer Jung. of the deceased Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad to take over Nizam's thone in Hyderabad. The internal conflicts among Indian kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands. Diu and Bombay. the Dutch port of Travancore. Consequently.Main article: Colonial India In 1498. and the Portuguese colonies of Goa. Among the prisoners captured at Madras was Robert Clive himself. opposed British attempts to use these permits. which paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce. Company rule in India Main articles: East India Company and Company rule in India Map of India in 1857 at the end of Company rule. The French supported Muzaffer Jung in this civil war. In 1749. and a grandson.

which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh. the conflict in Hyderabad provided Chanda Sahib with an opportunity to take power as the new Nawab of the territory of Arcot. in which the Bengal Army of the East India Company. This was the first real political foothold with territorial implications that the British acquired in India. Anwaruddin Muhammad Khan. this marked the beginning of its formal rule. and trained. However.[112] The Hindu Ahom Kingdom of North-east India first fell to Burmese invasion and then to British after Treaty of Yandabo in 1826. led by Robert Clive. The rebels were disorganized. defeated the French-supported Nawab's forces. and had no outside support or funding. often with zamindars set in place. They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal-like structure in Bengal. the company acquired the rights of administration in Bengal from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. By the 1850s. The rebellion of 1857 and its consequences Main article: Indian rebellion of 1857 The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion by soldiers employed by the British East India in northern and central India against the Company's rule. In this conflict. Thus as a result of the three Carnatic Wars. This led to the Battle of Plassey on 23 June 1757. had differing goals. and India became a theatre of action. along with wider British successes during the Seven Years War. Wandiwash and Pondichéry that.[111] The East India Company monopolized the trade of Bengal. and were poorly equipped. They were brutally . against Chanda Sahib. the Seven Years War broke out between the great powers of Europe. Early in this war. In 1751. led. In 1756. The British supported the son of the deposed incumbent Nawab. Clive was appointed by the company as its first 'Governor of Bengal' in 1757. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule.Meanwhile.[109] This was combined with British victories over the French at Madras. which within the next century engulfed most of India and extinguished the Moghul rule and dynasty. The Second Carnatic War finally came to an end in 1754 with the Treaty of Pondicherry. armed forces under Robert Clive later recaptured Calcutta and then pressed on to capture the French settlement of Chandannagar in 1757. armed forces under the French East India Company captured the British base of Calcutta in north-eastern India. however. where it was called the Third Carnatic War. After the Battle of Buxar in 1764. Robert Clive led a British armed force and captured Arcot to reinstate the incumbent Nawab.[110] The British East India Company extended its control over the whole of Bengal. the British East India Company gained exclusive control over the entire Carnatic region of India. the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent. taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups. reduced French influence in India. the French supported Chandra Sahib in his attempt to become the new Nawab of Arcot.

and only three were large (Mysore." When the Liberal party in Britain came to power in 1906 he was removed. while it had considerable indirect influence over the rest of India. The princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow. The British goal was efficient administration but Hindus were outraged at the apparent "divide and rule" strategy.suppressed and the British government took control of the Company and eliminated many of the grievances that caused it. the John Company's lands were controlled directly.[113] In the aftermath.[116] Famines . and by distrust of Hindus. Reforms When the Lord Curzon (Viceroy 1899-1905) took control of higher education and then split the large province of Bengal into a largely Hindu western half and "Eastern Bengal and Assam. and India.[115] Meanwhile the Muslims for the first time began to organize. which consisted of the Princely states ruled by local royal families. Bengal was reunified in 1911. It was internally divided by conflicting loyalties to Islam. The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged from 25 to 60 members and separate communal representation for Muslims was established in a dramatic step towards representative and responsible government. There were officially 565 princely states in 1947. setting up the All India Muslim League in 1906. They were absorbed into the independent nation in 1947-48. but only 21 had actual state governments. especially in the north west. and tended to favour Muslims (who were less rebellious) against the Hindus who dominated the rebellion. The government also was determined to keep full control so that no rebellion of such size would ever happen again. It favoured the princely states (that helped suppress the rebellion). Hyderabad and Kashmir). the British. all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown." a largely Muslim eastern half. which began to administer most of India as a number of provinces. It was not a mass party but was designed to protect the interests of the aristocratic Muslims. The new Viceroy Gilbert Minto and the new Secretary of State for India John Morley consulted with Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale.[114] British Raj Main article: British Raj The British Indian Empire at its greatest extent (in a map of 1909). The Morley-Minto reforms of 1909 provided for Indian membership of the provincial executive councils as well as the Viceroy's executive council.

were some of the worst ever recorded. spreading plague to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India alone. Provincial Councils with Indian members were also set up.3 million people died[117] and the Indian famine of 1899–1900 in which 1. including the Great Famine of 1876–78 in which 6. These movements succeeded in bringing independence to the new dominions of India and Pakistan in 1947.1 million to 10. 1944. The Gandhi-led independence movement opposed the British rule using non-violent methods like non-cooperation. In general. The councillors' participation was subsequently widened into legislative councils. with the senior officers all British.[121] From 1920 leaders such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi began highly popular mass movements to campaign against the British Raj using largely peaceful methods. Some others adopted a militant approach that sought to overthrow British rule by armed struggle. Bombay.[120] The first step toward Indian self-rule was the appointment of councillors to advise the British viceroy. or one person in five. and the Raj left them alone. The numbers of British in India were small. which stood at about 125 million in 1750. often attributed to failed government policies. yet they were able to rule two-thirds of the subcontinent directly and exercise considerable leverage over the princely states that accounted for the remaining one-third of the area. civil disobedience and economic resistance. They were finally closed down in 1947-48.[119] The Indian independence movement Main articles: Indian independence movement and Pakistan Movement See also: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Indian independence activists Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. in 1861. Independence and partition .25 to 10 million people died.[118] Despite persistent diseases and famines. The civil service was increasingly filled with natives at the lower levels. revolutionary activities against the British rule took place throughout the Indian sub-continent. There were 674 of the these states in 1900. with the British holding the more senior positions.[117] The Third Plague Pandemic started in China in the middle of the 19th century. the princely states were strong supporters of the British regime. and many of the troops from small minority groups such as Gurkhas from Nepal and Sikhs. with a population of 73 million. the first Indian was appointed in 1909. The British built a large British Indian Army. had reached 389 million by 1941. famines in India.During the British Raj. the population of the Indian subcontinent.

and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence. this period saw one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern history. they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the foreign Raj.[122] Also. leaving some 500. Nehru and high level politics. Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created nations of India and Pakistan (which gained independence on 15 and 14 August 1947 respectively).[128] The Marxists have focused on studies of economic development. formerly East Pakistan and East Bengal. Hindu nationalists have created a version of history for the schools to support their demands for "Hindutva" ("Hinduness") in Indian society. The once common "Orientalist" approach. History of Pakistan. and class conflict in precolonial India and of deindustrialization during the colonial period. has died out in serious scholarship.[123] The "Cambridge School. with a total of 12 million Hindus. Washbrook. as defining historical events. It highlighted the Mutiny of 1857 as a war of liberation. The Muslims had always been a minority within the subcontinent.[125] Richard Gordon. and wholly spiritual India.[126] downplays ideology.[127] The Nationalist school has focused on Congress.[122] In 1971. seceded from Pakistan. extremely weakened by the Second World War. Nationalist.[124] Gordon Johnson. although Gandhi called for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership. and Gandhi's 'Quit India' begun in 1942. with its the image of a sensuous. History of the Republic of India. after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. The British. More recently. rioting broke out between Sikhs. Following the controversial division of pre-partition Punjab and Bengal. Marxist. Historiography In recent decades there have been four main schools of historiography regarding India: Cambridge. tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years. promised that they would leave and participated in the formation of an interim government." led by Anil Seal. and subaltern. The British Indian territories gained independence in 1947. Hindus and Muslims in these provinces and spread to several other parts of India. and David A. landownership. Bangladesh.000 dead. Gandhi. The Marxists portrayed Gandhi's .Main articles: Partition of India. and History of Bangladesh Along with the desire for independence. inscrutable.

" looking at the peasants using folklore. riddles.[130] It focuses attention away from the elites and politicians to "history from below. potentially revolutionary forces for its own ends.movement as a device for the bourgeois elite to harness popular. songs. poetry." was begun in the 1980s by Ranajit Guha and Gyan Prakash. proverbs. to the annoyance of the Marxist school.[129] The "subaltern school. It focuses on the colonial era before 1947 and typically emphasizes caste and downplays class.[131] See also . oral history and methods inspired by anthropology.