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AKYPO® Optimizing Coacervate Formation

What is a COACERVATE? A coacervate is a thermodynamically stable aggregate of colloidal droplets held together by electrostatic attractive forces that measures few tens of microns. This aggregate is formed by a polymer-surfactant complex which polymer and the air-water interface become “saturated” with surfactant and normal

micelles first appear2,3. During the washing step the surfactant concentration falls below the critical level required for solubilisation (CMC), and insoluble polymer/surfactant

separates from the solution as it is diluted1. What is COACERVATION? Coacervation is a physicochemical mechanism that occurs while a composition based on a cationic polymer and surfactant base is diluted. Figure 1 illustrates this phenomenon. Cationic polymers are compatible with anionic surfactant systems, where they are soluble in the final product (i.e. shampoo) because the
Surfactant Decrease Leads to Aggregation Surface Tension (mN/m)

complex, called coacervate, is formed. Figure 1 depicts the normal surface tension curve in presence of a cationic polymer that shows two breakpoints, *cac (critical aggregation

concentration), which represents the minimum and maximum surfactant concentration at

which coacervate formation occurs. Finally, in the rinsing step coacervate separates from the


Micelle + + + +



Coacervate Surfactant C-Polymer

Cationic polymer

cmc Shampoo Concentration


Figure 1. Mechanism of coacervate formation.

Synergistic effects of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) and cationic cellulosic polymers on conditioning properties of hair and

skin care products. Wing Li, Susan L.P. Jordan, Cosmetics & Toiletries manufacture World wide. 31-35. 2004.

A Brief Review of Polymer/Surfactant Interaction. Robert Y. Lochhead and Lisa R. Huisinga. The Institute for Formulation Science, The

University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi USA. Cosmetics & Toiletries. Vol. 119, No. 2/February 2004.

Formulating Conditioning Shampoos. Robert Y. Lochhead. The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA. Cosmetics &

Toiletries. Vol 116, No. 11/November 2001.

pH. Test composition at 12% total active matter. The carboxyl group enables Alkyl Ether Carboxylic acids to perform a double function as non-ionic and anionic surfactant. How is Coacervate Formation Measured? The most common way to determine the coacervate formation is by transmittance measurement with a UV spectrophotometer at 600nm4. magnesium or calcium. for different dilution ratios of test composition. cationic polymer other inorganic as well organic cations. Figure 2 shows the water soluble ring complex formation and the complexation with a cationic polymer. Therefore. coacervate aids in the deposition of insoluble actives. No. Rhodia Research. 123. AKYPO® enhances coacervate formation. easy to comb and pleasing in appearance.bulk solution and deposits on the hair or the skin. 0. AKYPO® forms a water soluble ring complex with a cation which can be easily exchanged by polyquartenium-10 (PQ-10). M may be hydrogen or a cation such as sodium. such as silicone. 3/March 2008 . France. provides soft feel. Many factors can modify the nature of the coacervate: • Polymer molecular weight & charge density distribution • • • Chemical surfactant structure Type and ratio of surfactant used + Presence of electrolyte. a higher level of polymer deposition or insoluble actives on hair and skin occurs. ammonium.5 H Liquid ≈ 92 AKYPO® RLM 45 CA Sodium Laureth-6 Carboxylate C12-14 4. Because of this structure.5: a) SLES-2EO/CAPB at 3:1 ratio Table I: Alkyl Ether Carboxylic acids and derivatives for Personal Care applications INCI Name Alkyl Chain n M Appearance (20ºC) Active Matter (%) Trademark Laureth-6 Carboxylic Acid C12-14 4.5 Na Paste ≈ 82 AKYPO® RLM 45 N Sodium Laureth-6 Carboxylate C12-14 4. Figure 3 depicts the coacervation behaviour of different systems with generally between C4H9 and C18H37. The amount of polymer deposition can be controlled by selecting the appropriate grade of polymer or by changing the surfactant used in the system.5 Na Liquid ≈ 22 AKYPO® SOFT 45 HP Sodium Laureth-5 Carboxylate C12 4 Na Paste ≈ 60 AKYPO® FOAM RL 40 Laureth-11 Carboxylic Acid C12-14 10 H Liquid ≈ 90 AKYPO® RLM 100 Sodium Laureth-11 Carboxylate 4 C12-14 10 Na Liquid ≈ 70 AKYPO® SOFT 100 BVC Polyquartenium-74: An Advanced Hair Conditioning Polymer. Cosmetics & Toiletries. conditioning effect. Fine Deposition Control using AKYPO® Alkyl Ether Carboxylates are represented by the following structure: R-O-(CH2CH2O)n-CH2COOM R is derived from fatty alcohols and is Figure 2. Once deposited.3% polymer and pH 6. Eric Leroy. Aubervilliers. In addition. etc. Water soluble ring complex formation and complexation with a cationic polymer. EO-degree is represented by n and can be between 2 and 20. L L L L L Vol.

b) AKYPO® RLM 45CA/CAPB at 3:1 ratio c) SLES-2EO/AKYPO® RLM 45CA/CAPB at 2:1:1 ratio Abbreviations: SLES-2EO: Sodium Laureth Sulfate CAPB: Cocamidopropyl Betaine 100 Coacervation Benefits… Excellent Combability AKYPO ® shows a significant combing force reduction. Therefore. The percentage reduction of Transmittance (%) 90 combing force versus composition without AKYPO® a ) n on e b ) mai n su rfa c tant c ) c o. Combing force profile Cost/Performance Balance AKYPO® improves combing force independently of % polymer but achieving lower value at 0. test composition based on AKYPO® as co-surfactant shows the minimum of transmission at a high dilution ratio. as it can be seen in Figure 5. Amenchol Corporation.10% PQ-10 0. Wing L i. Figure 4 illustrates the combing force of two test compositions with 0. gf 1000 800 600 400 200 0 SLES-2EO/CAPB SLES-2EO/AKYPO RLM 45CA/CAPB 0. 157 – 160. polymer better conditioning effect. Susan L .su rf act an t 80 for polyquartenium-10 and 70 polyquartenium-7 are 21% and 17%. Test compositions with AKYPO® show higher haze region.3% polymer. better combability and conditioning effect is expected. L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L .30% PQ-10 541 422 Figure 5. AKYPO® enhances coacervate formation providing Figure 4. 723 779 560 524 0. which provides a soft feel and volume enhancement of the hair5. Coacervation profiles of PQ-10 with AKYPO ® 353 Haze region is linked to the quantity of coacervates. Cosmetics & Toiletries manufacture World wide. The minimum of transmission for the test composition based on AKYPO® as main surfactant (figure 3) is obtained at low dilution ratio.3% of polymer. Combing Force profile at different % of PQ-10 5 Cationic cellulosic polymers with multifunctional and oustanding performance for personal care. which is a sign that more substantivity will be achieved. Therefore. gf SLES-2EO/CAPB at 3:1 ratio 60 50 1 10 Dilution r atio 100 1000 800 600 765 AKYPO RLM 45CA/CAPB at 3:1 ratio 603 424 400 200 0 PQ-10 PQ-7 Figure 3.05% PQ-10 other hand. 1000 Wet Combability Force. Using AKYPO®. On the concentration can be reduced maintaining the performance and optimizing the cost.P. Wet Combability Force. 2003. Jordan.

Build-up of PQ-10 with AKYPO® .3%PQ-10 SLES-2EO/AKYPO RLM 45CA/CAPB + 0. Composition with AKYPO® does not build-up after several applications. 0 without silicone 0.7 18. Tress Diameter (cm) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 AKYPO deposits significantly more polymer and. when silicone is added.5% silicone SLES/CAPB at 3:1 ratio. 40 SLES-2EO/CAPB + 0.3 5. 40 SLES-2EO/CAPB + 0.3% PQ-10 SLES-2EO/AKYPO RLM 45CA/CAPB + 0.3%PQ-10 deposition. Significant differences. polymer build-up can occur after many shampoo treatments. Polymer deposition profile Hair Conditioning without Build-Up SLES/AKYPO RLM 45CA/CAPB at 2:1:1 ratio.3 measured indirectly by detecting the amount of anionic Red 80 dye bounded by the cationic polymer deposition on wool.Sensorial test profile of basic shampoo formula ∆ E (CIE L*a*b*) 30 20 18.3%PQ-10 Figure 8.4 formulation and on a final shower cream formula (C-141).Superior Polymer deposition Avg. Figure 9. resulting in a loss of volume. Figure 6 illustrates polymer deposition which is 6. 0.3% PQ-10 Foam performance If too much polymer is deposited onto the hair surface. as seen in Figure 7 and 8.7 ∆ E (CIE L*a*b*) 30 Sensorial Benefits Sensorial consumer with benefits a basic have been 20 demonstrated 10 shampoo 6. Higher ∆E value means superior polymer SLES-2EO/CAPB + 0. It will cause the hair to be weighted down and appear limp.4 0 1 wash 3 washes Figure 7. additionally.3% PQ-10 Figure 6. 5 = very good.5 16.7 10 6.3%PQ-10 SLES-2EO/AKYPO RLM 45CA/CAPB + 0. 0. on the contrary it increases the volumizing ability.3% PQ-10 5 Wet Smoothness 4 3 Shine Rinse-off 2 1 Loose hair Smoothness during rinse-off Dry Feel Detangling Wet Combability Dry Combability Scores: 1 = very bad.8 18.5 8. better assistance deposition is obtained. Volume measurement of PQ-10 with AKYPO® 24.

and In imparts addition smoothness during AKYPO® offers creamy foam and a rinses out well. with a soft skin feel in shower gel cream products with high oil Foam creaminess Smoothness during rinse-off Kao Corporation. Puig dels Tudons. AKYPO® range. and product Moisturising samples. Europe you can reach a at Kao the Foam volume 4 3 2 1 Chemicals representative following numbers or visit our web site at Dry Smoothness Foam size www. Significant differences. Figure 10. S.Contact Kao Chemicals Europe Market product Foam speed 5 AKYPO For more information.kaochemicals-eu. complete literature. Formulations with AKYPO® offer truly Kao Chemicals GmbH Kupferstrasse 1 D-46446 Emmerich. 10 E-08210 Barberà del Vall Tel: +34 93 7399-300 Fax: +34 93 7399-377 e-mail: sales@kao. a new approach to coacervation technology . Sensorial test profile of a final shower cream (C-141). The capacity of AKYPO® surfactants to promote coacervate formation allows optimizing polymers performance with the best cost/effectiveness ratio. Germany Tel: +49(0)2822 711-0 Fax: +49(0)2822 711-201 e-mail: noticeable consumer Wet Smoothness Rinse-off Scores: 1 = very bad. 5 = very good. AKYPO® in a basic shampoo formula provides excellent wet hair detangling & combing rinse-off.