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Title: Experiment 5 : Macromolecules Experiment 6 : Macromolecules in Foods

Objectives: Experiment 5: 1. To define monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide and give examples of each. 2. Name the monosaccharide components of sucrose and starch. 3. Describe the test that indicates the presence of most small sugars. 4. Describe the test that indicates the presence of starch. 5. Define hydrolysis and give an example of the hydrolysis of carbohydrates. Experiment 6: 1. Describe and carry out the Benedict’s test that indicates the presence of reducing sugars specifically. 2. Describe and carry out the Iodine Test that indicates the presence of starch specifically. 3. Describe and carry out the hydrolysis process on the non-reducing disaccharide and polysaccharide. 4. Describe and carry out the Biuret test that indicates the presence of proteins. 5. Describe and carry out the paper test that indicates the presence of lipids. 6. Identify the macromolecules presence in food samples given by carry out indicative tests on the food samples. Introduction: Experiment 5: There are four types of organic macromolecules, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid. Lipids include the fats and oils. This is the only group that contains molecules that cannot interact/mix with water. You know already that oil and water don't mix,

the fact that lipids cannot interact well with water gives them many special properties. hemoglobin. a protein in muscle that is affected in muscular dystrophy. If you look over these examples. Lipids also include steroids and another type of molecule that you probably haven't heard about before-phospholipids. well it stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. There is also another type of nucleic acid called RNA. and fats are all essential nutrients. You have heard of DNA. But your genes are all made up of DNA. These molecules provide us with pigment. Experiment 6: Carbohydrates. That is because all that genes do is tell our cells what proteins to make. We cannot manufacture this macromolecule so we must obtain them from our environment. This last type of lipid is important in building cell membranes. we'll get to that next week. albinism. There are not many popular proteins that you would have heard about. The Benedict’s reagent is a solution that contains copper (II) sulphate and the copper (II) ions are reduced by the aldehyde or ketone group to form copper (I) oxide . proteins. Fructose is a ketose which has ketone group as functional group. and to recognize material around them. we are our unique selves.. Proteins are an extremely diverse group of macromolecules. They also enable cells to move.right? Well.. Nucleic acids are the macromolecules that make up our genetic code.. you will analyze a variety of foods for the presence of nutrients. with the use of indicators as chemical detection tools. All monosaccharides are reducing sugars due to the presence of free aldehyde group or ketone group. and the DNA molecules are wound up within your chromosomes. Detection is based upon observing a chemical change that takes place most often a change in color. the only ones I am pretty sure you know something about are insulin. to have a specific shape. and melanin (skin pigment). you might notice that they are items that can be affected by genetic disorders (like sickle cell anemia. No two people display the same exact sets of proteins.. Carbohydrates Glucose is an aldose which has aldehyde group as functional group. In this lab. This group is also the only group that is not built simply by combining smaller chemical subunits into long chains. and MD). Another protein is dystrophin. When we display the right set of proteins.

green. The fats or triacylglycerols are made up of gl ycerol (an alcohol) and fatt y acids (a monocarboxylic acid) which are bonded together by ester linkages. The carboxyl group and amino group of the adjacent amino acids can be linked together to form a peptide linkage through dehydration reaction. Thus. The lipids are greasy and would turn the area of dry lipids on a brown paper into semi-transparent . Lactose is reducing sugar due to the presence of aldehyde or ketone group in one of the monomers that can gives the positive result on the Benedict’s test. starch gives positive result on the Iodine test. the yellow. Starch forms the dark blue color of solution with iodine solution which is the result from the complex ion formed between the amylose and the iodine molecules. Lipids The lipid is a group of macromolecules that are insoluble in water. Lactose is the disaccharide formed from the dehydration reaction between the glucose and galactose. Sucrose is non-reducing sugar. The major kinds of lipids in biological world include fats. However.pricipitation. due to the absence of the aldehyde or ketone group after the formation of the glycosidic linkage. The functional group of amino acids are the carboxyl group (-COOH) and the amino group (-NH2). Starch is a polysaccharide of glucose and thus cannot give positive result on the Benedict’s test. sucrose gives negative result on theBenedict’s test. Besides. phospholipids. A s o l u t i o n t h a t contains proteins will give violet coloration to the Biuret reagent. these compound sugars can be hydrolyzed in the test tube by addition of concentrated acid and heating process. The Biuret reagent is consisting of mixture of the copper (II) sulphate and an alkaline solution. and steroids. used to detect the presence of peptide l i n k a g e s . since all polysaccharides do not have any reducing ability. and orange colorof precipitate also indicates the presence of reducing sugar. Sucrose is the disaccharide formed from the enzymatic dehydration reaction between glucose and fructose. Proteins Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides coiled or folded into specific three dimensional conformations. Both disaccharides and polysaccharides can be hydrolyzed into their constituents with addition of water and requiring specific enz yme that catal yze the hydrol ysis reaction. In the laboratory.

Results: Experiment 5: Part 1: Carbohydrates Investigation 1: Monosaccharides and Disaccharides Test Tubes Glucose Distilled water Fructose Lactose Sucrose starch Observations after adding 5 ml of Benedict’s reagent Brick red precipitate formed Solution remained blue Brick red precipitate formed Brick red precipitate formed Solution remained blue Brick red precipitate formed Investigation 2: Starch Test tubes Starch solution Distilled water Observations after adding few drops of iodine reagent Dark blue solution formed Solution remained yellow Investigation 3: Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates .

Time Benedict’s Iodine reagent (min) reagent 1 Sucrose Tube Number 3 0 2 2-3 0 Solution remained light blue Brick red - precipitate formed Solution remained light blue 4 0 Solution remained yellow color Starch 5 5 Solution remained light blue 6 5 Dark blue solution formed 7 15 Solution remained light blue 8 15 Dark blue solution formed Part 2: Proteins .

Test tubes Egg albumin Distilled water Observation after adding in Biuret reagent Violet color precipitate formed Solution remained light blue Observation after adding on brown paper Vegetable oil Distilled water Part 3: Lipids Transparent spot appear on paper Brown paper remained unchanged. transparent spot did not form Experiment 6: .