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# CALCULUS

CHAPTER 1, CHAPTER 2, SECTIONS 3.1-3.6
KEN KUNIYUKI SAN DIEGO MESA COLLEGE JULY 12, 2012

Larson.edu (San Diego Mesa College) Website: http://www.1 COLOR CODING WARNINGS are in red.com. Tom Teegarden (especially for the Frame Method for graphing trigonometric functions). Adobe Acrobat. Feel free to send emails with suggestions. etc. Tan Complex Variables: Churchill and Brown. Sullivan Calculus: Larson. . TIPS are in purple. Swokowski. Lial. and many more. LICENSING This work may be freely copied and distributed without permission under the specifications of the Creative Commons License at: http://www.com • You may download these and other course notes.org.com or kkuniyuk@sdccd. Stewart.wikipedia. Wolfram MathWorld: http://mathworld. Stewart. Laleh Howard. Wikipedia: http://www. CONTACT INFORMATION Ken Kuniyuki: Email: kkuniyuk@yahoo. Terrie Teegarden. Mathematica (for most graphs) and Calculus WIZ.kkuniyuk.britannica.kkuniyuk.com/Math150 PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY / SOURCES Algebra: Blitzer. MathType. and Adobe Illustrator. Schaum’s Outlines Discrete Mathematics: Rosen Online: Britannica Online Encyclopedia: http://www. tricks. Tussy and Gustafson Trigonometry: Lial Precalculus: Axler. exercises. TECHNOLOGY USED This work was produced on Macs with Microsoft Word.com/ Other: Harper Collins Dictionary of Mathematics People: Larry Foster. and exams. improvements.(Front Matter) 0.wolfram.

6 3.1.2 3.7: Precise Definitions of Limits 2.3: Techniques of Differentiation 3.4 2.5: The Indeterminate Forms 0/0 and  /  2.4 3.(Front Matter) 0.3 Topic 1: Functions Topic 2: Trigonometry I Topic 3: Trigonometry II CHAPTER 2: LIMITS AND CONTINUITY In Swokowski (Classic / 5th ed.4 2.8 3.2: Properties of Limits 2.1.3 2. Tangent Lines.3 2.2 3.4: Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions 3.5 2.3 1.3 2. 2.1.2: Derivative Functions and Differentiability 3.1: An Introduction to Limits 2.7 3.1: Derivatives.5: Differentials and Linearization of Functions 3. 3.com .) 1.8: Related Rates (online only) See the website for more: http://www.5 3.6: The Squeeze (Sandwich) Theorem 2.2 1.2 2.4 2. 2.3.) 3.1.6: Chain Rule 3.4: Limits and Infinity II 2.7: Implicit Differentiation (online only) 3.8: Continuity CHAPTER 3: DERIVATIVES In Swokowski (Classic / 5th ed.2 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: REVIEW In Swokowski (Classic / 5th ed.kkuniyuk.3 3.) 2. 2.3: Limits and Infinity I 2. 3. and Rates of Change 3.

which we will denote by Dom ( f ) for a function f (though this is nonstandard). is its implied (or mathematical) domain. e  2. “real constants” are “real constant scalars. • The domain of a function. •• d may denote a constant or a distance function. •• h may denote a function. (  means “is a subset of. That is. Arrowheads may help to make this clearer.3 ASSUMPTIONS and NOTATION Unless otherwise specified. unless endpoints are clearly shown. as opposed to imaginary numbers.” as opposed to vectors. •• c sometimes denotes the speed of light in a vacuum.(Front Matter) 0. and Range ( f )   . Dom ( f )   . and n denote real constants (or simply real numbers). b. •• e denotes a mathematical constant defined in Chapter 7. we assume that the domain and the range of a function only consist of real numbers. or it may denote the “run” in some difference quotients in Chapter 3. c.”) • Graphs extend beyond the scope of a figure in an expected manner. •• This might not be the case in applied “word problems.718 . . •• This will change in multivariable calculus and linear algebra.” •• In single variable calculus (in which a function is of only one variable). •• n might be restricted to be an integer ( n   ) . • a. • In single variable calculus. •• g sometimes denotes Earth’s gravitational constant. we assume that: • f and g denote functions. k.

} . the the set of integers negative integers (  1. For example. and 0. .” This set includes the rational numbers and the set of real numbers irrational numbers such as 2 . This set includes the real numbers and the set of complex numbers imaginary numbers such as i and 2 + 3i . C “Zahlen” is a related German word. 7. so    ..  is in blackboard bold typeface. The Venn diagram below indicates the (proper) subset relations:        . e. This set includes the integers and numbers 1 9 the set of rational numbers such as . (  permits equality.4 MORE NOTATION Sets of Numbers Notation Meaning the set of positive integers Comments This is the set (collection) {1.(Front Matter) 0.  2. and 0. Z + . and 14.1010010001….  . it is more commonly used than Z.3587 . 3 4  comes from “Quotient. every integer is a rational number.  . + . Z . …).  3. 3.13. 2. This set consists of the positive integers.. R .) Each disk is contained within each larger disk. . Q .

Example: 7   . set complement  is used to indicate that one or more number(s) is/are being skipped over. . or { x   : x > 3} . x < x + 1 . which states that there exists a unique real number equal to 3. for any there is. More precisely: for any arbitrary element of the set of real numbers. This is called the universal quantifier. Example: x  . is in not in. then x. This is the set consisting of no elements. Example: ! x    x = 3 .  ) . y )   2 . or   {0} .  1]  [1. every real number is less than one added to itself. 6 ]  [ 5. that is. is not in such that such that (in set-builder form) for all.7   . is the set of all real x   for every real number (denoted by x) for every pair of real numbers (denoted by x and y) numbers greater than 3.  \ or  set intersection set difference. this element will be denoted by x. Example: If f ( x ) = csc x . Example: [ 4. This is called the existential quantifier. Think: “overlap. there is one and only one    | or :   ! Comments This denotes set membership.(Front Matter) 0. Example: The solution set of the equation x = x + 1 is  . 6 ] .” Example: If f ( x ) = 1 .5 Set Notation Notation Meaning in. More precise notation:  ( x. y    or {} empty set (or null set)  set union Dom ( f ) = (  . Example: { x   x > 3} . The symbol  is not to be confused with the Greek letter phi (  ). then x Dom ( f ) =  \ {0} . This is called the unique quantifier. 7 ] = [ 5. there exists there exists a unique. Example: 1.

6 Logical Operators Notation Meaning or.(Front Matter) 0. conjunction  or ¬   not. particularly when defining limits.  also denotes the golden ratio. Example: x = 2  x 2 = 4 . This is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet. which denotes set membership. and.618. disjunction   Comments Example: If f ( x ) = csc x . then Example: If f ( x ) = Dom ( f ) = { x   x   1  x  1} .     or  phi 1+ 5 . Greek Letters The lowercase Greek letters below (especially  ) often denote angle measures. Example: x + 1 = 3  x = 2 . This is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. 2 which is about 1. Tau ( ) is also used. which denotes the empty set (or null set). then x4 Dom ( f ) = { x   x  3  x  4 } . negation implies if and only if (iff) Example: The statement  ( x = 3) is equivalent to the statement x  3 . This is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. Notation Name delta epsilon   Comments This is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. . This is not be confused with . Notation  Name alpha beta gamma theta Comments This is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. x3 . This is not to be confused with  . This is frequently used to denote angle measures. The lowercase Greek letters below often denote (perhaps infinitesimally) small positive quantities in calculus.

This denotes an eigenvalue (in linear algebra). a Lagrange multiplier (in multivariable optimization). This denotes mass density and also the distance between a point in 3-space and the origin (  is a spherical coordinate). This denotes the curvature of a curve.7 Some other Greek letters of interest: Notation Name Comments This denotes “change in” or increment. xi ( ) . iota ( ) . chi (  ) . eta ( ) . This denotes the golden ratio. It is irrational. a unit of electrical resistance. omicron ( ) . This is the product operator. This is the last letter of the Greek alphabet. though phi ( ) is more commonly used. y Example: slope is often written as .   3. It denotes angular velocity. and a wavelength (in physics).  (uppercase) delta  (lowercase) kappa (lowercase) lambda    (lowercase) pi (uppercase) pi (lowercase) rho (uppercase) sigma (lowercase) tau (lowercase) omega (uppercase) omega      More lowercase Greek letters: upsilon ( ) . psi ( ) zeta ( ) . b 2  4 ac . nu ( ) . This is a famous mathematical constant.(Front Matter) 0. It is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter.14159 . mu ( μ ) . x It also denotes the discriminant. . sigma ( ) . from the Quadratic Formula. This is the summation operator. This denotes ohm.

See Precalculus notes. Section 6.” Think: “round down. Other Notations Notation Meaning therefore  Q.” which is Latin for “which was to be demonstrated / proven / shown.8 Geometry Notation    Meaning angle is parallel to is perpendicular to.9    2. or  end of proof is approximately .  . vector product Comments See Precalculus notes. is orthogonal to.4. is normal to Comments Vector Operators Notation •  Meaning dot product.”  floor. Q.4.D.E.   2.E. Euclidean inner product cross product.D.9   = 3 The least of … The greatest of … The set of legal (real) input values for f Example: ( f  g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x )) .(Front Matter) 0. Section 8. greatest integer infinity minimum maximum domain of a function f degree of a polynomial f ( x) composition of functions  min max Dom ( f ) deg ( f ( x )) Examples:   = 2. stands for “quod erat demonstrandum.      or Comments This is placed before a concluding statement..