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Industrial Robotics

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Introduction
The Evolution of Robots: • George Moore built a walking robot in 1893 ! • It had a .5 Horsepower Steam Engine using a Gas Fired Boiler…. • It was a mechanical device without any intelligence. • It could walk at 9 Miles Per Hour.

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Robot Definition
• Robot term from Webster’s dictionary An automatic device that performs function ordinarily ascribed to human being

• Robot Institute of America “A robot is a programmable, multifunction manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or special devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”
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reprogrammable. 4 . which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications. multipurpose. manipulative machine with several reprogrammable axes.Definition of Robotics ISO defines Industrial Robotics as An automatically controlled.

3. Hazardous work environment for humans Repetitive work cycle Difficult handling task for humans Multi-shift operations Infrequent changeovers Part position and orientation are established in the work cell 5 . 5. 2.Robot Application Characteristics 1. 4. 6.

laser cutting. grinding 3. Material handling applications – Material transfer – pick-and-place – Machine loading and/or unloading 2. Assembly and inspection 6 .Industrial Robot Applications 1. Processing operations – Spot welding and continuous arc welding – Spray coating – Other – water jet cutting.

using simple assembly • 2 to 4 axes of movement 7 .General Classification Of Robots • Low technology • Medium technology • High technology Low technology • Material handling.

Medium technology • Pick-and-place • Material handling • 4 to 6 axes High technology • • • • • Material handling Pick-and-place Loading and unloading Painting and welding 6 to 9 axes 8 .

Robot Anatomy 9 .

a series of joint-link combinations 10 .Robot Anatomy Robot manipulator .

Robot Anatomy • Manipulator consists of joints and links – Joints provide relative motion – Links are rigid members between joints – Each joint provides a “degree-of-freedom” – Most robots have five or six degrees-of-freedom • Robot manipulator consists of two sections: – Body-and-arm – for positioning of objects in the robot's work volume – Wrist assembly – for orientation of objects 11 .

only 1 degree-of-freedom is allowed to a joint Joint 12 .What is a joint? • A joint of robot is similar to a joint in the human body • Each joint gives the robot a degree-offreedom of motion • In nearly all cases.

known as an input link and an output link Link 13 .What is a robot link? • Links are rigid components that form a chain connected together by joints • Each joint has two links.

Types of Manipulator Joints • Translational motion – Linear joint (type L) – Orthogonal joint (type O) • Rotary motion – Rotational joint (type R) – Twisting joint (type T) – Revolving joint (type V) 14 .

with the axes of the two links being parallel 15 .Linear joint (type L) The relative movement between the input link and the output link is a linear sliding motion.

but the input and output links are perpendicular to each other during the move 16 .Orthogonal joint (type O) This is also linear sliding motion.

Rotational joint (type R) This type provides a rotational relative motion of the joints. with the axis of rotation perpendicular to the axes of the input and output links 17 .

but the axis of rotation is parallel to the axes of the two links 18 .Twisting joint (type T) This joint also involves a rotary motion.

the axis of the input link is parallel to the axis of rotation of the joint.Revolving joint (type V) In this type. and the axis of the output link is perpendicular to the axis of rotation 19 .

Joint Drive Systems 20 .

Joint Drive Systems • Electric – Uses electric motors to actuate individual joints – Preferred drive system in today's robots • Hydraulic – Uses hydraulic pistons and rotary actuators – Noted for their high power and lift capacity • Pneumatic – Typically limited to smaller robots and simple material transfer applications 21 .

End Effectors 22 .

spray painting. 23 .g.End Effectors The special tooling for a robot that enables it to perform a specific task.. spot welding. – Tools – to perform a process. e. • End effectors two main categories: – Grippers – to grasp and manipulate objects during work cycle.

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Mechanical Grippers 2. Magnetized grippers 4. Ladles 5.End Effectors Grippers 1. Spray gun 25 . Suction cups or vacuum cups 3.

Robot Mechanical Gripper A two-finger mechanical gripper for grasping rotational parts 26 .

• The short distance between the wrist and the CG minimizes the twisting tendency of a heavy object. 27 .Cam-operated hand • It can easily handle heavy weights or bulky objects. • It is designed to hold the object so that its center of gravity (CG) is kept very closed to the wrist of hand.

Simple Vacuum Cup Hand This simple vacuum cup hand is suitable for handling fragile parts such as cathode ray tube face plates. 28 .

29 . • Magnets can be scientifically designed and made in numerous shapes and sizes to perform various tasks.Magnetic Pick up • Magnetic handling is most suitable for parts of ferrous contents.

Ladle • Ladling hot materials such as molten metal is a hot and hazardous job for which industrial robots are well suited. 30 .

and ceramic or glass frits.Spray gun • Ability of the industrial robot to do multi-pass spraying with controlled velocity fits it for automated application of primers. 31 . paints. as well as application of masking agents used before plating.

Wrist Configurations • Wrist assembly is attached to end-of-arm • End effector is attached to wrist assembly • Function of wrist assembly is to orient end effector – Body-and-arm determines global position of end effector • Two or three degrees of freedom: – Roll – Pitch – Yaw 32 .

Wrist Configuration • Notation :RRT • Typical wrist assembly has two or three degrees-offreedom (shown is a three degree-of freedom wrist) 33 .

Robot Sensors 34 .

used to control position and velocity of the manipulator joints 2.Sensors in Robotics Two basic categories of sensors used in industrial robots: 1.used to coordinate the operation of the robot with other equipment in the work cell 35 . External . Internal .

Velocity sensors Type Of Sensors Being Used In Robotics • Monitors the location of joints • Coordinate information is feedback to controller • This communication gives the system the capability of locating the end-effectors • Measures the distance between a point in the robot and interest point that surrounds the robots • The task is usually performed by cameras • Estimates the speed using a moving manipulator • Due the effects caused by. Range sensors 3.1. desired speed and required force to reach the speed should be computed continuously • 4. Proximity sensors • Sense and indication of presence of another object within specified distances 36 Prevents accidents and locate the existence of w. Position Sensors 2. mechanical force. weight of load etc. gravity.p. .

Accuracy 2. Speed of response 4. Cost and ease of operation 37 . Reliability 6.Sensors in robotics Required features of sensors: 1. Operation range 3. Calibration 5.

5. 2. Cartesian or x-y-z axis Cylindrical Polar arm (Spherical) Jointed-Arm (Articulated) SCARA 38 . 4.Robot Geometry Type 1. 3.

Cartesian Coordinate Body-and-Arm Assembly Notation LOO: • Consists of three sliding joints. two of which are orthogonal • Other names include rectilinear robot and x-y-z robot 39 .

Can only reach in front of itself 2. Easy to program off-line. Disadvantage: 1. as robots for transfer of material and cargo Advantages: 1. Rigid structure. Easy to visualize. 2. Requires large floor space for size of work envelop 40 .Cartesian Type Configuration Cartesian manipulator are useful for table-top assembly applications and. 3. 3 linear axes. 4.

Cylindrical Body-and-Arm Assembly
Notation TLO: • Consists of a vertical column, relative to which an arm assembly is moved up or down. • The arm can be moved in or out relative to the column.

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Cylindrical Type Configuration
Advantages: 1. 2 linear axes, 1 rotating axis 2. Can reach all around itself Disadvantages: 1. Cannot reach above itself 2. Base rotation axis is less rigid than a linear axis 3. Horizontal motion is circular

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Polar Coordinate Body-and-Arm Assembly
• Notation TRL:

• Consists of a sliding arm (L joint) actuated relative to the body, which can rotate about both a vertical axis (T joint) and horizontal axis (R joint) 43

Spherical 44 .

Spherical Type Configuration Advantages: 1. 2 rotating axes 2. Generally has short vertical reach 45 . Long horizontal reach Disadvantages: 1. 1 linear axis.

Jointed-Arm Robot Notation TRR: • General configuration of a human arm 46 .

SCARA Robot Notation VRO: • SCARA stands for Selectively Compliant Assembly Robot Arm • Similar to jointed-arm robot except that vertical axes are used for shoulder and elbow joints to be compliant in horizontal direction for vertical insertion tasks 47 .

or the first joint is revolute with the second and third Joints as prismatic. Difficult to program off-line 2. 1 linear axis. Advantages: 1.SCARA Type Configuration There are two type of SCARA robot configuration: either the first two joints are revolute with the third joint as prismatic (linear). 2. 4. Highly complex arm 48 . 2 rotating axes Height axis is rigid Large work area floor space Two ways to reach a point Disadvantages: 1. 3.

Robot Performance 49 .

Depends on the position control system. and mechanical accuracy 50 . feedback measurement.Resolution Smallest increment of motion at the wrist end that can be controlled by the robot.

• One half of the distance between two adjacent resolution points. • Affected by mechanical Inaccuracies. • Manufacturers don’t provide the accuracy (hard to control) . 51 .Accuracy Capability to position the wrist at a target point in the work volume.

• Repeatability errors form a random variable. • Mechanical inaccuracies in arm. 52 .Repeatability Ability to position back to a point that was previously taught. wrist components. • Larger robots have less precise repeatability values.

• Usual Range 2.5lb-2000lb • Condition to be satisfied: Load Capability > Total Wt. of workpiece +Wt.Weight Carrying Capacity The lifting capability provided by manufacturer doesn’t include the weight of the end effector. of end effector + Safety range 53 .

Precision with which object must be positioned 54 . Distance moved 3.Speed of Movement Speed with which the robot can manipulate the end effector. Weight of the object 2. Determined by: 1. •Acceleration/deceleration times are critical for cycle time.

machine loading).how well the velocity is controlled (critical for gluing. Velocity control .how accurately a robot traces a given path (critical for gluing. continuous path control/walkthrough (paint spraying. point to point control (used in assembly. painting. welding). 55 . painting applications) Types of path control: 1. 2. welding applications).Motion Control Path control . palletizing.

Robot Drives 56 .

Stepper motors 2. Hydraulic pistons 5. AC servomotors 4.Robot Actuators and Drive Systems What is meant by actuator? The commonly used actuators are: 1. DC servomotors 3. Pneumatic pistons 57 .

Expensive for large and powerful robots. Advantages 1.Electric Drive Small and medium size robots are usually powered by electric drives with gear trains using servomotors and stepper motors. can become fire hazard 58 . Better accuracy & repeatability 2. Require less floor space 3. More towards precise work such as assembly applications Disadvantages 1. Generally not as speedy and powerful as hydraulic robots 2.

Requires more floor space 2. can also actuate at a higher speed Disadvantages: 1. Tendency to oil leakage 59 . Advantages: 1. more strength-to-weight ratio 2.Hydraulic Drive Larger robots make use of hydraulic drives.

Pneumatic Drive 1. For smaller robots that possess fewer degrees of freedom (two. They are limited to pick-and-place tasks with fast cycles. 60 .to four joint motions). 2.

drive robot" was developed at Carnegle-Mellon University. Eliminate backlash and mechanical defficiencies 2. The drive motor is located on the joint Benefits: 1. Is used electric motors located at the manipulator joints without the usual mechanical transmission linkages used on most robots. USA. Joint back-drivable (allowing for joint-space force sensing) 61 .Direct Drive Robots In 1981 a "direct. Eliminate the need of a power transmission 3.

Warranty cost 4. Material Cost 3.Practical Application Automotive Component Paint Technology Robotic Painting Justification: 1. Quality 2. Compliance 62 . Labor Cost 5.

Quality Automated robotic application of material brings consistency to the spray out process. •Improve appearance consistency •Improve product film build consistency •Provide consistent gun target distance •Reduce part defects 63 .

Material Savings Repeatable robot paths and gun triggering means the material application will save material. -Gun triggers are precise -Consistent gun target distance -Consistent material delivery -Higher transfer efficiency -Overspray reduced 64 .

Warranty Proper application per the specification Eliminates product defects caused by build variation Reduction of application related variables Reduced part rework Reduced scrap rate 65 .

Labor Reduce repetitive motion injuries Reduced worker’s compensation claims Reduce turnover of skilled operators Productivity increase – Multi shift operation savings – Greater painting speed endurance .

Booth air can be recirculated 4. Lower booth air velocity hazardous 67 .Compliance 1. Removes employee from a environment 2. Eliminate cost of operator protection 3.

Fanuc Robotics Off Line Programming Software Paint Pro 68 .

Robot Programming 69 .

Robot Programming • Robots execute a stored program of instructions that define the sequence of motions and positions in the work cycle – Much like a part program in NC • In addition to motion instructions. the program may include commands for other functions: – Interacting with external equipment – Responding to sensors – Processing data 70 .

Leadthrough programming Teaching-by-showing .Two Basic Robot Programming Methods 1.manipulator is moved through sequence of positions in the work cycle and the controller records each position in memory for subsequent playback 2. Computer programming languages Robot program is prepared at least partially off-line for subsequent downloading to robot controller 71 .

work cycle is taught to robot by moving the manipulator through the required motion cycle and simultaneously entering the program into controller memory for later playback • Robot programming languages – uses programming language to enter commands into robot controller • Simulation and off-line programming – program is prepared at a remote computer terminal and downloaded to robot controller for execution without need for leadthrough methods 72 .Robot Programming • Leadthrough programming .

Leadthrough Programming Advantages • Advantages: – Can readily be learned by shop personnel – A logical way to teach a robot – Does not required knowledge of programming computer • Disadvantages: – Downtime .Regular production must be interrupted to program the robot – Limited programming logic capability – Not readily compatible with modern computer-based technologies 73 .

Simulation and Off-Line Programming • In conventional usage. robot programming languages still require some production time to be lost in order to define points in the workspace that are referenced in the program – They therefore involve on-line/off-line programming • Advantage of true off-line programming is that the program can be prepared beforehand and downloaded to the controller with no lost production time – Graphical simulation is used to construct a 3-D model of the robot cell in which locations of the equipment 74 in the cell have been defined previously .

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76 .5 sec) – Machining cycle (automatic). (Time=4. The uptime efficiency of the robot is 97%.0 sec) – Robot retrieves part from machine and deposits to outgoing conveyor. and the uptime efficiency of the machine tool is 98%.7 sec) Every 30 work parts. Determine the hourly production rate. (Time=33. the cutting tools in the machine are changed which takes 3.Example A robot performs a loading and unloading operation for a machine tool as follows: – Robot pick up part from conveyor and loads into machine (Time=5.8 sec) – Robot moves back to pickup position.0 minutes. (Time=1.

1 piece/hr =67 piece/hr 77 .8 + 1.59 piece/hr Accounting for uptime efficiencies.th. Machine tool uptime efficiency EM = 0.7 = 45 sec/cycle Tool change time= Ttc = 180 sec/30 piece = 6 sec/piece Robot uptime efficiency ER = 0. Pr = 70.5 + 33.98 = 67.98 Total time = Tc + Ttc/30 = 45 + 6 = 51 sec/piece Theoretical Production rate = Pr.0 + 4.97*0.Solution Cycle time =Tc = 5.97.59*0. = 3600/51 = 70.