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(Chapter 1: Review) 1.

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CHAPTER 1: Review
(See also the Precalculus notes at http://www.kkuniyuk.com)

TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS
PART A: AN EXAMPLE OF A FUNCTION Consider a function f whose rule is given by f x = x 2 ; f ( u ) = u 2 also works. WARNING 1: f x is read as “ f of x” or “ f at x.” It does not mean “ f times x.” x is the input (or argument) for f , and x 2 is the output or function value.

()

()

x 

f 

x2

This function squares its input, and the result is its output. For example, f 3 = 3 = 9 .

() ()

2

3 

f 

9

Think of a function as a calculator button. In fact, your calculator should have a “squaring” button labeled x 2 . f is a function, because no “legal” input yields more than one output. A function button on a calculator never outputs two or more values at the same time. We never get: “I don’t know. The answer could be 3 or  10 .”

• A function is a special type of relation. Relations that are not functions permit multiple outputs for a legal input.

(Chapter 1: Review) 1.02 PART B: POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS A polynomial in x can be written in the form:

an x n + an  1 x n  1 + ... + a1 x + a0 ,
where n is a nonnegative integer called the degree of the polynomial, the ak coefficients are typically real numbers, and the leading coefficient an  0 . A polynomial function has a rule that can be written as: f x = polynomial in x . For example:

()

5 2 x + 1 is a 3rd-degree polynomial in x with leading coefficient 4. 2 5 The rule f x = 4 x 3  x 2 + 1 corresponds to a polynomial function f . 2 4 x3 

()

PART C: RATIONAL FUNCTIONS A rational expression in x can be written in the form:

polynomial in x . nonzero polynomial in x 

1 x7 + x  5x3  1 7 Examples include: , 2 , and x + x  which equals . x x + 7x  2 1   
• Observe in the second example that irrational numbers such as permissible.

2 are

• The last example correctly suggests that all polynomials are rational expressions. A rational function has a rule that can be written as: f x = rational expression in x .

()

PART D: ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS An algebraic expression in x resembles a rational expression, except that radicals  5 and exponents that are noninteger rational numbers  such as  are also 7  permitted, even when x appears in a radicand or in a base (but not in an exponent).

() A Venn diagram for expressions in x corresponding to functions is below. for instance) in this work. . Although sources such as MathWorld allow only algebraic numbers (such as rational numbers and 2 ) to be coefficients in an algebraic expression. x and x 3 x+5+4 All rational expressions are algebraic. An algebraic function has a rule that can be written as: f x = algebraic expression in x . for example.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. every polynomial is a rational expression and an algebraic expression (based on the definition in this work). we will typically allow all real numbers (including  . Each disk represents a subset of every larger disk.03 Examples include: x 3 + 7 x 5 /7 .

(Chapter 1: Review) 1. integer values. we typically assume that the domain of a function is the set of all real input values that yield an output that is a real number.04 PART E: DOMAIN and RANGE The domain of a function f . Find the domain and the range of f . Its graph is the entire ( ( )) () ( ) real number line: . Unless otherwise specified (or in the context of a “word problem”).  is  . or 4) arguments of trigonometric functions that correspond to vertical asymptotes. We will also exclude real numbers that lead to: 3) logarithms of nonpositive values Think: log b  0 . “Word problems” may imply other restrictions: nonnegativity. which we will denote by Dom f (though this is not standard). The implied domain of an algebraic function consists of all real numbers except those that lead to (the equivalent of): ( )   1) a zero denominator  Think:  . the set of all real numbers. the list of restrictions will grow. etc. Example 1 (Domain and Range of the Squaring Function) Let f x = x 2 .  . In interval form. is the set of all “legal” inputs. ) As we study more types of functions. This set is the implied (or natural) domain. The range of f . § Solution The implied domain of a polynomial function (such as this f ) is  . which we will denote by Range ( f ) . or 0  2) an even root of a negative-valued radicand Think: ( even  . is then the set of all resulting outputs.

The bracket next to the 0 indicates that 0 is included in the range. but its domain excludes 0.05 WARNING 2: We use parentheses in the interval form. If x approaches   . the range is  0. It x The resulting range of f is the set of all nonnegative real numbers (all real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0). The graph of the range is: The filled-in circle indicates that 0 is included in the range. § ) { } { } . which is read “the set of all real numbers y such that y  0 . the bracket opens towards the shading. In interval form. the range is: y   y  0 .(Chapter 1: Review) 1. it (generally) increases without bound. We will discuss infinity further in Chapter 2. The graph helps us figure out the interval form. x2 + x is a polynomial. If x approaches  . or y   : y  0 . and only those numbers are. because  (“infinity”) and   (“negative infinity”) are not real numbers and are therefore excluded from the set of numbers. In set-builder form.  denotes set membership.  . it (generally) decreases without bound.” Using y instead of x is more consistent with our graphing conventions in the xy-plane (since we typically associate function values in the range with y-coordinates). Note: It is debatable whether an expression like simplifies to x + 1 . because every such number is the square of some real number. and it helps us avoid confusion with the domain. We could also use a left bracket (“[”) at 0. WARNING 3: Squares of real numbers are never negative.

 ) Note: Range f =  0. . the domain of f . find Dom f . Consider the graph of y = f ( x ) . a real number. Now switch the left side and the right side. Observe that 0 = 0 . Now multiply or divide both sides by  1 . § Solution () ( ) f x is real  x  3  0  x  3 . ( ) ) () ( ) x3 Method 2 3 x  0 3 x x3 Now add x to both sides. WARNING 6: We must then reverse the direction of the inequality symbol. § Solution Solve the weak inequality: 3  x  0 . § Example 3 (Domain of a Function) Let f x = 4 3  x . not the strict inequality x  3 > 0 . Method 1 3 x  0  x  3 Now subtract 3 from both sides. WARNING 5: We must then reverse the direction of the inequality symbol.(Chapter 1: Review) 1.06 Example 2 (Domain of a Function) Let f x = x  3 . or {x  : x  3}  3. WARNING 4: We solve the weak inequality x  3  0 . The domain of f … … in set-builder form is: … in graphical form is: … in interval form is: () {x  x  3} . Find Dom f .  .

7   is a closed interval.07 The domain of f … … in set-builder form is: … in graphical form is: … in interval form is: § Example 4 (Domain of a Function) Let f x = § Solution This is similar to Example 2.  ) The hollow circle on the graph indicates that 3 is excluded from the domain. 7 ) and (3. Find Dom f . (3. Likewise.  ) are examples of open intervals. The domain of f … … in set-builder form is: … in graphical form is: … in interval form is: {x  x  3} . or {x  : x  3} (  . . 7 ) is a bounded interval. but we must avoid a zero denominator. 3  () 1 x3 . (5. ( ) {x  x > 3} .  5. We could also use a left parenthesis (“(”) here. we have a parenthesis next to the 3 in the interval form. § Types of Intervals (5. because it includes its endpoints.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. or {x  : x > 3} (3. and it is bounded. because they exclude their endpoints. which gives us x > 3 . because 3 is excluded from the domain.  ) is an unbounded interval. the parenthesis opens towards the shading. We solve the strict inequality x  3 > 0 . because it is trapped between two real numbers.

§ Example 6 (Domain of a Function) Let g t = § Solution The square root operation requires: t + 3  0  t   3 . because: • The radicand. t  10 ( ) {t  t   3 and t  10} . x  3 . so we also require: t  10  0  t  10 . § Solution () ( ) Dom f =  . § ( ) . is a polynomial.) • The union symbol  is used to separate intervals in the event that a number or numbers need to be skipped. 10  10. (Some instructors believe that 0 should also be indicated on the number line. We forbid zero denominators. Find Dom g . The domain of g … … in set-builder form is: … in graphical form is: … in interval form is: ( ) () t+3 .08 Example 5 (Domain of a Function) Let f x = 3 x  3 . Remember that the cube root of a negative real number is a negative real number.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. or {t   : t   3 and t  10}    3. Find Dom f . and • WARNING 7: The taking of odd roots (such as cube roots) does not impose any new restrictions on the domain.  ) ( ) • We include  3 but exclude 10.

y is the dependent variable. its corresponding function value. find f ( x ) . even though y is a variable here. or the graph of f . in fact. because it is the input variable. In a sense. •• Ensure that the set of x-coordinates of the points on the graph is. ( ) . • Try to interpolate (connect the points. Dom f . () ( ( )) { ( x .(Chapter 1: Review) 1. The form y = f x implies this. it is customary to say that y is a function of x. though often not with line segments) and extrapolate (go beyond the scope of the points) as necessary. Point-Plotting Method for Graphing a Function f in the xy-Plane ( ) • For each chosen x value. ideally based on some apparent pattern. because it is the output variable.09 PART F: GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS The graph of y = f x . the graph of f = We typically assume … x is the independent variable. in the standard xy-plane consists of all points [representing ordered pairs] of the form x . () A “brute force” graphing method follows. f ( x )) in the xy-plane. • Choose several x values in Dom f . f x . where x is in the domain of f . • Plot the corresponding points ( x . Its value (the function value) typically “depends” on the value of the input x. f ( x )) x  Dom f ( )} . • Then.

§ Solution TIP 1: As usual. We want to draw graphs in such a way that these extensions are “as one would expect.” WARNING 9: Sketches of graphs produced by graphing utilities might not extend as expected. • For instance. or y = f ( x ) . A (partial) table can help: Below. Point-plotting may be insufficient. f  9 is undefined (as a real number). we sketch the graph of f . The lack of a clearly indicated right endpoint on our sketch implies that the graph extends beyond the edge of our figure.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. § . 0) (1. 2) (9. ( ) ( ) x 0 1 4 9 f x 0 1 2 3 () (0. The user must still understand the math involved. if we choose x = 9 . there is no corresponding point on the graph with x =  9 . 1) ( 4. When point-plotting. such as the origin here. which means that the point 9. 3 . 3) Point WARNING 8: Clearly indicate any endpoints on a graph. we find that f 9 = 9 = 3 .10 Example 7 (Graph of the Squaring Function) Let f ( x ) = x . or 9.  . because ( ) ) ( ( )) ( ) () 9  Dom f . observe that: Dom f =  0. Therefore. Graph y = f ( x ) . f 9 . lies on the graph. • On the other hand. we associate y-coordinates with function values.

where f is a function. Each vertical line in the xy-plane either … • … misses the graph entirely. Example 8 (Square Root Function and the VLT. there is no input x that yields more than one output y. or ( ) • … intersects the graph in exactly one point. • Then. An equation in x and y describes y as a function of x  its graph in the xy-plane passes the VLT. () () Observe that the graph of y = x passes the VLT. since it is of the form y = f x . we can write y = f x . meaning that the corresponding x value yields exactly one y value as its output. Revisiting Example 7) The equation y = x explicitly describes y as a function of x. meaning that the corresponding x value is not in Dom f .(Chapter 1: Review) 1.11 PART G: THE VERTICAL LINE TEST (VLT) The Vertical Line Test (VLT) A curve in a coordinate plane passes the Vertical Line Test (VLT)  there is no vertical line that intersects the curve more than once. § . • Then. where f is the square root function from Example 7.

12 Example 9 (An Equation that Does Not Describe a Function) Show that the equation x 2 + y 2 = 9 does not describe y as a function of x. § § Solution (Method 2: Solve for y) This is also evident if we solve x 2 + y 2 = 9 for y: x2 + y2 = 9 y2 = 9  x2 y = ± 9  x2 • Any input value for x in the interval  3. § ( ) . because there exists a vertical line that intersects the graph more than once. For example. we can take the red line ( x = 2 ) below: Therefore. § Solution (Method 1: VLT) The circular graph of x 2 + y 2 = 9 below fails the VLT. • For example. x 2 + y 2 = 9 does not describe y as a function of x. 3 yields two different y outputs.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. x = 2 yields the outputs y = 5 and y =  5 .

and Range f =  1. Estimate the domain and the range of f based on the graph of y = f ( x ) below. Dom f =  . and Function Values from a Graph) Let f x = x 2 + 1 .13 PART H: ESTIMATING DOMAIN. and FUNCTION VALUES FROM A GRAPH The domain of f is the set of all x-coordinates of points on the graph of y = f x . § ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) () ( ) . Also. () () § Solution Apparently. (Think of projecting the graph onto the y-axis. It also appears that the point 1. or  .001 .  . may be hard to identify on a graph. (Think of projecting the graph onto the x-axis. RANGE. Range. estimate f 1 . for example.(Chapter 1: Review) 1.) Domain Think: x   Range Think: y f Example 10 (Estimating Domain. The point 1. Not all coordinates are integers. and thus f 1 = 2 .  . 2 lies on the graph. WARNING 10: Graph analyses can be imprecise. • We will learn more about determining ranges from the graphing techniques in Chapter 4.) () () The range of f is the set of all y-coordinates of points on the graph of y = f x . 2.

(Chapter 1: Review) 1. meaning that the parts of the graph to the right and to the left of the y-axis are mirror images (or reflections) of each other. The point ( x. y ) does.D.axis.14 PART I: FUNCTIONS THAT ARE EVEN / ODD / NEITHER.” TIP 2: Think: If we replace x with  x as the input. It means “which was to be demonstrated / proven / shown. we obtain equivalent (y) outputs. (Latin: Quod Erat Demonstrandum) • This signifies the end of a proof. y ) lies on the graph if and only if (  x.” Example 11 (Proving that a Function is Even) Let f x = x 2 .E. x  Dom f ( ) () ( )  The graph of y = f x is symmetric about the y . Prove that f is an even function. SYMMETRY A function f is even  f  x = f x . ( ) f x = x = x2 ( ) ( ) = f x 2 () Q. § Solution () () Dom f =  . ( ) § .  means “for all” or “for every. x   . Observe that the graph of y = f ( x ) below is symmetric about the y-axis.

x   . where n is an even integer. are similarly bowl-shaped but are not parabolas. x 2 .D. () A function f is odd  f  x =  f x . x 4 .E. The graphs of y = x 4 . Example 12 (Proving that a Function is Odd) Let f x = x 3 . x  2 . x  Dom f ( ) () ( )  The graph of y = f x is symmetric about the origin. • These are the functions for: … . … . y = x 6 . we obtain the same graph. The point ( x. ( ) f x = x =  x3 ( ) ( ) =  x3 3 ( ) = f x Q.  y ) does. then f is an even function. we obtain opposite (y) outputs. etc. § ( ) . if the graph is rotated 180 about the origin.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. x  4 . () TIP 3: Think: If we replace x with  x as the input. § Solution () () Dom f =  . y ) lies on the graph if and only if (  x. • The graph of y = x 2 is called a parabola. x 0 . Prove that f is an odd function. • In other words.15 The term “even function” may have come from the following fact: If f x = x n .

• The graphs of y = x 5 . () . resemble the graph of y = x 3 below. where n is an odd integer.16 The term “odd function” may have come from the following fact: If f x = x n . Zero functions on domains that are symmetric about 0 on the real number line are the only functions that are both even and odd. then f is an odd function. () WARNING 11: Zero functions are functions that only output 0 (Think: f x = 0 ). y = x 7 . etc.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. (Can you show this?) WARNING 12: Many functions are neither even nor odd.

( ) Example 13 (Subtracting Functions) Let f x = 4 x and g x = x + § Solution () () 1 . Find f  g x and Dom f  g . with one possible exception (*): ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) f  g . () = 4x  x  = 3x  1 x 1 x Dom f =  . § ( ) Dom ( f  g ) =  \ {0} = { x   } ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) . where ( f  g ) ( x ) = f ( x )  g ( x ) fg .17 PART J: ARITHMETIC COMBINATIONS OF FUNCTIONS Let f and g be functions. where   ( x ) = g  g g ( x) f + g .  . 0  0. where f + g x = f x + g x  f (*) WARNING 13: Dom   = x  Dom f  Dom g  g { ( ) ( ) g ( x )  0} . then the overlap (intersection) Dom f  Dom g is the domain of the following functions with the specified rules. We omit only 0 from Dom g and also Dom f  g . since we are subtracting an expression with more than one term. If their domains overlap. x  0 =  .(Chapter 1: Review) 1. where ( fg ) ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x)  f f . x ( )( ) ( f  g )( x ) = f ( x )  g ( x )  1 = (4x)   x +  x  WARNING 14: Use grouping symbols when expanding g x here.

Composition of functions is not commutative the way that. f g x • The domain consists of the “legal” inputs to g that yield outputs that are “legal” inputs to f . Example 14 (Composition of Functions) Let f u = § Solution () 1 and g x = x  1 . u () ( )( ) ( ) ( f  g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x )) = f ( x 1 = ) 1 x 1 . or {x  : x > 1} (1. WARNING 15: The function f  g applies g first and then f . Think of pressing a g button on a calculator followed by an f button.  ) . Dom f  g … ( ) … in set-builder form is: … in graphical form is: … in interval form is: § {x  x > 1} . Find f  g x and Dom f  g . Let f and g be functions. addition is. x  g  g x  f     f g () ( ( )) Think of f  g as a “merged” function. say. Think About It: Try to think of examples where f  g and g  f represent the same function. In fact. The composite function f  g is defined by: ( f  g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x )) Its domain is x   x  Dom g and g x  Dom f { ( ) () ( )} .18 PART K: COMPOSITIONS OF FUNCTIONS We compose functions when we apply them in sequence.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. WARNING 16: f  g may or may not represent the same function as g  f (in which f is applied first).

We need to set up f and g so that. our u      () f:  3x + 1     f g x    ( ) § Solution • We need: f g x = 3x + 1 .(Chapter 1: Review) 1. or something being repeated) whose replacement simplifies the overall expression. This would not truly be a decomposition.19 Example 15 (Decomposing a Composite Function) Find component functions f and g such that f  g x = 3x + 1 . a base of a power. or u. an argument. • Here. a denominator. x  g x =? f u = ??    f g () g:  u=?  () f:  3x + 1     f g x   ( )  • A common strategy is to let g x . ( ( )) ( ) and if the g button and then the f button are pressed. () () . be an “inside” expression (for example. f does all the work! ( )( ) () () x  g x =x f u = 3u + 1 g ( x)     f g () g:  x . do not use: g x = x and f u = 3u + 1 . if x is an initial input to Dom f  g . For example. We want to “decompose” f  g . • We can think of f and g as buttons we are designing on a calculator. a radicand. then the output is 3x + 1 . an exponent. we will let g x = 3x + 1 . • Neither f nor g may be an identity function.

We will let f u = u .2. () () x  g x = 3x f u = u +1 g ( x)    f g () g:  3x .6 and the u-substitution technique of integration in Section 5.(Chapter 1: Review) 1. For example. Possible Answer: Let g x = 3x + 1 and f u = u . we could let g x = 3x and f u = u + 1 . . () () () () () x  g x = 3x + 1 f u = u g ( x)     f g () g:  3x + 1.20 • We then need f to apply the square root operation. The use of u is more helpful in calculus. However. our u      () f:  3x + 1     f g x    ( ) § These ideas will be critical to the Chain Rule of Differentiation in Section 3. but f x = x is also acceptable. f u = x is not acceptable. our u      () f:  3x + 1     f g x    ( ) There are infinitely many possible answers.