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DATA COMMUNICATION AND NET WORKING NOTES

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Baud rate Pulse encoding (digital to digital) Modulation (digital to analog) Pulse code modulation

Encoding

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**There are four types:
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Digital information, digital signal Analog information, digital signal Digital information, analog signal Analog information, analog signal

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Modulation - data onto analog signal Encoding - data onto digital signal

CSE3318

Module 5

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Encoding vs Modulation x(t) g(t) digital or analog x(t) Encoder digital Decoder g(t) t (a) Encoding onto a digital signal S(f) m(t) digital or analog s(t) Modulator analog fc (a) Modulation onto an analog signal fc Demodulator m(t) t CSE3318 Module 5 slide 3 .

NRZ-I.ones are represented by alternating positive and negative voltages: examples include AMI. Examples NRZ. HDB3.two voltage levels are use. Digital Signals N Categories of this encoding are: N N N Unipolar . NRZ-L. Polar .one voltage level used. RZ and Manchester encoding Bipolar .Digital Data. B8ZS. CSE3318 Module 5 slide 4 .

CSE3318 Module 5 slide 5 . bit rate = baud rate x M where M is the number of bits per signal element for two-level signalling (binary). N N N N Signal elements per second (baud). The rate at which signal elements are transmitted.Baud rate N Also known as Signalling rate or modulation rate. bit rate is equal to the baud rate.

CSE3318 Module 5 slide 6 .Criteria for Digital Encoding Formats N Various techniques are compared in terms of the following: N N N N N N Reduced bandwidth. Possible error detection. Ease of synchronization. No zero frequency component (DC). Reduced cost and complexity. Immunity to noise and interference.

Binary 0 as zero voltage. Module 5 slide 7 CSE3318 . or an idle line.Unipolar N N N N Binary 1 is encoded as a positive value. long runs of 1s or 0s).g. The average amplitude of a unipolar signal is nonzero. This creates a DC component. the receiver cannot determine the beginning and ending of each bit. Unipolar encoding is simple and primitive. Some transmission media cannot handle that. When a signal is not varying (e.

An advantage of NRZ-I over NRZ-L is that signal changes every time a 1 bit is transmitted. Module 5 slide 8 CSE3318 . In NRZ-I. the transition between a positive and a negative voltage represents a 1 bit.Non-return to zero (NRZ) N N N In NRZ-L. and a negative voltage represent binary 0. it enables synchronization. A 0 bit is represented by no change. A positive voltage represents binary 1. the level of signal depends on the type of bit it represents.

the transition at the middle of the bit is used only for synchronization. Binary 1 = no transition at beginning of interval. N N N CSE3318 Always a transition in middle of interval. Binary 0 = transition at beginning of interval. N N Binary 0 = positive-to-negative transition Binary 1 = negative-to-positive transition N In Differential Manchester encoding. the transition at the middle of the bit is used for both synchronization and bit representation.Manchester encoding N In Manchester encoding. Module 5 slide 9 .

negative and zero.Bipolar encoding N Bipolar encoding uses three voltage levels: positive. a long run of 1s stays synchronized. 0 bit = positive or negative level. alternating for successive ones. N Bipolar-AMI N N N 0 bit = no line signal 1bit = positive or negative level. alternating for successive zeros 1 bit = no line signal Module 5 slide 10 N Pseudoternary N N CSE3318 . This encoding achieves two things: first. and second. the DC component is zero.

Analog Signals N N N N Modem .to produce signals in the voice frequency range (300-3400Hz).to superimpose digital data on a carrier signal. Carrier signal is a sine wave. CSE3318 Module 5 slide 11 . Frequency or Phase. Modulation .Digital Data. One or more characteristics of carrier is changed N Amplitude.

N N Inefficient and susceptible to noise. Two binary values are represented by two different amplitudes the carrier. Optical fiber channels. Binary 0 = 0. N N N Binary 1 = Acos(2pi f_c t). the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied to represent binary 1 or 0. Module 5 slide 12 CSE3318 .Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) N N In ASK. Where f_c is the carrier frequency.

The two binary values are represented by two different frequencies. Binary 2 = Acos(2 pi f_2 t). Used in some local area networks. N N N CSE3318 Full-duplex operation over voice grade lines.Frequency-shift-keying (FSK) N N In FSK. High-frequency operation. the frequency of the carrier signal is varied to represent binary 1 or 0. N N Binary 1 = Acos(2 pi f_1 t). Module 5 slide 13 .

8. In the binary case: N N Binary 1 = A cos(2 pi f_c t + pi). High speed modems. The phase of the carrier signal is shifted to represent data. Binary 0 = Acos(2 pi f_c t). Module 5 slide 14 CSE3318 . N N N 4.Phase-shift-keying (PSK) N N In ASK. the phase of the signal is varied to represent binary 1 or 0.16 levels of signalling possible. High efficiency.

QPSK N 4PSK. N N N N Binary 00 = A cos(2 pi f_c t ). Binary 01 = Acos(2 pi f_c t+pi/2) Binary 11 = Acos(2 pi f_c t+pi) Binary 10 = Acos(2 pi f_c t + 3pi/2) CSE3318 Module 5 slide 15 . the phase of the carrier signal is shifted to represent data.

QAM enables a higher data transmission than other modulation methods. CSE3318 Module 5 slide 16 .Quadrature amplitude modulation N N In QAM. both the phase and amplitude of the carrier signal vary.

PCM involves sampling. The term sampling means measuring the signal at regular intervals. and then assigning voltage levels to the bits.Analog-to-digital encoding N N N This is called pulse code modulation (PCM). quantizing each sample to a set number of bits. CSE3318 Module 5 slide 17 .

This method takes analog information. According to the Nyquist theorem. the sampling rate must be at least two times the highest frequency. CSE3318 Module 5 slide 18 .Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) N N The first step of PCM is called PAM. samples and generates a series of pulses based on the results of the sampling.

8 .bit encoding (256 levels) 64 kbps .PCM signal CSE3318 Module 5 slide 19 . Sampling rate 8000/sec.Voice Digitization N N N N Normal voice signal bandwidth 4kHz.

PCM PAM signal Analog voice signal Sampling Quantizer and compander PCM signal CSE3318 Module 5 slide 20 .

approximately CSE3318 Module 5 slide 21 .levels Signal level x approximated by the nearest quantization level. SNR due to this noise is given by N SNR = 6n . there are only 2^n .Quantization N N N n-bit encoding.

Companding N N N N Lower amplitudes are more affected by the quantization noise. Uniform quantizing is not effective Non uniform quantizing More gain to weak signals CSE3318 Module 5 slide 22 .

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