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Evaluation and Selection of the Precooling Stage for LNG Processes

Mohamad Majzoub

Master's Thesis Submission date: July 2012 Supervisor: Carlos Alberto Dorao, EPT

Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Energy and Process Engineering

Abstract

Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes
Mohamad Majzoub Dahouk

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Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes iv .

-50 °C is the preferred alternative. a technical comparison between different precooling cycles for LNG processes is carried out through computational simulations using Aspen HYSYS®. For cold climates. a two stage mixed refrigerant cycle reaching ca. it is to be implemented in relatively warm climate conditions. In this work.Abstract Abstract As the worldwide energy consumption continues to grow. natural gas and especially LNG are expected to keep contributing significantly with this growth. The parameters studied are essentially coefficient of performance (β). Based on the obtained results. such as a single stage mixed refrigerant cycle and a mixed refrigerant including n-Butane are taken into account. the performance in terms of energy consumption is not the only parameter taken into account and therefore a selection chart is provided. Two cases. heat exchanger UA value. A three stage propane precooled process was found to be the most energetically efficient among the studied cases. v . however. no previous reference in the open literature was found for such arrangement. however. The aim is to provide future project developments with a clear idea of the technical advantages/disadvantages involved in the selection of the process for the precooling cycle in LNG processes. More than 95% of the installed LNG facilities use a precooling cycle as the first stage of the liquefaction process. compressor power. Other cases. a new. Under warm climate conditions a propane precooling circuit showed to be the most recommended process. even better than a two stage mixed refrigerant process (C2/C3) for both climate conditions. highly efficient configuration for natural gas liquefaction has been suggested. The precooling circuit is treated as a stand-alone cycle first and then implemented in an entire liquefaction process. cold (6 °C) and warm (25 °C) climate conditions are considered for each study. suction volumetric flow and pressure ratio. since in this case the low ambient temperature gives the propane precooled process a low share in the entire cycle. the propane precooled mixed refrigerant (C3MR) and the mixed fluid cascade (MFC®) processes are used for this purpose. It consists of a MFC® process with modifications in the liquefaction cycle and a propane precooling instead of the mixed refrigerant circuit.

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Den består av en MFC ® prosess med modifikasjoner i LNG-syklusen.Sammendrag Sammendrag Ettersom verdens energiforbruk fortsetter å vokse. kalde (11 °C) og varme (30 °C) klimaforhold undersøkes for hver studie. Men ytelsen i forhold til energiforbruk er ikke eneste parameter tatt hensyn til. To tilfeller. Blandet kjølemiddel precooling-syklusen er det foretrukne alternativ under kalde klimaforhold. og propanprecooling istedenfor den blandete kjølekretsen. volumetrisk inntaksstrømning og trykkforhold. Andre tilfeller. I dette arbeidet har en teknisk sammenligning mellom ulike precooling-sykluser for LNG prosesser blitt utført gjennom beregningsorientert simuleringer med Aspen HYSYS ®. Basert på oppnådde resultater. varmevekslerens UA verdi. vii . forventes det at naturgass og spesielt LNG bidrar betydelig til denne vekset. kompressorarbeid. og viste seg å være bedre enn en totrinns blandet kjølemediumprosess (C2/C3) for begge klimaforhold. derfor har et valg-diagram blitt laget. ingen tidligere referanse i den åpne litteraturen ble funnet for et slikt oppsett. for eksempel en ett stegs blandet kjølemedium-prosess og en blandet kjølemedium inkludert n-butan er også tatt hensyn til. Mer enn 95% av de installerte LNG-anleggene bruker en precooling-syklus som den første fasen av prosessen. En tretrinns propan precooled-prosess var den mest energieffektive blant de studerte tilfellene. Målet er å gi fremtidige prosjekter en klar idé om de tekniske fordelene/ulempene involvert i valg av prosessen for precooling syklus. har en ny og svært effektiv konfigurasjon for væskeomgjøring av naturgass blitt foreslått for relativt varme klimaforhold. på grunn av redusert andel som kan nås med en propan syklus temperatur begrensning.og MFC ®-prosessene ble brukt til dette formålet. Parametrene studert er i hovedsak ytelseskoeffisienten (β). Precooling-kretsen er først behandlet som en frittstående syklus og deretter implementert i en hel væskeomgjøringsprosess. C3MR.

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she has been a very inspiring guide since the first day I met her. I would like to thank also Prof.D. Majeda Dahouk. I’m grateful to my home university. Mr. forever will never be long enough to thank them for all the attention and nice moments that we have spent together. Finally I want to express my gratitude to my siblings Nesrin. patience. Jala and Khalil. this thesis is dedicated to my parents. Every singular achievement is due to their prayers. which has been written in only twenty weeks. Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB) in Venezuela and the entire Chemical Engineering organization for making this exchange year possible and for providing all the required support during these 5 years and especially during my stay in Norway. ______________________ ix . Sabrina Di Scipio. love and support. Jostein Pettersen from Statoil’s Research Centre for useful advices and follow up when asked for. Special thanks go to Prof. with the supervision of Prof. Last but most important. a life in which they have been doing their best to make me happy.Preface Preface In the name of Allah. encouragement and unconditional love I could not have completed this work. Riad Majzoub and Mrs. Carlos Dorao and Ph. most Gracious. advices and contributions to each step in the development of this thesis. to whom I’m absolutely grateful for their time. from the Department of Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena. her contributions to this work and my entire development as student are significantly appreciated. to provide me with everything that I needed and to make me the man that I am. most Merciful Five years of university studies are summarized in this final thesis. This work has been carried out at the Department of Energy and Process Engineering in the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). I owe them every single minute of my life. to guide me through this difficult way. student Luis Castillo. without their support.

Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes x .

...........3...............................................1................................................................................................ 23 2.. Refrigerants and Configurations ............. xxiii Chapter 1...........................................................................................1 Theoretical Background ................................. xiii List of Figures ....... 7 2.................... 2................. Liquefied Natural Gas .................................. Introduction ........................5........ Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes................6.... ix Contents........................................ v Sammendrag................................... Propane Precooled.............................................................................................. xvii Nomenclature ......................6.. 2... LNG Process Equipment .... Chapter 2.............................................................. 17 2.............................3...............1.................. vii Preface ............................................................................5.......... ...................5.......................................................................... 29 2................................................ 31 Compressor Drivers................... 5 2..................... Refrigeration Thermodynamics ................ xi List of Tables ........................................................... 26 Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (MFC®) ...................1........................................................... ...2....................................... Heat Exchangers .2..................................................................... 27 2..............Contents Contents Abstract ............6............................................4........................................... 2...... 10 2...................2................................................ 33 xi ......... 29 Compressors ...... Mixed Refrigerant Process (C3MR)... 8 2.................................... LNG Value Chain.................................................................................................6.....................................................

.... Application of the different configurations to the MFC® process ........6......... 79 4..................... 47 4...................... 88 Chapter 5................ Chapter 3..2.........1............................................. 65 4. 43 3........................... Cooling medium............................... Conclusions .... Mixed refrigerant precooling temperature relocation..............4........................... Stand-alone precooling cycles ............ 95 References ................................. Simple refrigeration cycle ... 54 Two stage refrigeration cycle ...... Mixed refrigerant precooling temperature relocation.......3.... Application of the different configurations to the C3MR process ...................... 82 4............ Results and Discussion.........................................................3... Overall specific work comparison .............2........ C-1 xii .....4............................................ 4.3........................... 4.......................................................................................................................... 34 Simulation Cases.......Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 2............1....... 35 3.................................. 43 Chapter 4................................................ B-1 Appendix C: Multistage compression ........ 4..................... 47 Two stage compression with intercooling ........... 56 Three stage refrigeration cycle using propane.......................4............................... 91 Recommendations for Further Work .... A-1 Appendix B: Tabular results ..................................................................1................... 70 4........5................ Stand-alone precooling cycles ........1.....1..... Chapter 6.........................1........ Application of the different configurations to the C3MR process ................................2.................. 47 4.................. Application of the different configurations to the MFC® process ..............................1................................................................. 40 3.....................4...................... 97 Appendix A: HYSYS® flowsheets simulated . 35 3......

..... simple refrigeration cycle .................... 44 Table 3-10................. Mixed refrigerant circuit parameters ................. MFC® process liquefaction and subcooling cycle parameters ............. Heat load comparison................................................. 2010........................................ Natural gas inlet conditions... warm vs cold climate condition .................................................List of Tables List of Tables Table 2-1....................... 41 Table 3-6.. Cooling medium differences.......................... LNG trains by liquefaction process.......... 32 Table 2-4....... Liquefaction refrigerant composition... Parameters for simulation... MFC® with propane precooling . 47 xiii ...................... 34 Table 3-1.............................................................................. MFC® process simulation ................. MFC® process simulation ..... 41 Table 3-4................. Mixed refrigerant composition for C3MR cycle .... Liquefaction cycle pressures...... 44 Table 3-8....... Technical specifications of LNG compressors [45] ..... Natural gas composition.............. 37 Table 3-3......................... seawater versus air [46] ................... 36 Table 3-2............ MFC® process liquefaction and subcooling refrigerant composition ....... 29 Table 2-3.......... 25 Table 2-2.......... 33 Table 2-5.......... Gas turbine performance specifications [45] ....................................... Differences between plate fin and coil wound heat exchangers [40]...... Main parameters for simulation............... 45 Table 3-12................. 41 Table 3-5.. 46 Table 4-1......................................... 42 Table 3-7...... 44 Table 3-9........ C3MR case. Natural gas composition............... ... 45 Table 3-11................................................... MFC® with propane precooling ............... Natural gas composition ...... comparison between this work and Venkatarathnam’s ..........

................. Summary for simple refrigeration cycle........................................... Summary for two stage cycle................. 80 Table 4-15..... 74 Table 4-11.............. 70 Table 4-9........................... 55 Table 4-5.......................... Summary for two stage cycle (to -50 °C)................... Summary of the results for the C3MR cycle with modifications..... cold climate.. warm climate........................... warm climate ............................ 53 Table 4-4..................................................................... warm climate......................................................................................................................... 53 Table 4-3......... Summary for simple refrigeration cycle..................... Main process equipment count..................................... Summary for two stage cycle.......................... 78 Table 4-13.... 75 Table 4-12................................................. Conditions for different modifications in the precooling cycle for C3MR process............................ 64 Table 4-7...... Precooling parameters for the MFC process studies. ............ cold climate .................. Summary of the results for the C3MR cycle with modifications................................................................................................ Summary for two stage cycle (to -50 °C)..................... cold climate ................... warm climate ....8 °C............................ 56 Table 4-6.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Table 4-2.............. warm climate condition ............ 81 Table 4-16............... warm climate................................ Tintermediate -15 °C ........................ 82 Table 4-17...... Summary for simple cycle with two stage compression............................... Summary for simple cycle with two stage compression................................... cold climate condition ........................ 88 xiv ............ Specific work comparison for the main studied processes................ Tintermediate -10 °C ......... 64 Table 4-8.......... 74 Table 4-10......................... 80 Table 4-14...... Conditions for different modifications in the precooling cycle for C3MR process............................................................................. warm climate condition ............. cold climate....... cold climate condition ............................ kWh/kg LNG ................. C3MR cycle with modifications ..................................... Summary for two stage cycle (to -50 °C)................................. Tintermediate 20 °C .... Tintermediate -10 °C.... Tintermediate -3...............

. B-10 xv ... warm climate.... Parameters for the stand-alone single stage cycle.List of Tables Table B-1.. cold climate ........ B-1 Table B-2. Parameters for the stand-alone single stage cycle...

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LNG liquefaction .............. 17 Figure 2-11. LNG main refrigerants..............List of Figures List of Figures Figure 2-1..................... ............................. Saturation pressure related to temperature.... Natural gas transportation cost... main components....... 22 Figure 2-18........................................... ............................ Typical natural gas composition [11] .............. 21 Figure 2-16.. ... Mixed refrigerant refrigeration process............................ ...... T-s diagram.................................. .. Phase change at constant pressure.. Cycle non-reversibilities............... [14] ............................................ ...... Carnot cycle.......................... 19 Figure 2-13.... 22 Figure 2-17.......................... 12 Figure 2-8..................... 12 Figure 2-7...... 7 Figure 2-4.... multistage compression. Heat exchanger arrangement for mixed refrigerant processes....... 5 Figure 2-2...... LNG train size growth and technology proprietary [28]... 10 Figure 2-6...................................... vapour compression cycle.......................... 16 Figure 2-10.. 14 Figure 2-9... Basic refrigeration cycle.. Carnot refrigeration cycle .......... 19 Figure 2-14............. [15]. 25 xvii .......... simple vapour compression cycle for wide temperature cooling duty.......... LNG value chain...... 8 Figure 2-5............................. propane and mixed refrigerant................... Historical world energy consumption (Million tonnes oil equivalent) [2] .... Specific work................................ actual vapour-compression cycle... 18 Figure 2-12............................... Methane T-s diagram................................................ 23 Figure 2-19........... Classification of natural gas liquefaction processes .................. Temperature vs entropy diagram... T-s diagram ........... 20 Figure 2-15.............. heat transfer. Temperature vs entropy diagram........... Heat tranfer represented in T-s diagram..................... 6 Figure 2-3....... ............ ................... Multilevel refrigeration process........

.... 49 Figure 4-3..................................... Three stage cycle using kettle type heat exchangers with propane........ Heat exchanger UA with variation of the refrigerant composition for simple cycle ..Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Figure 2-20. Process Flow Diagram........... 28 Figure 2-22........................... 48 Figure 4-2..................................... 32 Figure 3-1..................................... 36 Figure 3-2....................... Kettle type heat exchanger implemented in HYSYS® ........ 30 Figure 2-23.................................. composition variation........................................... mixed refrigerant process (C3MR)........................ 31 Figure 2-24......................... 26 Figure 2-21.............................. 43 Figure 3-8... 39 Figure 3-7....................... Mixed Fluid Cascade (MFC®)............................. Kettle-type heat exchanger diagram .................. Minimum temperature to be reached in the precooling................................ 38 Figure 3-5..... 36 Figure 3-3............................................................................. Compressor duty with variation of the refrigerant composition for simple cycle .......................................................... Simple refrigeration cycle configuration for mixed refrigerant.................................................................... 37 Figure 3-4.............................................................................. Propane precooled............................... Simple refrigeration cycle configuration for pure component refrigerant ......... Compressor map illustration ...... 49 xviii .............. 38 Figure 3-6.................... Compactness of spiral wound heat exchanger versus plate fin heat exchanger [40] .. Two stage refrigeration cycle.................................................... Coefficient of performance with variation of refrigerant composition for simple cycle............................................... Temperature difference................................................................................................ propane and mixed refrigarant precooling ....................... Simple refrigeration cycle using two stage compression with intercooling .................. ............................................................ 45 Figure 4-1................................................................................ ........................... Process Flow Diagram .......................

................. 51 Figure 4-6.............. mixture 0...............................................4 C2/0.........4 C2/0........................................................ two stage compression ................ 59 Figure 4-13....... Temperature profile across first stage heat exchanger.. Temperature profile across the heat exchanger................ cold and warm climate comparison ............ 63 xix . Temperature profile across second stage heat exchanger........................................... Compressor suction volume with variation of the refrigerant composition for simple cycle ................................ 57 Figure 4-11............................................................... 61 Figure 4-16.......... cold and warm climate comparison ...... Compressor duty for two stage cycle...... warm climate . 50 Figure 4-5..................................................................... 54 Figure 4-9.......................... 52 Figure 4-8.......List of Figures Figure 4-4.............................................. Compressor pressure ratio with variation of the refrigerant composition for simple cycle ....... 55 Figure 4-10............... mixture 0.............................. 62 Figure 4-17.................................................................... warm climate ........... mixture 0......................... cold and warm climate comparison ......... Compressor duty and UA value behavior comparison................................. warm climate ...................................... Compressor duty for two stage cycle. 52 Figure 4-7........6 C3 .....................................3 C2/0.. .......... simple cycle at warm condition ............................................................................................................................ two stage compression ............................... 61 Figure 4-15........ Heat exchangers UA for two stage cycle........ 62 Figure 4-18.. warm climate............................................................ Compressor suction volume for two stage cycle............................................ Compressors suction volume for two stage cycle......................................... 58 Figure 4-12...................................... Heat exchangers total UA for two stage cycle.................................................................................... Pressure ratio with variation of refrigerant composition.........6 C3 .........7 C3 ................................................................... Pressure ratio for two stage cycle.... Compressor duty with variation of refrigerant composition............................. 60 Figure 4-14.........

.. warm climate .................... Power share between precooling and liquefaction cycle. 67 Figure 4-24...........................Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Figure 4-19........ 72 Figure 4-30..................................... warm climate ............... 68 Figure 4-26. first stage............................ Compressors pressure ratio for two stage cycle......................................... Compressor duty for C3MR process with modifications applied............ Compressor duty for C3MR process with modifications applied......... cold climate ................................ Compressors suction volume for three stage cycle with propane................. Heat exchangers UA value for three stage cycle with propane............................................................................................................................... 69 Figure 4-28. Compressor suction volume for three stage cycle with propane. Precooling compressor suction volume for C3MR process with modifications applied.................. warm climate .......... 68 Figure 4-25............. 71 Figure 4-29............................................. 66 Figure 4-22.. warm climate 65 Figure 4-21.................................... 73 Figure 4-32................................................................................................................................................. 63 Figure 4-20.... 76 xx .... warm climate.... first stage........... 72 Figure 4-31.................. 66 Figure 4-23.................................................................................................................. warm climate ...... cold climate ................................. Compressor suction volume for three stage cycle with propane............................................ 69 Figure 4-27.................................. warm climate ................................................................. cold climate ........ Heat exchangers UA for C3MR process with modifications applied.................................................................................................................... cold climate .................... Compressors duty for three stage cycle with propane.................. Compressors duty for three stage cycle with propane................................................. warm climate... cold and warm climate comparison .............. Heat exchangers UA value for three stage cycle with propane........................................................................ cold climate ................................................................. Compressors suction volume for three stage cycle with propane.............................................................................

........... Heat exchanger UA values comparison.......................... Compressor suction volume comparison................................................................ Precooling compressor suction volume for C3MR process with modifications applied......................................................................................... Heat exchangers UA for C3MR process with modifications applied......................... 77 Figure 4-35........ Process flow diagram of proposed high efficiency process...................................................... 77 Figure 4-36............. 92 Figure A-1.....List of Figures Figure 4-33...... 84 Figure 4-39......... 81 Figure 4-38.............................. warm climate .......................................................................... cold climate ..... 86 Figure 4-42..... MFC® with modifications...................................................................................................... cold climate ........................................ different temperature range................... 87 Figure 4-44........................................................... Compressor duty variation............................ Selection chart for precooling stage of LNG processes ................................ Power share between precooling and liquefaction cycle.......... 86 Figure 4-43.............................................................. MFC® with modifications........ cold climate..... 76 Figure 4-34............... MFC modified..................................................................................................... Coefficient of performance comparison for two stage cycle....... Simple refrigeration cycle for pure component refrigerant.................................................................... Compressor power comparison.................. warm climate ...................... 85 Figure 4-41... MFC® with modifications.................................................. Compressor power comparison.............................................................................. MFC® with modifications................................... standalone ............................. 89 Figure 5-1..... Compressor suction volume comparison.........................A-1 xxi ................................ 84 Figure 4-40................................... cold climate ............................. 78 Figure 4-37.................. MFC® with modifications. cold climate ................... cold climate ....... comparison of cold and warm climate........................................................... warm climate .. Heat exchanger UA values comparison....................... MFC® with modifications..................

.................................................... A-4 xxii ....................... MFC® process ... Three stage propane precooling cycle for C3MR process studies ................. A-2 Figure A-6....... Two stage mixed refrigerant precooling cycle for C3MR process studies .......... A-2 Figure A-5......Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Figure A-2. A-3 Figure A-8.......................... Single stage mixed refrigerant precooling cycle for C3MR process studies ...... Three stage propane refrigeration cycle.............................................. standalone.............. MFC® process with propane precooling cycle ....................... standalone .................... A-1 Figure A-4.......................................... Two stage refrigeration cycle for mixed refrigerant................. A-1 Figure A-3............................................................... A-3 Figure A-9........................................................... standalone........ Liquefaction cycle for C3MR process studies........ A-3 Figure A-7... Simple refrigeration cycle for mixed refrigerant.............. A-4 Figure A-10..........

Nomenclature Nomenclature A APCI AP-X BTU C2 C3 C3MR COP DMR FLNG FPSO HP HX k LMTD LNG LPG m M Area of heat exchanger Air Products and Chemicals. Inc. storage and offloading Polytropic head Heat exchanger Specific heat ratio Logarithmic mean temperature difference Liquefied natural gas Liquified petroleum gas Mass flowrate Molecular weight xxiii . APCI's nitrogen expaned high capacity process British Thermal Unit Ethane Propane Propane precooled mixed refrigerant process Coefficient of performance Dual mixed refrigerant process Floating liquefied natural gas Floating production.

Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes MFC MMt/y MR MTPA n n-C4 P PFHE PPMRC Qc Qo R RPM S scf SMR SWHE T Tc Th U xxiv Mixed Fluid Cascade Million tonnes per year Mixed refrigerant Million tonnes per annum Specific heat ratio Normal butane Pressure Plate fin heat exchanger Propane precooled mixed refrigerant cascade Heat transferred condenser Heat transferred evaporator Universal gas constant Revolution per minute Entropy Standard cubic feet Single mixed refrigerant process Spiral wound heat exchanger Temperature Temperature of the cold side (absolute) Temperature of the warm side (absolute) Overall heat transfer coefficient .

Nomenclature W Wc Wt Z β βcarnot ΔP ΔTmin ηc Work Work of the compressor Work of the turbine Gas compressibility factor Coefficient of performance Coefficient of performance for carnot cycle Pressure drop Minimum temperature difference Isentropic efficiency compressor xxv .

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Hence for any new plant development. businesses. selection of the appropriate liquefaction technology and associated equipment is very influential in reducing cost and increasing project feasibility. for instance. In 2012 more than 85% of the worldwide primary energy consumption is being provided by fossil fuels. the worldwide demand for energy is increasing rapidly. and other daily life services. Driven by the earth’s population growth. compressors.) and multiple process definitions (i. this is one of the reasons behind that the use of natural gas has grown so much and is expected to grow even more in the future [3]. and the major costs in this area are related to compressors/drivers and heat exchangers [5. nowadays energy is required to power homes. and in the upcoming years it is expected to increase faster. transportation. the necessity to obtain energy in order to perform vital processes comes as a naturally given quality. However. to final consumers in gas transport pipelines. basically because it has less emissions of sulfur and carbon than. as each individual is born. Introduction From the early days of life. etc. temperature differences. especially due to the rapid developments of highly populated countries such as China and India [1]. industries. Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels. at remote locations or when the distance between the gas market and the source is long enough. and thereafter. liquefying the natural gas for transport has been widely implemented as a practical solution in the energy industry. the energy role in quotidian life has increased significantly.e.).e. pressure levels. coal or oil. as societies have developed. Nowadays.Introduction Chapter 1. The design of such liquefaction processes involves different selection of equipment (i. Only the liquefaction process represents between 40 and 57% of the total investment for the LNG value chain. 1 . etc. more than 30% of the worldwide gas trading is done via liquefied natural gas (LNG) [4]. heat exchangers. from which only the natural gas accounts for 24% [2]. 6]. and complex liquefaction processes are required in order to pass the gaseous natural gas to liquid. However. type of refrigerant. Most of this natural gas is transported from the wellhead to a processing plant.

Next. the simulation cases 2 . the feed gas composition.: equipment price. propane. A reliable comparison between the possible configurations will provide future projects with a clear idea of the differences. from the technical approach. during the last decade an important amount of work has been focused on the design and optimization of LNG processes. temperature and pressure are some of the factors that may influence the process energy consumption. The efficiency of the refrigeration compressors. in Chapter 3. in order to explore the advantages that each configuration may offer to the process and a LNG project in general. That kind of comparison can be misrepresentative because the design premises are not consistent from project to project. environmental.) is treated as confidential. an introduction to natural gas. liquefaction processes and thermodynamic definitions is given. Shukri (2004) and Ransbarger (2007) [810]. One of the main differences between the precooling stages of the existing processes is the use of mixed or pure components as refrigeration fluid. license fees. thermal efficiency and energy consumption per mass unit of LNG (e. the scope of this work will be based on the technical comparison of the different precooling arrangements of the known liquefied natural gas processes. such evaluations were made among others by Finn (2009). license or technical issues. such as the Dual Mixed Refrigerant and the Mixed Fluid Cascade process use mixed refrigerants for precooling.e. The technology choice for a new LNG project may depend on different criteria.g. the ambient temperature of the region.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Consequently. Most of the developed liquefaction processes include a first stage that is well known as precooling stage where the natural gas is cooled down to a temperature that. Since most of the economic evaluation data (i. and hence will ease selecting the appropriate technology. A theoretical background comes first in order to introduce the reader into the subject to be treated. kWh/kg LNG) are the only benchmarks used to compare the different LNG technologies without mentioning the conditions of the judgment. financial. varies from -30 to -50 ºC. in the precooling cycle [7]. etc. however recently developed processes. More than 85% of the currently installed trains use pure component refrigerant. for instance the selection may be influenced by economic. depending on the precooling technology. basically because in most of the previous work about selection. The advantages of using a mixed or pure component refrigerant in the precooling stage are not well understood.

Introduction studied in order to perform the evaluation are presented. together with a comprehensive analysis of their meaning for the purpose of this work. Finally Chapter 4 presents the results of the simulated configurations. The last chapters include conclusions reached and recommendations for further work. main parameters considered relevant for the reader are shown for each simulated case. 3 .

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00% Hydrogen Sulfide 0. butane (C4H10) and heavier hydrocarbons (C5+). Typical natural gas composition [11] In the worldwide energy industry natural gas plays a key role. global natural gas consumption is increasing as the total energy consumption 5 . Based on the type of gas (associated or non-associated) and the geographical ubication of the field. non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Theoretical Background While oil is a liquid and coal is a solid. Figure 2-1 shows a chart with typical raw natural gas composition.00% Carbon Dioxide 4. the gas can exist as a cap above the petroleum layer and (when the reservoir pressure is sufficiently high) dissolved in the oil [11].00% Otros 15.00% Methane 85. raw natural gas composition can vary widely. Pentane and heavier 1.Theoretical Background Chapter 2. odorless complex mixture of hydrocarbons with a heating value (i.50% Nitrogen 0.50% Ethane 5. the amount of heat produced by the combustion of a given quantity of fuel) that ranges from 900 to over 1200 BTU (British Thermal Unit) per scf (standard cubic feet) [12]. It is a colorless. hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitrogen (N2) may be present as well.00% Butane 1.. For the latter case.50% Figure 2-1.e. but it also contains ethane (C2H6). natural gas is originally found as a gaseous fossil fuel that occurs in the porous rock of the earth’s crust either alone (nonassociated natural gas) or with accumulations of petroleum (associated natural gas).50% Propane 2. As shown in Figure 2-2. The primary component is methane (CH4). propane (C3H8).

Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes
year after year; by 2010 natural gas recorded its highest historical share in the energy consumption providing about 24% of the total, and it is expected to increase further more in the next years particularly due to electric power generation developments [13].

Figure 2-2. Historical world energy consumption (Million tonnes oil equivalent) [2]

Electric power generation is one of the recently growing applications of natural gas; it has become an attractive alternative fuel for new power generation plants because it offers low capital costs and favorable thermal efficiencies, with lower levels of potentially harmful byproducts that are released into the atmosphere (e.g.: Carbon Dioxide CO2) [14]. Likewise natural gas is used extensively for heating in both residential and commercial sites, while for industrial purposes it is mainly used as process fuel and feedstock (petrochemical). As a result of its increasing worldwide demand and undeniable environmental benefits compared to other fossil fuels, natural gas transport has become an important issue for the global energy supply. Most natural gas is transported from the wellhead to a processing plant, and thereafter, to final consumers in gas transport pipelines. However, at remote locations or when the distance between the gas market and the source is long enough, liquefying the natural gas for transport has been a major industrial operation [12].

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Theoretical Background

2.1. Liquefied Natural Gas
Liquefied natural gas or usually referred to as LNG, is natural gas that has been processed and cooled down until condensation at atmospheric pressure (1 atm = 1,01325 bar). Since it is mainly composed by methane, natural gas bubble point temperature at atmospheric pressure lies around 104-110 K [14]; the bubble point temperature is defined as the state at a certain pressure in which the fluid is completely liquid and the first bubble of gas is formed. In comparison, one physical volume unit of LNG yields approximately 600 units of standard gas volume while it remains colorless, odorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic as in the gaseous phase. This enormous reduction in physical volume of liquefied natural gas (LNG) relative to gaseous natural gas reduces transportation costs; it is indeed the cornerstone of the liquified natural gas business since the energy volumetric density increases (more energy per volumetric unit) allowing its long distance transport by ships across oceans to markets where pipelines are neither economic nor feasible [3]. Figure 2-3 shows natural gas transportation cost for different alternatives, it is evident that for long distances LNG becomes an economically feasible choice. Nevertheless, transport as LNG is a complex task which implies development of different components of what is so called the LNG value chain; this value chain from the gas field to the eventual consumer will be discussed in the next section.
4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0 2000 Distance (Miles) 4000

$/MMBtu

Pipeline Onshore Pipeline Offshore LNG

Figure 2-3. Natural gas transportation cost. [15]

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Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes
An interesting concept under development is known as Floating LNG plants (FLNG) or also mentioned as “LNG FPSO” which stands for Floating Production, Storage and Offloading units for Liquified Natural Gas. It consists basically of ships with a LNG production plant on deck. The use of FLNG plants is expected to eliminate the transport of natural gas from well to plant (including transport of CO2 back to the well for storage, when applicable). This technology has been developing in the late years and it is seen as one of the most promising solutions to monetize and exploit gas fields with long distance to shore or low amount of gas initially in place [16].

2.2. LNG Value Chain
When trying to bring gas reserves to market, its necessary to do it through a chain of separate but linked stages; for the liquefied natural gas sector these are basically: upstream gas production, liquefaction, shipping, and regasification [17]. Each of these components (shown in Figure 2-4) has its own set of technological challenges and investment criteria, but each is linked to the others in the sense that no one component is a viable business investment without the others. A brief explanation of each of these stages is given below.

Figure 2-4. LNG value chain, main components. [14]

• Field production
In the early days, natural gas was often discovered as a less desirable byproduct of oil, but today’s exploration is increasingly aimed at the discovery of exportable gas reserves. The field exploration and production for liquefied natural gas projects are identical to traditional gas fields, with identical gas wells, wellheads, and field processing facilities [17]. As mentioned before, natural gas may be found also in crude oil fields (associated natural gas). 8

it is metered and transported by pipeline to the liquefaction plant. the LNG is loaded onto specially designed ships built around insulated cargo tanks. which can freeze or cause corrosion inside the heat exchangers [12]. depending on number of trains and location [18]. sulfur. Spherical and membrane tanks. it must be treated to remove carbon dioxide. sailing in regular service between the LNG supplier and one or more customers [20]. • Liquefaction After the gas leaves the upstream production facilities. they all perform a basic common task: first treating the gas to remove impurities and then liquefying it by cooling to around 104-110 K [19]. A terminal 9 . The liquefaction process is basically a complex refrigeration cycle (as will be explained later on) that consists of compressors (driven by steam or gas turbines. This stage may involve gas treatment to remove impurities or heavier hydrocarbons that can turn into liquid in the line between the field and the liquefaction plant. • Regasification LNG cargoes are discharged at regasification terminals (also called receiving or import terminals) that are located in the overseas customer’s country. Before the gas can be liquefied. creating additional revenue for the project [14]. There are a number of proprietary processes for natural gas liquefaction and even though each of the world’s large baseload liquefaction plants is unique in design. There are two basic types of cargo systems employed in the LNG fleet. condensate and LPG) are shipped and sold separately.. and heat exchangers. mercury. • Shipping After liquefaction and storage. this stage is the heart of any LNG project and it represents around 40-57 % of the LNG chain investment. Any heavier components removed in the plant (e. where heat from the incoming gas is transferred to the working fluid of the cycle. which in turn transfers heat to an outside coolant (air or water) [14].Theoretical Background Gas from a number of different fields may be combined prior to liquefaction. LNG ships historically were custom built for and dedicated to specific projects. heavy hydrocarbons and water.g. recently electrical motors).

two adiabatic processes alternated with two isothermal processes. LNG storage tanks. since it is the ideal refrigeration process with the best possible efficiency [23]. Quoting Moran and Shapiro [22] will ease the understanding of the term “reversibility”: 10 . Conventional household refrigerators and air-conditioners do so. consists mainly of four components in adition to the fluid pipes: compressor. Basic refrigeration cycle.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes consists of one or more docks. In order to introduce some important aspects related to refrigeration cycles.3. may be helpful to start with Carnot’s cycle. expansion valve and evaporator. based on a vapour compression cycle. Refrigeration Thermodynamics While heat in nature is transferred by itself from high to lower temperatures. condenser. 2. vapour compression cycle. Figure 2-5. A vapour compression cycle. and vaporization equipment to move the regasified LNG into the pipeline system [21]. A Carnot refrigeration cycle consists of 4 internally reversible processes. this type of cycles are the most common refrigeration systems in use nowadays [22]. each with a set of unloading arms. shown in Figure 2-5. the distinctive ability of a refrigeration cycle is that it can remove heat from an area with low temperature to one at higher temperature [22].

while Qo and Qc denote the heat transferred in the evaporator and condenser respectively. WT and WC represent turbine and compressor work respectively.1) By performing some analysis (may refer to [22]) it is possible to conclude that the value of this integral depends only of the end states. while the isothermal processes are condensation (2-3) and evaporation (4-1) of the working fluid. the adiabatic processes are compression (1-2) and expansion (3-4). Equation (2.2) may be used to determine the amount of heat transferred in either the condenser or the evaporator. which is widely known as entropy and is represented by the symbol S. Since the Carnot refrigeration cycle is made up of internally reversible processes. the quoted statement is represented by Equation (2. hence it represents the change in a system property.Theoretical Background “A process is called irreversible if the system and all parts of its surroundings cannot be exactly restored to their respective initial states after the process has occurred. it also can be easily noticed that both compression and expansion represent what is so called an “isentropic” process 11 .1). Equation (2.2) 𝑟𝑒𝑣 Once given the definition of entropy it is possible to introduce the Carnot refrigeration cycle in detail. In this equation ∂Q represents the heat transfer at part of the system boundary (subscript “b”) and T is given by the absolute temperature at that part of the boundary. A process is reversible if both the system and surroundings can be returned to their initial state” Mathematically. where the equality applies when there are no internal irreversibilities as the system executes the cycle and the inequality when internal irreversibilities do exist. 𝜕𝑄 � ≤0 𝑇 𝑏 �� (2. As mentioned before. see Figure 2-6. 𝜕𝑄 � 𝑇 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑑𝑆 = � (2.2) denotes the definition of entropy change in a differential basis.

12 . while the net work represents the difference between the compressor work (Wc) and the turbine work (WT). Carnot cycle. Where the net heat transfer is the difference between the heat rejected (Qc) and the heat added to the system (Qo). 0 = 𝜕𝑄 − 𝜕𝑊 (2.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes (adiabatic and reversible). based on the fact the system is returned to its initial state (closed cycle) [22]. Figure 2-6.2). while the total work of the cycle is obtained by introducing an energy balance derived from the first law of thermodynamics (Equation (2. Heat tranfer represented in T-s diagram. which means that the entropy of the system remains constant during the process execution. Figure 2-7.3) The net heat transfer that takes place during the cycle equals the net work done on the system. Carnot refrigeration cycle Figure 2-7 shows the representation of the heat transfer calculated from Equation (2.3)).

where Q denotes the heat transfer rate through the exchanger (evaporator or condenser). 13 . U represents the overall heat transfer coefficient. in which ΔTx and ΔTx+Δx is the temperature difference between the interacting media at two arbitrary (but different) physical locations across the heat exchanger [24]. and in this work will be represented by the Greek letter β.5) Carnot’s coefficient of performance (βCarnot) represents the maximum theoretical β that could be obtained since reversible processes are not possible in reality [22]. This equation corresponds to the maximum theoretical coefficient of performance of any refrigeration cycle operating between regions at constant temperatures Tc and TH [23]. 𝑄𝑜 𝑊 𝛽 = (2.4) [22].5). and it’s represented in Equations (2. A is the surface area for heat transfer. see Equation (2. To understand this difference an extension of Newton’s law of cooling must be introduced. One of the most remarkable differences between the Carnot refrigeration cycle and a practical applicable one is the heat transfer between the system fluid and both the cold (TC) and hot region (TH). (𝑠𝑎 − 𝑠𝑏 ) (𝑇𝐻 − 𝑇𝐶 ) 𝛽𝐶𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑡 = (2. 𝑄𝑜 𝑇𝑐. and ΔTlm represents the logarithmic mean temperature difference (also known as LMTD). which leads to Equation (2.6) and (2. These equations are extensively used to perform heat exchanger analysis.7).4) For the Carnot cycle shown in Figure 2-6 the coefficient of performance can be computed by finding the areas represented in Figure 2-7 as Qo and W. (𝑠𝑎 − 𝑠𝑏 ) 𝑇𝑐 = = 𝑊 (𝑇𝐻 − 𝑇𝐶 ). the performance of refrigeration cycles can be described as the ratio of the amount of energy added to the system (known as “refrigeration effect”) to the net work input employed to achieve this effect. This relation is well known as coefficient of performance (COP).Theoretical Background Thermodynamically.

𝐴. a temperature difference between the regions (TH /TC) and the system fluid (condenser/evaporator) is required.7) it’s easily concluded that to achieve a rate of heat transfer in any real heat exchanger (HX). So as the area is increased. Cycle non-reversibilities.6) is also the relation between the area for heat transfer and the temperature difference in the HX. This limitation leads to a reduction in the coefficient of performance of the cycle. this relation defines a very important issue for the design stage since reducing the temperature difference (commonly known as temperature approach). heat transfer.6) and (2. Connected to the previous conclusion and mainly to equation (2. ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = (2.7) Figure 2-8. but 14 .Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 𝑄 = 𝑈. ∆𝑇𝑥 − ∆𝑇𝑥+∆𝑥 ∆𝑇𝑥 ln ∆𝑇𝑥+∆𝑥 (2.6) Based on equations (2. It is important to note that the mentioned cycle approaches the ideal (maximum COP) as the temperature difference approaches zero. see Figure 2-8 where the pink shaded area represents the cycle (for the same refrigeration effect) in which the required temperature difference is taken into account. operational costs are reduced (the maximum achievable COP is approached). but also means an increase in the surface area of the heat exchanger. doesn’t lead only to an increase in the coefficient of performance.

which is represented by the dashed line. the expansion process in the turbine (3-4) has to handle multiphase flow also. 15 . the working fluid in the compression process (may refer to Figure 2-6.Theoretical Background capital costs increase (HX size). which reduces the initial and maintenance expenses. It’s also important to notice that the system fluid may be superheated at the outlet of the evaporator (state 1 in the figure below) and subcooled downstream the condenser (state 3). so the turbine is normally substituted by a simple throttling valve. On the other hand. the resulting cycle will be the vapour-compression cycle introduced at the beginning of this section (Figure 2-5). Irreversibilities are introduced also in the compression process (1-2). which is generally avoided since the presence of liquid droplets can damage the compressor [26]. indicating that there is an economic optimum [25]. which has to be avoided as in the case of the compressor. In the expansion process the work produced by the turbine is relatively low compared to the required for the compressor. One may compare cycle 1-2-3-4-1 and cycle 1-2s-3-4-1 in order to visualize the effect of irreversible compression. As shown in the figure. Figure 2-9 illustrates the behavior exhibited by an actual vapour-compression refrigeration cycle. First.8). In actual systems the cycle is designed so the compressor has to handle only gaseous phase fluid. process 12) is a liquid-vapour mixture. there are two noteworthy features of Carnot’s refrigeration cycle that make it impractical for real application [22]. the heat tranfer irreversibilities are taken into account (temperature difference in HX). In addition to the heat transfer phenomena. which is usually accounted for by using the isentropic compression efficiency (ηC) given by equation (2.

cooling the fluid by means of an intercooler and compressing again to meet the final required pressure. 𝜂𝐶 = 𝑊̇𝐶 � 𝑚 ̇ � In order to reduce the effect of irreversible or non-isentropic compression a multiple stage compression system with intercooling might be used. 𝑊̇𝐶 � 𝑚 ̇ � 𝑠 (2. Care should be taken since the cooling process has to be carried out in the superheated region of the phase envelope. This idea is shown in Figure 2-10 and is done basically by compressing the gas to a certain intermediate pressure. Temperature vs entropy diagram. The outlined area in the figure represents the specific work reduction that can be achieved by means of a multistage compression with intercooling. actual vapour-compression cycle. crossing the two phase region damages the compressor because the inlet of the second stage will contain liquid.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Figure 2-9.8) 16 .

propane (C3H8). n-butane (n-C4H10) and ethylene (C2H4). ethane (C2H6). 2. respectively (may refer to Figure 2-8). whilst other refrigerants like carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) are used less frequently. In the case of refrigerants made out of a single 17 . multistage compression. As has been shown in the previous section. Refrigerants and Configurations In the cycles presented above.4. the required temperatures of the refrigerant in the evaporator and the condenser are mainly determined by the temperatures of the cold and warm sides. The working fluids used in refrigeration cycles are commonly known as refrigerants. Each refrigerant has its particular properties and the selection of the appropriate refrigerant for each application is of great importance in the design of any cycle. Natural gas liquefaction involves the use of mainly non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as methane (CH4).Theoretical Background Figure 2-10. a fluid was recurrently mentioned as the “working fluid” of the system. undergoing heat transfer. compression and expansion processes. Temperature vs entropy diagram.

Such alternative. First. Figure 2-11 shows the saturation pressure against temperature for the most commonly used LNG process refrigerants. LNG main refrigerants. And the most important conclusion is that the power consumption of a natural gas liquefaction process with barely methane is far from the minimum possible (ideal). which means that the process is actually a dense phase cooling. 18 . these temperatures will set a specific value for the high pressure (condenser) and low pressure sides of the cycle (evaporator). which for LNG has to be carried out around the temperature range between -165 °C and 30 °C. which implies a relatively small efficiency. Saturation pressure related to temperature. the condensation of the methane is carried out at supercritical conditions. for instance with methane (at 1. Two important ideas shall be derived from the figure below.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes component. Figure 2-11. From the figure above. this is shown with more detail in Figure 2-13 without accounting for compressor efficiency and expansion irreversibilities.13 bar) is illustrated in a T-s diagram. may see Figure 2-12. only methane (at pressures lower than 2 bar) and nitrogen seem to have the capacity to cover the entire LNG liquefaction process by means of a simple vapour compression cycle (Figure 2-5).

Two very well-known and widely applied solutions [27] are going to be discussed in this work. A multilevel refrigeration might be performed using the same refrigerant for each pressure level. simple vapour compression cycle for wide temperature cooling duty. in other words the coefficient of performance (β) is not high enough. which is known as a multistage cycle. Methane T-s diagram.Theoretical Background 600 Temperature (K) 500 400 300 200 100 0 60 80 Methane T-s Natural Gas Condenser Low pressure methane High pressure methane 100 120 140 160 Entropy (kJ/kg. such process is called a cascade cycle.K) Figure 2-12. Specific work. as in any other where the cooling task has to be performed over a wide temperature range. 19 . thus different solutions have to be considered. In this case. a simple refrigeration cycle does not complete the process efficiently. The principle of multilevel refrigeration is that the process is carried out at different pressure levels. or using a different refrigerant for each cycle. LNG liquefaction Figure 2-13. multilevel refrigeration and mixed refrigerant processes.

which means that for each cycle a different multistage compressor will be required. A comparison of the phase change at constant pressure between a single component and a mixed component refrigerant is shown in Figure 2-15. 20 . Multilevel refrigeration process. Notice that the figures below (2. Mixed refrigerants. The other alternative for achieving an efficient process is to use a mixed refrigerant as working fluid. delimited by the dew point and bubble point temperature of the mixture.K) Figure 2-14. the different refrigerants should not be mixed and therefore a compressor for each cycle will be required.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Whether the process is performed by one refrigerant or different ones for each stage. unlike single component fluids. In a cascade cycle each cycle can be designed as a multistage cycle.14-16) are illustrative and do not represent real values. these compressors are developed with one casing and several flow intakes in order to compress the same fluid from different intake pressures to a shared outlet pressure. T-s diagram When the process is a multistage cycle. 500 450 400 Temperature (K) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 60 80 100 120 140 160 Low pressure refrigerant (Multilevel) Natural Gas Condenser High pressure refrigerant Entropy (kJ/kg. go through isobaric phase change processes at gliding temperature. if the process is a cascade cycle. the illustration shows also the dew and bubble point location for a mixed refrigerant at a certain pressure. On the other hand. the idea is basically as depicted in Figure 2-14. a so-called multistage compressor is frequently used.

Theoretical Background

Figure 2-15. Phase change at constant pressure, propane and mixed refrigerant

Provided the right choice of compositions and pressures, a mixed refrigerant cycle can perform a natural gas liquefaction process as depicted in Figure 2-16. A very useful variation of the vapour compression cycle when using mixed refrigerants is the heat exchanger arrangement shown in Figure 2-17. It is a widely known configuration [27] where the compressed fluid exchanges heat with the expanded side in addition to the exchange with the external coolant in the condenser. Thus, the refrigerant is cooled down before being expanded; which means that a lower temperature is reached after the expansion device; the expense for such a benefit is an increase in the heat transfer area required for the process.

21

Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes

500 450 400 Temperature (K) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 60 80 100 120 140 160 Entropy (kJ/kg.K)
Figure 2-16. Mixed refrigerant refrigeration process, T-s diagram.

Natural Gas Condenser Low pressure mixed refrigerant High pressure mixed refrigerant

Figure 2-17. Heat exchanger arrangement for mixed refrigerant processes.

Based on the principles of refrigeration given above, the next section of this chapter will introduce briefly some of the most important natural gas liquefaction processes, with special focus on the processes to be studied in this work.

22

Theoretical Background

2.5. Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes.
In the early 1960’s the first large-scale LNG plant started operation in Arzew, Algeria. The developed liquefaction process for that plant was a cascade cycle, using three refrigerants: methane, ethylene and propane proposed by Technip/Pritchard [7]. Since that first step, LNG production has grown significantly; and for each new project, recently engineered solutions have been offered by the leading licensors in order to achieve more energy efficient and economically rentable plants. A natural gas liquefaction plant often consists of a number of parallel units, called trains, which can be considered as a standalone liquefaction cycle; this means that one process train can be shut down without affecting operations at adjacent trains. The use of multiple trains (2 or more) is due to the lack of capacity that a single train can offer. The capacity of a liquefaction train is primarily determined by the liquefaction process, the available size of the compressor and its driver, and the heat exchangers of the process. Figure 2-18 shows a historical train size development (in operation) with the detail of the installed technology proprietor; MMt/y indicates million tonnes per year or Megatonnes per annum (MTPA).

Figure 2-18. LNG train size growth and technology proprietary [28].

23

Within the cascade processes.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Whilst the single train capacity is an important factor due to the economies of scale. a mixed refrigerant process without precooling is one of the simplest processes available. this is basically due to the desire to satisfy niche markets and exploit stranded gas reserves. such as the propane precooled. licensors such as ConocoPhillips (previously Phillips). fuel economy and low emission processes. as described in Figure 2-19. liquefaction process selection was homogenous. it is expected to reach a top value since it has to be compatible with the size of the gas field. nevertheless in the last ten to fifteen years a considerable diversification has been the trend. Finally. mixed refrigerant process (C3MR) by APCI. an example of those that use a single component refrigerant is the ConocoPhillips Optimized Cascade®. Inc. It is important to note that recently small scale natural gas liquefaction processes are being developed in parallel to the large LNG trains. (APCI) was the dominant choice and is still the leading licensor as shown in Figure 2-18. upstream technology and LNG market needs [7]. As seen in Figure 2-18. especially due to the reduced plot area and operation instabilities that may be present [29]. whilst an example of a mixed refrigerant precooling is the Shell double mixed refrigerant (DMR) process. Shell and Linde/Statoil joined their technologies to the worldwide capacity. Air Products and Chemicals. patented by Black and Veatch. The idea of a LNG FPSO or floating LNG is also providing the researchers with new challenges in this area. developed by the Statoil and Linde LNG Technology alliance [30]. On the other hand. The main natural gas liquefaction processes can be broadly classified into two groups based on the liquefaction process used. 24 . Current technology innovation focuses therefore also on providing better efficiency. the mixed refrigerant processes with precooling can use a single component refrigerant in the precooling. during the first decades. A cascade process using mixed refrigerants is the well-known Mixed Fluid Cascade (MFC®). the Poly Refrigerant Integrated Cycle Operation (PRICO®) [31].

and the latter is well known for its reduced energy consumption and high efficiency due to the use of refrigerant mixtures in cascade [36]. two of the technologies mentioned are of particular importance. Liquefaction Process C3MR Process Optimized Cascade® SMR Process Classic Cascade MFC® Process DMR Process AP-X® Process Licensor APCI Phillips APCI Phillips Linde/Statoil Shell APCI Number of trains 69 9 4 1 1 3 6 % of Market 74. mixed refrigerant process (C3MR) and the mixed fluid cascade (MFC®). the propane precooled. SMR stands for Single Mixed Refrigerant process. Table 2-1. Classification of natural gas liquefaction processes Table 2-1 gives on the other hand a perspective of the number of trains that each process license has in operation by 2010 (for further details see [32]. The first represents the highest proportion of the world’s installed LNG production [28]. [34]).Theoretical Background Figure 2-19. 2010. A brief explanation of these technologies is given below from the 25 . Processes that use a precooling cycle account for 95.3 % 1. In the table.7 % 4. [33].5 % For the purpose of this work. and AP-X® represents APCI’s process that combines a C3MR process with a closed nitrogen expander cycle [35].2 % 9.7 % of the worldwide installed trains (89 out of 93). LNG trains by liquefaction process.2 % 6.1 % 3.1 % 1.

whilst the liquefaction-subcooling cycle is operated with a mixed refrigerant. mixed refrigerant process (C3MR). Propane precooled.1. a multistage refrigeration cycle is used at three or four pressure levels to exchange heat with the gas stream and the warm mixed refrigerant. at this pressure the propane stream undergoes heat exchange until 26 . A typical flow diagram of this process is depicted in Figure 2-20. The precooling cycle uses single component refrigerant. The fluid circulation in this cycle is provided by a multistage compressor (with side streams) that compresses the vapour propane from each of the pressure levels to a common outlet pressure. Process Flow Diagram In the precooling. Figure 2-20. the equipment features will be considered in the next subchapter.5. Propane Precooled. a precooling cycle and a liquefaction-subcooling cycle. Mixed Refrigerant Process (C3MR). This process consists of two main refrigeration cycles. 2. propane. cooling both streams down to around 238 K (-35 °C) [37].Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes process approach.

Theoretical Background

it becomes liquid in the condenser. Once condensed, the propane stream is throttled multiple times throughout the precooling heat exchanger network where it is vaporized again. In the liquefaction-subcooling cycle the rest of the process takes place; there the natural gas is further cooled down from 238 K to around 113 K (-160 °C) by the mixed refrigerant. The partially condensed mixed refrigerant from the precooling cycle is separated into vapour and liquid streams in a flash separator [38]. After that point both streams flow into the main cryogenic (multistream) heat exchanger, where the liquid stream is extracted in the first section/bundle and is expanded to be recirculated on the shell side. The gas stream goes all the way through both sections/bundles and at the top is throttled and recirculated on the shell side in the same way. Inside the heat exchanger the streams are mixed again and vaporized prior to the compression process, which can be carried out with more than one compressor, for instance a two or three compressor arrangement with intercooling [38].

2.5.2. Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (MFC®)
Three mixed refrigerants are used in this process in order to perform the precooling, liquefaction and subcooling duties. In this process the heat exchanger arrangement discussed before (may refer to Figure 2-17) is used for the three main cycles, and therefore multistream heat exchangers are required for each circuit. The precooling cycle cools down the natural gas stream as well as both the liquefaction and subcooling refrigerant to around 223 K (-50 °C). The liquefaction cycle is responsible for cooling both the natural gas stream and the subcooling stage mixed refrigerant. Figure 2-21 is the process flow diagram for the MFC®, the process described may be easier to follow with help of the diagram. The precooling cycle works as a multistage process since part of the refrigerant is throttled to an intermediate pressure, and used as the cold side in the first multistream heat exchanger. The rest is further subcooled in the second heat exchanger, to be expanded subsequently by means of a throttling valve. Once expanded it is used as the cold side in the second heat exchanger. Through both heat exchangers the precooling mixed refrigerant vaporizes while cooling the warm side streams; 27

Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes
after vaporization the streams are compressed to be liquefied in the precooling condenser. After the precooling process, the liquefaction mixed refrigerant is further cooled down by its own cold (throttled) side. The throttled stream works as the cold side in the liquefaction heat exchanger, where it vaporizes while the warm side streams are cooled. Once vaporized, the refrigerant is compressed in the liquefaction compressor; to be cooled afterwards by the liquefaction cooler. Downstream the condenser, the liquefaction mixed refrigerant goes back to the precooling cycle.

Figure 2-21. Mixed Fluid Cascade (MFC®). Process Flow Diagram.

Finally the subcooling mixed refrigerant, which has gone through the precooling, and liquefaction stage, enters the subcooling heat exchanger. In the same way as in the previous cycles, the throttled side vaporizes while the warm side streams (only natural gas stream and subcooling refrigerant) cool down. Downstream the subcooling heat exchanger, the refrigerant is compressed by the subcooling compressor and cooled down by the cooler of the subcooling stage. Then it goes 28

Theoretical Background

back to the precooling and liquefaction stages. It is important to note that for all the cycles more than one compressor (and intercoolers) may be required [39].

2.6. LNG Process Equipment
Besides the multiple process definitions mentioned previously (i.e. type of refrigerant, pressure levels, temperature difference, number of cycles, etc.), natural gas liquefaction technologies involve selection of different equipment for the cycle operation. The liquefaction process equipment and installation can represent between 30 and 57% of the total investment in a LNG value chain, and the major costs in this area are related to compressors/drivers and heat exchangers [5, 10]. This section will give a brief explanation of the main equipment used in LNG processes, addressing the main differences between the existing technologies.

2.6.1. Heat Exchangers
The type of heat exchanger used depends on the selected type of refrigerant. A pure component refrigerant, for instance propane, can be vaporized efficiently in kettle-type heat exchangers. On the other hand, if a mixed refrigerant is used, a multistream heat exchanger is required. Two main types of multistream heat exchangers are widely used in the LNG industry; these are spiral (or coil) wound heat exchangers (SWHE) and plate fin (also known as brazed aluminum) heat exchangers (PFHE). The main differences between these two technologies are described in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2. Differences between plate fin and coil wound heat exchangers [40] Plate-fin Main features Extremely compact Up to approx. 10 streams Very clean Non-corrosive 300-1000 m2/m3 Coil-wound Extremely robust Compact

Fluid requirements Heating surface density

No significant restrictions 50-100 m2/m3

29

Since the precooling cycle of the C3MR process uses propane as refrigerant. nevertheless it contains up to 10 times more heat transfer area per unit volume than a shell-tube unit [41]. one with a tube bundle into a shell (tube-shell kettle) and one with a plate fin heat exchanger submerged in the evaporation fluid (block-in-kettle). Kettle-type heat exchanger diagram 30 . Two types of these heat exchangers are used in the LNG industry. the unit in the right hand side is a spiral wound heat exchanger while the left hand side heat exchanger (smaller) is a plate-fin unit. Carbon Steel -269 °C to +65 °C All Applications Prices Smooth operation Limited installation space 25-35 % High temperature gradients High temperature differences 100 % Figure 2-23 shows a picture of two units installed for the same performance. A kettle heat exchanger refers basically to a unit in which the shell side stream is separated while the vaporization occurs. Stainless Steel. Figure 2-22.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Plate-fin Coil-wound Equipment material Design temperatures Aluminum Aluminum. an example of the process is given in Figure 2-22. The block-in-kettle heat exchanger represents a greater investment. kettletype heat exchangers are used in this section.

6. the main parameters studied for the selection are typically the same [10]. hence plate-fin heat exchangers are chosen for the precooling circuit and coil-wound heat exchangers for the liquefaction and subcooling cycles [43]. hence both of them might be in the y-axis of the compressor map.9). Power requirement. Compressors Each process requires specific treatment concerning cycle compressor selection.8)) are the most important ones. an illustration of such map is shown in Figure 2-24. pressure ratio. volumetric flow of the suction stream and the efficiency of the compressor (Equation (2. In the MFC® process all the process heat exchangers are multistream-type. According to the process licensor.5 and 5. For a specific compressor working with a given fluid the supplier provides a so-called compressor performance curve or compressor map in which the relation between the different operational parameters is given.Pressure ratio and polytropic head are related through equation (2. and the preferred choice is the coil-wound due to its robustness compared to the plate-fin heat exchangers [42]. The highest efficiencies are usually achieved for pressure ratios between 2.Theoretical Background In contrast. Compactness of spiral wound heat exchanger versus plate fin heat exchanger [40] 2. however.2. 31 .0 [44]. the main cryogenic heat exchanger in the C3MR process is a multistream heat exchanger. Figure 2-23. a detailed comparison may demonstrate that each multistream heat exchanger type has specific merits when it is placed at the proper place.

Technical specifications of LNG compressors [45] Model RPM Flow (m3/h) 200000 380000 200000 380000 Side Streams Maximum Power (MW) 120 LNG Duty 3MCL1800 2200 3600 2200 3600 1-3 Propane Precooling Methane and mixed refrigerant subcooling. Compressor map illustration 𝑛−1 𝑛 𝑛 𝑍. This is important to take into account when developing a new project in order to remain within the design limits of proven solutions. 𝑀 𝑃1 − 1� (2. MCL1800 - 120 32 . Table 2-3. 𝑅. 𝑇 𝑃2 �� � 𝐻𝑝 = 𝑛 − 1 𝑔.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Figure 2-24. and for the purpose of this work to know the limitations of the equipment capacity. Ehtylene and mixed refrigerant liquefaction.9) The larger used models of compressors and their respective technical specifications are shown in Table 2-3.

large equipment and required cooling system have led to their displacement by gas turbines. Table 2-4. However.30 % 33. providing a designer the ability to develop the process over wide ranges of power and speed.00 % 34. Compressor Drivers The choice of drivers and their fit with the process and power generation system is considered the critical stage of the selection process in LNG projects [19].36 44. low efficiency.58 43. for the most part.1 Efficiency 41. recent developments are showing high interest in using electrical motors to drive the refrigerant compressors. by the driver of the process (and its respective compressor) [10].53 87.60 % Year startup < 1989 < 1989 1989 1995 1996 2007 Even though gas turbines are the most common drivers for existing LNG plants. Developments in gas turbines have been in pace with the growth in single train capacity.60 % 29. as done by first time at the LNG plant in Hammerfest –Norway [39]. Gas turbine performance specifications [45] Model LM2500+ LM6000 Frame 5D Frame 6B Frame 7E Frame 9E Power (MW) 31. The reason behind this tendency is the increase in plant availability (larger production per year) that can be achieved since the performance of electrical motors is controlled almost stepless during operation whilst for gas turbines it depends on the fuel and air conditions.3 130. basically because the train size limitation has been set.7 32. The power to supply the 33 .10 % 42. An overview of the most commonly used gas turbines specifications is given in Table 2-4.Theoretical Background 2.3. For the first LNG plants the compressors were driven by steam turbines.40 % 33.6.

Production Stable Varying daily. Cooling medium differences.4.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes electrical motors may be obtained from the national power grid (if available) or generated by a power plant on site. air cooled condensers account for the rest [46]. seawater versus air [46] Seawater Air Reliability Depends on proper Depends on environmental material selection (Fouling. Water cooled heat exchangers are designed for a temperature difference between the seawater and the refrigerant of around 5 °C. conditions. More than 70% of the installed LNG trains use seawater as cooling medium. Cooling medium The cooling medium of an LNG plant refers to the cold side fluid in the refrigerant condensers.6. Affected by weather conditions Limitations in amount of processesed seawater to be Environmental returned. corrosion). No cleaning required. marine life safety Not important. whilst in air cooled heat exchangers the difference is between 10 and 20 °C [48]. 34 . either by direct or indirect cooling. 2. The main differences between seawater and air condenser are given in Table 2-5. Good. Maintenance Periodic cleaning required. due to the temperature difference that can be achieved between the streams [47]. High noise level An air cooled plant usually gives a higher specific power than seawater cooled. Table 2-5. Continuos self-cleaning systems also available. Discharge temperature restricted. Good.

Simulation Cases Chapter 3. HYSYS® flowsheets of each of the processes described in this chapter may be found in Appendix A. By selecting this model the heating curves are divided into intervals. a general purpose sequential modular process simulator was selected as the simulation software because it has features that accommodate many of the special requirements that are involved in natural gas liquefaction processes [27]. approximations and the path followed to build the processes into the simulation environment will be given.1. A logarithmic mean temperature 35 . since the software developer states that it represents an excellent model to deal with non-linear heat curve problems such as the phase change of fluids [50]. Simulation Cases This chapter will introduce the definitions and parameters used during the simulation work. Explanation of estimations. a stand-alone simple refrigeration cycle is implemented first. A Weighted model is chosen as the heat exchanger calculation method. Aspen HYSYS®. which is the reported minimum temperature that can be achieved with a propane precooling in order to avoid the risk of air entering the system [38]. The variables to be evaluated in this case are: - Power of the compressor Heat exchanger UA value Suction volume of the compressor Pressure ratio in the compressor The thermodynamic fluid package of Peng-Robinson ([49]) was used as the basis of the simulation. Stand-alone precooling cycles In order to study the precooling stage of LNG processes in detail. see Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2. The idea is to study the difference given by the use of a mixed refrigerant (made out of Ethane C2 and Propane C3) or a pure component refrigerant (only C2 or C3) in a simple cycle for precooling natural gas to 237 K (-36 °C). and an energy balance is performed for each interval. 3.

Pressure drop through the equipment is not taken into account.7 5. the expansion pressure is determined by the minimum temperature difference that is set in the heat exchanger definition.1 2.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes difference (LMTD) and UA value (Equation (2. Natural gas composition Component Methane (C1) Ethane (C2) Propane (C3) n-Butane (n-C4) Nitrogen (N2) Fraction (%) 89. On the other hand.9 36 . which is set to 30 °C (assuming a relatively warm climate of 25 °C) [51]. Figure 3-1. The pressure after the compressor is calculated as the required for the refrigerant to be condensed at the condenser outlet temperature. Simple refrigeration cycle configuration for mixed refrigerant Table 3-1 shows the natural gas composition used for the simulation while other parameters set for this study case are shown in Table 3-2. Table 3-1.7)) is calculated for each interval and the total UA is found by the sum of the values of the intervals.5 1.6) and (2. Simple refrigeration cycle configuration for pure component refrigerant Figure 3-2.8 0.

Simulation Cases Table 3-2. Since a two stage cycle is used. this is exemplified in Figure 3-4. depending on the temperature difference set in the heat exchanger. the study is built with an important modification. An illustrative sketch of the process flow diagram for this modified case is shown in Figure 3-3. the compressor is replaced by a two stage compression with intercooling. a new degree of freedom is introduced to the system and it is represented by the temperature of the natural gas between the first and the second stage of the cycle. the cooling duty is taken by a two stage cycle. this is done in order to see mainly the improvements achieved in the energy consumption of the process and the pressure ratio. which will determine the pressure level of the refrigerant in the first cycle. 37 . since the other factors (UA and suction volume) will remain unaltered. Figure 3-3. Simple refrigeration cycle using two stage compression with intercooling Furthermore. simple refrigeration cycle Parameter Natural Gas Inlet Temperature Pressure Flowrate Adiabatic efficiency compressors Value 30 °C 40 bar 60000 kmol/h 75 % 30 °C 5 °C 1 °C Cycle Temperature after condenser parameters ΔTMIN condenser ΔTMIN heat exchanger Once the simulation for the simple cycle is done. Parameters for simulation.

The study was made by evaluating the same parameters mentioned above but varying the first two pressure levels. 38 . the third stage pressure is fixed by the natural gas outlet temperature and the temperature difference in the heat exchanger. Three stage cycle using kettle type heat exchangers with propane Since the heat exchangers available in the simulation software do not include kettle-type heat exchangers. The last case for this section is a three stage cycle using propane as refrigerant. these were simulated using tube-shell heat exchangers with a flash separator at the shell side outlet. basically due to complexity and equipment cost [52]. In this study the composition of the refrigerant is kept constant (pure C3) since a three stage mixed refrigerant is unlikely to be implemented in LNG processes. Figure 3-5.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Figure 3-4. this is depicted in Figure 3-5. Two stage refrigeration cycle. an illustrative example of this setup is shown in Figure 3-6. which are determined by the natural gas outlet temperature from each stage.

All these cases use the same heat load. Variation of the refrigerant composition. Variation of the refrigerant (C2 and C3) composition. Variation of the first and second stage pressures (temperature of natural gas after each stage). A colder climate condition is also taken into account. Variation of the refrigerant composition and the first stage pressure (temperature of natural gas between two stages).Simulation Cases Figure 3-6. • Simple refrigeration cycle using two stage compression with intercooling. Kettle type heat exchanger implemented in HYSYS® As a summary the cases studied in the stand-alone section and described above are: • Simple refrigeration cycle. for that condition the temperatures at the condenser outlet and the natural gas inlet are assumed to be 11 °C based on an ambient temperature of 6 °C. • Three stage refrigeration cycle using kettle-type heat exchangers with propane. since the natural gas enters at the same conditions (Table 3-2) and is cooled from 30 °C to -36 °C. 39 . All the procedure described above is repeated for this cold climate condition. • Two stage refrigeration cycle.

40 . so the recycle streams are sequentially solved until the assumed values of the auxiliary stream match the calculated ones within a specified tolerance [50]. the effects on the whole liquefaction cycle performance are studied by implementing the most suitable conditions of each different configuration into a C3MR process (Figure 2-20). otherwise the clarity of the results for the precooling circuit might be affected. pressure drop across equipment is taken into account and is shown in Table 3-3 along with other parameters of the simulation. Notice that not necessarily the best conditions in the stand-alone cycle represent the most suitable ones for the whole liquefaction process.2. However. and function at least as starting point for finding the desired conditions.2). Three recycle units are required at appropriate points with their respective estimated values because HYSYS® calculates unit operations subsequently. It is important to notice that setting up parameters in the rest of the process is not the goal of this work and therefore it is avoided. the main cryogenic heat exchanger bundles are modeled as separate LNG-type heat exchangers. especially because the heating curves are altered by the flow of additional streams in the warm side. In order to implement the C3MR process. UA value. Since the aim is to study the precooling cycle. these parameters ordered by relevance are: power consumption. A three compressor arrangement with intercooling is implemented as the mixed refrigerant compression system. which means that the three stage propane precooling circuit of the C3MR process is replaced by the configurations given in Section 3.1. For this section the natural gas inlet conditions are kept as given above (Table 3-1 and 3. Most suitable refers to the conditions that represent the clearest benefit in terms of the studied parameters for each case. the mixed refrigerant composition (Table 3-4) is taken from a C3MR process optimized previously under the same conditions used in this work (may find [53]).Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 3. Application of the different configurations to the C3MR process Based on the simulations done in the previous section. suction volume and pressure ratio of the compressor. the values found from the stand-alone cycle give a fairly close approach to the most suitable condition in the entire liquefaction process.

0 2. EX KETTLE shell side ΔPH.5 bar 1 °C 5 bar 0.0 8. C3MR case Parameter ΔTMIN Heat Exchanger Precooling Cycle ΔPH. EX KETTLE tube side ΔPH.5 bar 0.00 kmol/h 5. Mixed refrigerant composition for C3MR cycle Component Methane (C1) Ethane (C2) Propane (C3) n-Butane (n-C4) Nitrogen (N2) Fraction (%) 45.1 bar 5 bar 0. Main parameters for simulation. EX MULTISTREAM hot side ΔPH.0 Table 3-5.Simulation Cases The pressures of the mixed refrigerant after expansion and in the compression train are chosen based on the reported values for the optimal process [53]. these may be found in Table 3-4 and Table 3-5. as well as the mixed refrigerant flowrate.8 bar 48.9 bar 33.1 bar -154. Table 3-3. Mixed refrigerant circuit parameters Parameter Flowrate PEXPANSION PFIRST STAGE PSECOND STAGE PTHIRD STAGE Value 117100.5 bar 0.0 45. EX MULTISTREAM cold side Mixed Refrigerant Cycle Cycle Parameters ΔTMIN Heat Exchanger ΔPHEAT EXCHANGER hot side ΔPHEAT EXCHANGER cold side ΔPCONDENSER Temperature natural gas outlet Value 1 °C 0.0 bar 41 .4 bar 22.5 °C Table 3-4.

This will represent undesirable variables to enter the evaluation. the addition of n-Butane (n-C4) to the refrigerant mixture is taken into account for this study. comparison between this work and Venkatarathnam’s Fraction (%) Component Methane (C1) Ethane (C2) Propane (C3) n-Butane (n-C4) i-Butane (i-C4) Nitrogen (N2) This work 89.5 5. Natural gas composition. This difference in the composition might affect the optimality of the composition used. The temperature range for the precooling in the optimized process is the same used for the warm climate condition. This is made with particular interest for the warm climate case. the mixed refrigerant composition is selected from a tabular data series with optimized values for a dual mixed refrigerant process reported by Venkatarathnam [58].1 0. as can be seen in Figure 2-11. Table 3-6. from 30 to -36 °C.5 0.8 0. The optimization of the refrigeration process with ternary mixtures is a challenging task and many publications have been based on it. nonetheless there is a difference in the natural gas composition as shown in Table 3-6. but it disturbs the equilibrium in the separator.4 4 42 . a modification could be done. and dealing with complex optimization schemes is beyond the scope. Since the aim of this work is the evaluation.5 1. so the refrigerant composition has to be changed. the temperature range indicates that n-C4 might be a suitable component for the mixture. since.1 2. such as the referenced in [55-58].7 5.5 2. but not the validity of the evaluation and comparison.9 Venkatarathnam 87.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes The cold climate condition is implemented using the same mixed refrigerant cycle parameters. and previous work has shown that the variation is not significant for the liquefaction/subcooling cycle as compared with the precooling [54]. Besides the cases based on the stand-alone cycles.

The cold climate condition is also considered in this section. Mixed refrigerant precooling temperature relocation One of the advantages of using a mixed refrigerant in the precooling cycle is that the restriction of the minimum temperature to be reached is relocated. In order to study this alternative. a stand-alone two stage cycle for precooling the natural gas stream (defined in Table 3-1 and Table 3-2) to -50 °C is simulated.Simulation Cases 3.3 the process reaches a different temperature than all the previously studied cases. 3. then the minimum value moves to a lower temperature and vice versa. this cycle is not equally 43 . notice that with pure propane this temperature is -36 °C. Application of the different configurations to the MFC® process Since in the study introduced on Section 3. as mentioned before.5 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 3-7. composition variation Temperatrue (°C) Precooling Minimum 1 In the cases described on the previous sections of this chapter the precooling cycle is limited to -36 °C. 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 0 0. If the component added to the mixture is lighter than the present one. based on a binary mixture of C2 and C3. Minimum temperature to be reached in the precooling. which means that the mentioned benefit provided by the mixed refrigerant is not taken into account.3.4. Figure 3-7 shows the minimum temperature that can be reached for different compositions of the refrigerant.

99 82.02 52. MFC® process liquefaction and subcooling cycle parameters Parameter Flowrate PEXPANSION PFIRST STAGE PSECOND STAGE Liquefaction Value 30000 kmol/h 2.75 2. see Figure 2-21. The natural gas inlet conditions for this case are different than the previously described in order to fit the optimized process parameters. Data from an optimization work [60] on the MFC® process is used for the liquefaction and subcooling circuit in this simulation. the values are shown in Table 3-7 and Table 3-8. nevertheless. Table 3-7.45 13. see Table 3-9 and Table 3-10. this process fits the required purpose of the simulation because its precooling cycle cools the streams down to approximately -50 °C [59]. MFC® process liquefaction and subcooling refrigerant composition Component Methane (C1) Ethane (C2) Propane (C3) Nitrogen (N2) Liquefaction Subcooling Fraction (%) Fraction (%) 4.80 5.70 2.58 bar Subcooling Value 37620 kmol/h 2.02 4.99 bar Table 3-9. the same natural gas flowrate is used.55 Table 3-8. MFC® process simulation Component Methane (C1) Ethane (C2) Propane (C3) Nitrogen (N2) Fraction (%) 88.0 bar 20.96 42.75 44 .Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes comparable with the formerly described ones.38 bar 56.0 bar 28. In order to study the effects of such cycle a Mixed Fluid Cascade (MFC®) process is implemented. Natural gas composition.

in contrast with the C3MR cases. Temperature difference.00 45 . therefore no modifications are introduced on the rest of the process when the climate condition is switched. MFC® with propane precooling Component Methane (C1) Ethane (C2) Propane (C3) Fraction (%) 11.00 57. MFC® process simulation Parameter Temperature Pressure Flowrate Value 11/30 °C 61. the mixed refrigerant precooling of the MFC® is replaced by a three stage propane cycle. Liquefaction refrigerant composition. propane and mixed refrigarant precooling The redefined liquefaction cycle parameters for the propane precooled MFC® process are given in Table 3-11 and Table 3-12. the evaluation is meant to be focused on the precooling cycle. see Figure 3-8. while the subcooling cycle keeps the same parameters given in Table 3-8 and 3.5 bar 60000 kmol/h The evaluation is made based on a modification in the precooling cycle of the MFC® process.Simulation Cases Table 3-10.00 32. Figure 3-8. Natural gas inlet conditions.7. Table 3-11. As for the C3MR processes. Care should be taken in this particular scenario because the liquefaction cycle parameters have to be redefined in order to cover the gap of temperatures left due to the restriction in temperature for pure propane.

3 bar 46 .Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Table 3-12.2 bar 21. Liquefaction cycle pressures. MFC® with propane precooling Parameter Flowrate PEXPANSION PCOMPRESSION Value 36600 kmol/h 2.

following the structure introduced in the previous chapter. Stand-alone precooling cycles 4. the values shown are the best values found for each composition.35 MW 34.Results and Discussion Chapter 4. It is divided in sections.1. 47 . while for the cold climate it is found where the ethane composition is around 0. The refrigerant composition is switched from pure propane (C3) to pure ethane (C2) passing through all the possible binary mixture combinations with C2 and C3. As mentioned in Chapter 3. For the natural gas stream being cooled until -36 °C.1. one under warm and one under cold climate conditions. An analysis of the results and discussion is given as the results are presented. the minimum duty is found by using a mixture which is 20% ethane and 80% propane for the warm conditions.3. Results and Discussion In this chapter the main results obtained through the simulations are presented. It is important to notice that for each composition there is more than one condition that can fit the constraints. Table 4-1.54 % 100 % Figure 4-1 shows the value of the compressor duty in Megawatts (MW) for different compositions of refrigerant. the difference in the heat load between the two cases is calculated and shown in Table 4-1. the theoretical background given in Chapter 2 and the simulation procedure from Chapter 3 are of great importance for the development of this chapter and consequently both will be frequently mentioned. 4. two cases are considered. Simple refrigeration cycle The simple refrigeration cycle is the first of the cases to be studied in this section. warm vs cold climate condition Heat load Warm climate Cold climate 48. Heat load comparison. the whole detailed study results are presented in Appendix B.1.90 MW Difference 138.

The large duty for warm climate when using pure ethane is because the temperature range is very distant from the saturation temperature of ethane (see Figure 2-11). The duty for the warm climate case is (in the most favourable comparison) 215 % of the cold climate duty. The cold climate case indeed has a higher coefficient of performance for any composition of a C2/C3 mixture. and 12. the values are shown in Figure 4-2.4). and for the pure component cases. When comparing this with the values given in Table 4-1 for the heat load. Compressor duty with variation of the refrigerant composition for simple cycle Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) A noteworthy aspect about the figure above is that using a pure propane refrigerant (C2 composition equal to zero) gives a compressor duty 9.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-1.7 % higher than the minimum for the warm climate conditions.2 0. In order to compare the performance of the refrigeration cycles. the coefficient of performance (β) is calculated using Equation (2.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 50 45 Compressor Duty (MW 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.6 0. the performance of the warm climate cycle seems to be in disadvantage. 48 .4 0. which means that the temperature difference between the streams is far from ideal (large heat exchange losses).7 % higher than the minimum for the cold case.

4 0. Heat exchanger UA with variation of the refrigerant composition for simple cycle 49 . As mentioned in Chapter 2.5 3 2.6 0. mainly because there is an additional stream flowing through the heat exchanger. Coefficient of performance with variation of refrigerant composition for simple cycle Another important parameter to take into account is the UA value in the heat exchanger. As expected. UA Heat Exchanger (kJ/°C.5 1 0.4 0.2 0.h) 25000000 20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 0 Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) 0.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-3. the UA value is linked with the capital cost of this equipment and also gives a clue of the plot area required.5 2 1.5 0 0 0. Figure 4-3 shows the value for the UA parameter in kilojoule (kJ) per degree Celsius (°C) per hour (h) for different refrigerant compositions.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-2.2 Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) 0. the mixed refrigerant requires a higher value when compared to the pure refrigerant (C2 composition equal zero and one).6 0.Results and Discussion Coefficient of performance β (-) 4 3. compare Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2.

as shown in Figure 4-5. for instance moving from pure propane to a mixture which is 20% ethane represents an increase of 74% in the UA value and only 9. with a slight reduction for the cold climate. This is made by plotting both variables for the warm condition. mixture 0. this reduction is believed to be due to the reduction in heat load while the temperature difference through the heat exchanger does not increase significantly to compensate.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes The extra stream flowing in the heat exchanger will increase the amount of heat transferred whilst the LMTD does not change significantly (Equations (2. see Figure 4-4 where the temperature profiles are shown for the case at 30% ethane/70% propane. The influence of using a mixed refrigerant is reproduced in the UA value much more than in the compressor power.6) and (2. Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-1 respectively. 50 .3 C2/0.7 % reduction in the compressor duty. Temperature profile across the heat exchanger.7)). in the same frame.7 C3 Left figure: warm climate. 40 30 20 Temperature (°C) 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 Heat transferred (MW) Heat transferred (MW) Cold side Hot side Cold side Hot side Figure 4-4. For both conditions (cold and warm climate) the exhibited behavior is mainly the same. which represents a rise in the UA value. Right figure: cold climate It is essential to compare the behavior of the UA value with the compressor duty.

h) Besides its energy consumption. for instance a pure propane cycle requires a volumetric flow twice as large as a mixed refrigerant with 20% ethane. The inlet pressure is determined as the dew point at the natural gas outlet temperature plus temperature difference in the heat exchanger (approx. -37 °C). The volumetric flow for different compositions is presented in Figure 4-6. the compressor is studied by evaluating the volumetric flow in the suction side and the pressure ratio required.6 for further details. simple cycle at warm condition .6 0. refer to section 2. for pure component fluids dew point and bubble point represent the same value and is known as saturation point. whilst the outlet pressure is given by the bubble point pressure at the temperature in the condenser (11 °C or 30 °C).4 0.2 0. Compressor duty and UA value behavior comparison.Results and Discussion 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) 25000000 20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 UA Heat Exchanger (kJ/°C. Both climate conditions give the same trend. As ethane is added to pure propane (increasing C2 composition) the pressure ratio is reduced because the saturation pressure for ethane is higher than for propane at 51 Compressor Duty (MW) Figure 4-5. The pressure ratio (outlet/inlet) is plotted in Figure 4-7 for different refrigerant compositions. using a mixed refrigerant benefits the suction volume when adding a lighter component. as mentioned in Chapter 2 these parameters are of great importance for the compressor performance and design limitations.

Compressor pressure ratio with variation of the refrigerant composition for simple cycle 52 .8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-6.4 0.6 0. Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 0.2 0.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes any chosen temperature (Figure 2-11) and a higher value in the divisor will lead to a smaller quotient.6 Ethane C2 composition (-) Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) Pressure Ratio (-) 0.8 1 Figure 4-7. The behavior of the curve is analogous for the warm and cold condition.2 0.4 0. Compressor suction volume with variation of the refrigerant composition for simple cycle Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.

99 5.30 0.77 11.84 38.17 2. Table 4-2.70 20449780.72 23.50 0. Summary for simple refrigeration cycle.00 Duty (MW) 47.23 10.70 0.74 5.64 45598.51 6.22 27.79 3.50 0.97 19018203.21 PCOMPRESSION (bar) 31.84 1.02 4.66 24.25 14.87 120716.40 0.63 5.63 23.25 4.00 Duty (MW) 14.46 143898.19 14497764.54 20095128.30 0.12 14.85 3.62 41300.51 6.88 22.33 70039.00 0.06 30.41 23.35 74154.18 11.32 Table 4-3.25 30.87 6.84 5.17 2.77 15256184.99 76288.89 11.90 0.75 PEXPANSION (bar) 8.14 23.70 3.00 230393.74 10.60 0.80 0.95 12.26 4.99 5.68 5.66 157422.27 63902.69 9.92 20101047.70 5.61 8.40 0.57 42.49 97395.55 3. (-) 1.32 12600265.60 0.20 0.88 4.58 85766.74 3.80 13.70 0.28 19812439.53 35930.Results and Discussion A tabular summary of the results presented in this section is given below.26 26.46 12.10 23.50 22787418.21 53 .85 7. cold climate condition C2 comp.85 3.54 PRATIO (-) 3.35 UA (kJ/°C.50 1.57 21754040. Table 4-2 shows the results for the warm condition and Table 4-3 for the cold climate condition.49 11.70 3.81 24.84 20755292.72 25.45 19609468.26 4.17 17.80 51723.54 6. Summary for simple refrigeration cycle.80 0.10 Vol.h) 17805699.55 3. flow (m3/h) 62853.60 65791.37 6.07 6.00 20981343. (-) 1.10 0.11 60525.51 38138.39 UA (kJ/°C. flow (m3/h) 33764.51 34469. The most suitable values are in red colored font.08 21952005.35 PRATIO (-) 5.90 0.97 64178.69 3.19 34.57 10.36 20.18 19.73 3.38 25.64 16875748.42 99181.76 Vol.37 16354447.10 0.31 7.74 5.14 20913763.67 5.41 22102054.21 PCOMPRESSION (bar) 48.65 17.22 34.31 9219966.50 1.54 10.82 10.75 5.76 17467988.20 0.31 7.07 27.84 1.35 PEXPANSION (bar) 8.00 0.h) 14097440. warm climate condition C2 comp.46 10.

where P represents pressure and the subindexes INT.1). H 54 . Two stage compression with intercooling The same cycle from the previous section is implemented using a two stage compression train with intercooling in order to achieve lower power consumption (see Figure 2-10). two stage compression Warm (30 °C) Warm (30 °C) Multistage Cold (11 °C) Cold (11 °C) Multistage Another parameter improved by the use of a multistage compression train is the pressure ratio in the compressor.2 0.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-8. 50 45 Compressor Duty (MW) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0. again. The pressure ratio is approximately the same for both compressors in the compression train.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 4. Compressor duty with variation of refrigerant composition.4 0. Figure 4-9 shows the value of the pressure ratio for the two compressors in the multistage train compared with the single stage value. and performing an optimization analysis for the multistage compression process will lead to Equation (4. This is basically because the values shown are the optimal. and the regular lines (multistage compression) are from 7 to 11% below for both conditions. The study is run with the results from the previous section but with variation in the intermediate pressure of the compression train. the best cases for each composition are the ones given in the figures.2. where the duty for the single stage compression is also shown to ease the comparison.1.6 0. The dashed lines represent the compressor duty with single stage compression. The power consumption achieved is shown in Figure 4-8.

82 27.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-9.84 38.37 PCOMPRESSION (bar) 48.6 0. Table 4-4.70 30. Pressure ratio with variation of refrigerant composition.39 55 .80 Duty (MW) 41. further details about the derivation of this relation may be found in Appendix C.32 2.1) The summary of the results is presented below.90 0. The most suitable values are presented in red font.00 0. high and low pressure respectively.43 2.74 PINTERMEDIATE (bar) 20.45 PEXPANSION (bar) 8. (-) 1.19 PRATIO (bar) 2.Results and Discussion and L represent intermediate.00 PRATIO (bar) 2.31 7.46 2.00 18. Summary for simple cycle with two stage compression.4 0.2 0.57 42. two stage compression Warm (30 °C) Warm (30 °C) Multistage 1 Warm (30 °C) Multistage 2 Cold (11 °C) Cold (11 °C) Multistage 1 Cold (11 °C) Multistage 2 (4. the UA value and the volumetric flow are excluded to avoid repetition (may be found in Table 4-2 and Table 4-3). 𝑃𝐼𝑁𝑇 𝑃𝐻 = 𝑃𝐿 𝑃𝐼𝑁𝑇 10 9 8 Pressure Ratio (-) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.51 6.50 16.41 2. warm climate condition C2 comp.

61 8.54 PRATIO (bar) 1.90 1.00 10.35 14.26 4.21 PINTERMEDIATE (bar) 14.48 10.80 0.34 2.74 10.90 1.54 6.10 0.36 20.50 5.71 3.65 17.00 0.84 1.70 10.60 0.84 2.18 11.37 21.05 2.96 10.38 11. The change in the intermediate temperature of the cycle does not affect significantly the compressor duty. cold climate condition C2 comp.95 12.99 5.17 2. (-) 1.87 1.12 14.40 21.99 5.42 22.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes C2 comp.1. (-) 0.85 3. The analysis for all the results will be made first based on the warm climate condition.00 7.50 1.91 23.00 Duty (MW) 13. Two stage refrigeration cycle As mentioned in Chapter 3.20 0.92 1.35 PRATIO (bar) 2. the difference is almost undetectable in the figure.87 1.50 13.00 2.00 2.92 1.17 2.21 PINTERMEDIATE (bar) 16.91 10.12 PEXPANSION (bar) 8.43 2.96 2.12 2.54 10.61 PEXPANSION (bar) 5.70 0.98 1.17 2.84 1. 56 .85 3.52 Table 4-5. Therefore the study in this section is made for variation in composition and different intermediate temperatures of the natural gas.26 4.50 9.00 10.74 5.14 2. Figure 4-10 shows the compressor duty with variation of the refrigerant composition.50 6.50 0.60 2.55 3.60 0.42 2.88 22.30 0.97 1.52 12.3.37 2.50 PRATIO (bar) 2.38 11.25 4.97 1.50 1.99 1.14 23.10 0.51 6.30 4.55 3.00 11.07 27.50 5.50 0. Summary for simple cycle with two stage compression.54 22.00 8.39 PCOMPRESSION (bar) 31.50 6.00 Duty (MW) 24. the simulation of the two stage refrigeration cycle brings a new degree of freedom to the process.70 0.25 14.47 2.06 30.20 0.00 1.60 2.26 26.15 9.68 2.35 2.90 0.95 2.30 11.18 19.31 7. given by the temperature of the natural gas between the first and second stage of the process.33 2.95 2.17 17.81 24.90 PRATIO (bar) 1.30 0.89 21.93 1.63 2.72 23.40 0.42 2.50 13.99 9.71 PCOMPRESSION (bar) 34.00 4.40 0.

8 °C Tint= -10 °C Single stage What is remarkable from the figure above is the improvement achieved in terms of duty when comparing with a single stage cycle. The reason behind this affirmation is that the temperature difference that is achieved in the multistage cycle is smaller than the single stage cycle (may see Figure 2-14).2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-10. however the offset between them provides the improvement. Compressor duty for two stage cycle. hence the heat transfer UA value is increased for the same heat load. The predicted behavior for the UA value is obtained through the simulations and shown in Figure 4-11. warm climate Tint= 5 °C Tint= 0 °C Tint= -3.Results and Discussion 50 45 Compressor Duty (MW) 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 0. The duty for the single stage process is reduced between 32 and 38% by the use of a two stage cycle. The sum of the UA values for the heat exchangers involved in a multistage cycle is supposed to be larger than the one for a single stage process. depending on the refrigerant composition. the UA value is not significantly affected by the variation in the intermediate natural gas temperature. 57 . according to Equations (2.7).6) and (2. The UA value for this case is also an important variable to be studied. The trend of the curve against variation of the refrigerant composition is similar for one and two stage cycle. as for the compressor duty.

2 0. Since varying the intermediate temperature of the natural gas stream has an effect on the pressure ratio of the compressor.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 50000000 45000000 40000000 UA Heat Exchangers (kJ/°C.8 °C Tint= -10 °C Single stage Figure 4-11.h) 35000000 30000000 25000000 20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 0 0.8 °C (green series) the dashed line is close the regular line. Heat exchangers total UA for two stage cycle. it is important to evaluate which of the intermediate temperatures is more beneficial for the purpose of this study.3 0.8 0. the dashed lines represent the second stage of the cycle. As mentioned above.7 Ethane C2 composition (-) 0.1 0. for instance when Tint=-3. The curves for different intermediate temperatures and varying composition are shown in Figure 4-12.8 °C the values for the first and second cycle are 58 . warm climate The other two parameters to be taken into account for this case are the pressure ratio and the volumetric flow in the compressor suction. whilst for the case in which Tint= 5 °C (blue series) the values are far from each other.5 0.9 1 Tint= 5 °C Tint= 0 °C Tint= -3. for Tint= -3. The pressure ratio behaves basically as the two stage compression case.4 0.1) but to the temperature of the natural gas between the two stages.6 0. with the exception that the intermediate pressure in this case is not subject to Equation (4. The main aspect about changing the intermediate temperature is the difference between the pressure ratio in the first stage and the second stage.

left and right frame respectively. 10 9 8 7 Tint= 5 °C Tint= 0 °C Tint= -3. for instance the value of Tint = 5 gives the lower volumetric flow for the first compressor. warm climate The same considerations set for the pressure ratio may be applied to the volumetric flow. Since the curves are not distinguishable when plotted in the same frame. but the higher for the second. 59 .2 0. this is the best case because an equal split in the pressure ratio means that the process can remain within the design limitations for higher capacities.8 °C Tint= -10 °C Pressure Ratio (-) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.6 0.8 °C Tint= -10 °C Single stage Tint= 5 °C Tint= 0 °C Tint= -3. which is shown in Figure 4-13. different frames are used to plot the first stage and second stage compressor flow. The color sequence in the right side figure is exactly the opposite of the left side frame. Pressure ratio for two stage cycle.4 0.Results and Discussion almost the same.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-12.

8 °C as for the pressure ratio.8 °C Tint= -10 °C 150000 Single stage Tint= 5 °C Tint= 0 °C Tint= -3. The comparison is shown in Figure 4-14 and Figure 4-15 for the compressor duty and heat exchangers UA value respectively. The best point from the simulated ones is at Tint = -3.5 1 0 Ethane C2 composition (-) 0.8 °C as given above. in this case the natural gas is cooled from 30 to -36 °C and the halfway temperature is -3 °C. 60 . warm climate.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes As mentioned for the pressure ratio. A noteworthy aspect about the intermediate temperature is that the ideal point was found around halfway of the total heat to be removed from the stream. Right figure: Second stage compressor The cold climate condition results show the same behavior than the warm climate and hence the analysis from the latter may be applied to the first. a “sweet point” would be one in which the volumetric flows are equal for both compressors. Left figure: First stage compressor. which was found to be -10 °C (around halfway from 11 to -36 °C) are compared with the warm climate condition at the best intermediate temperature. nevertheless some differences are introduced. -3. the values under the cold climate condition for the best intermediate temperature.8 °C Tint= -10 °C Single stage Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 100000 50000 0 0 Ethane C2 composition (-) 0. 250000 Tint= 5 °C Tint= 0 °C 200000 Tint= -3. Compressors suction volume for two stage cycle. In order to see these differences and avoid repetition. providing higher capacity for the process.5 1 Figure 4-13.

cold and warm climate comparison 7. Since the heat load for the cold climate is the smaller.2 0. This can be explained by looking at Figure 4-16 and Figure 4-17. Heat exchangers UA for two stage cycle.Results and Discussion The compressor duty has the same behavior shown and explained for the simple stage cycle. cold and warm climate comparison 61 .E+07 3.4 0.6 Ethane C2 composition (-) 0. the cold condition temperature range fits better with the refrigerant heating curve and therefore the curve has a smother variation for different refrigerant compositions.6 C2).2 UA Heat Exchangers (kJ/°C. the UA value does not follow the trend shown for the single stage cycle.E+07 6.E+07 0.4 0.E+07 2.h) Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) 0. In this case the cold climate curve exceeds the warm climate one in the compositions where compressor duty is minimal (between 0.8 1 Figure 4-14.2 and 0.E+07 5.8 1 Figure 4-15. as said before the UA value is directly proportional to the heat load and inversely proportional to the temperature difference through the heat exchanger.E+00 0 0. Compressor duty for two stage cycle. 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Compressor Duty (MW) Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) 0.6 Ethane C2 composition (-) 0.E+07 1. the temperature difference in the heat exchanger for the cold climate is small enough to overpass the UA value obtained in the warm climate condition. On the other hand.E+07 4.

As for the previous cases the cold climate condition shows a similar trend to that of the warm case. Right figure: cold climate 0 -5 Temperature (°C) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 Heat transferred (MW) Heat transferred (MW) Cold side Hot side Cold side Hot side Figure 4-17. mixture 0. mixture 0. the dashed lines represent the first stage while the regular curves are for the second stage compressor.4 C2/0.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0 Cold side Hot side Cold side Hot side Temperature (°C) 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 Heat transferred (MW) Heat transferred (MW) Figure 4-16. Temperature profile across first stage heat exchanger.6 C3 Left figure: warm climate. Temperature profile across second stage heat exchanger. with a slight reduction. 62 . Right figure: cold climate The compressor suction volume and pressure ratio are also compared with the warm climate condition.4 C2/0.6 C3 Left figure: warm climate. the results are shown in Figure 4-18 and Figure 4-19 respectively.

6 0.5 2 1.5 1 0. Compressor suction volume for two stage cycle.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-19.5 0 0 0.6 0.4 0. Compressors pressure ratio for two stage cycle. cold and warm climate comparison Warm (30 °C) Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) Cold (11 °C) 63 .2 0.4 0.2 0.5 3 Pressure Ratio (-) 2. cold and warm climate comparison 3.Results and Discussion Volumetric flow to compressors (m3/h) 100000 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Warm (30 °C) Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) Cold (11 °C) 0 0.8 1 Ethane C2 composition (-) Figure 4-18.

Flow C1 Vol. C2 comp.07 27.68 28582.65 46427.61 27453.20 0.54 6. Tintermediate -3. The red colored rows represent the chosen most suitable compositions.36 20.9 22963366.74 11.90 0.74 5.31 12.4 26111236.54 UA1 (kJ/°C.63 21777. cold climate.3 14021915.36 37021.19 34.90 0.42 23087.30 0.76 24929.40 0.h) 11206751.16 75181.61 8.h) 9423085.60 4.47 19314.92 13.0 19159316.3 19691979.94 5.h) 20526828.00 0.51 6.72 17468.63 P1 (bar) 8.57 17912.15 26972.8 19195911.72 23.22 P3 (bar) 31.78 8.45 7.8 Table 4-7.80 18.80 1.9 24516131.80 0.76 14.48 15.8 °C for the warm climate and -10 °C for the cold climate condition are used to provide a tabular summary for the different compositions.60 0.84 1.4 22364593.4 22975783.97 P1 (bar) 8.55 3.88 30029.71 16.65 17.31 6. (-) 1.35 UA1 (kJ/°C.23 17.36 57324. This is presented in Table 4-6 for the warm case and in Table 4-7 for the cold climate.99 34396.7 12669919.72 8.81 28937.80 0.90 9.26 26.18 11.26 4.6 UA2 (kJ/°C.95 P3 (bar) 48.89 17.23 9.20 0.4 10516420.95 12.81 24.0 8906776.57 42.96 31152.5 13859152. Flow C2 (m3/h) (m3/h) 16551.3 20260247.73 19.70 19581.4 13284596. Flow C1 Vol.12 14.49 9.30 15.2 14690754. warm climate.74 10.8 UA2 (kJ/°C.49 1.4 21861108.38 6.02 42339.17 17.6 9052987.70 0.0 9003577.41 15.6 21233478.73 15.9 14911815.5 17658292.21 14970. Table 4-6.3 17288679.8 17192969.99 18458.88 22.64 46076.66 16. Tintermediate -10 °C.5 12359582.95 56776.6 19374193.60 0.0 15079758.45 1.00 Duty (MW) 29.41 7.17 15689.92 61192.71 27633.5 18226553.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes The best intermediate temperatures mentioned above.8 16868559.85 3.h) 8533230.47 48940.2 13539050.92 90619.07 8.47 8.85 3.58 21478.70 0.23 24426.45 21830.30 20252.92 15.21 P2 (bar) 20.4 12306244. (-) 1.3 64 .00 Duty (MW) 9.31 7.10 2.5 20044649.45 3.41 37711.16 2.76 71025.74 5.2 19054434. -3.26 4. C2 comp.96 14.25 14.24 Vol.16 21.55 3.35 3. Summary for two stage cycle.34 34442. Summary for two stage cycle.9 11589032.31 7.40 0.30 0.8 27736485.17 11.82 28073.50 0.81 25211.99 5.50 0.68 7.80 5.00 0.21 P2 (bar) 17.58 19855.8 °C.52 7.64 16660.06 30.69 39159.84 16828.3 32214037.27 32021.10 0.87 8.01 7.64 15.2 10573528.18 19.84 38.99 5.4 22471705. Flow C2 (m3/h) (m3/h) 34552.3 18862745.8 27855539.10 0.51 6.31 7.04 Vol.

for example given 1°C temperature difference in the heat exchanger. The pressure levels are related to the temperature of the natural gas after each cycle by the temperature difference set in the heat exchanger. the propane saturation pressure at -16.2 15.5 0 2 4 6 8 Temperature 1st stage (°C) 10 12 14 2nd S.9 14.6 °C for the second stage.6 14.6 °C 2nd S.6 °C is the pressure level for the second stage. as for the previously explained cases.4 Compressors Duty (MW) 15. Figure 4-20 and Figure 4-21 represent the compressors duty and the heat exchangers UA values respectively.7 14.4.Results and Discussion 4. Temp= -14. Temp= -15.6 °C. but the pressure levels of the cycles in order to find the one that provides the best improvements for the process.1. Temp= -13. Temp= -12. The study will be shown first for the warm climate.6 °C 2nd S. 15. Temp= -17. Three stage refrigeration cycle using propane In this section a three stage cycle is implemented. if the second stage temperature is -15. Temp= -16.6 °C 2nd S. Compressors duty for three stage cycle with propane.6 °C 2nd S.6 °C Figure 4-20. Notice that these values are fairly close to the ones obtained by splitting the 65 .8 14. for instance the minimum compressor duty is only 3% smaller than the maximum for a given composition. warm climate The variation of the temperature between the stages does not represent a significant change in those two values. notice that the values in the figures are the temperatures of the natural gas and not the pressure levels.3 15. the minimum work is linked to the higher UA for the heat exchanger and that this value is achieved by selecting 8 °C as the temperature for the first stage and -14. it is important to note that.1 15 14. However.6 °C 2nd S. as explained in Chapter 3 the refrigerant composition variation is not studied.

6 °C 2nd S.6 °C 2nd S. the compressor duty is lower than the minimum value for a two stage cycle.6 °C 2nd S. Temp= -15. 20400000 UA Heat Exchangers (kJ/°C. warm climate 70000 Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 65000 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 0 2 4 2nd S.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes heat load of the natural gas steam in three stages (30/8 °C. Temp= -15. first stage. Heat exchangers UA value for three stage cycle with propane.6 °C 2nd S.6 °C 2nd S. Temp= -17.6 °C 2nd S. Compressor suction volume for three stage cycle with propane. warm climate 66 . Temp= -17. Temp= -13.6 °C 2nd S. Temp= -14.6 °C Temperature 1st stage (°C) 8 10 12 14 Figure 4-21.h) 20200000 20000000 19800000 19600000 19400000 19200000 19000000 0 2 4 6 2nd S.3 MW (see Table 4-6).6 °C 2nd S.6 °C 2nd S. Temp= -16. -14/-36 °C). Temp= -12. Temp= -13. It is important to notice from Figure 4-20 that for any value of the first and second stage temperature. Temp= -14.6 °C 2nd S. 8/-14 °C. Temp= -16.6 °C 6 8 10 Temperature 1st stage (°C) 12 14 Figure 4-22. which was found to be 15. The volumetric flows into the compressor are shown in Figure 4-22 for the first stage and Figure 4-23 for the second and third stage. Temp= -12.

Temp= -12.e. Temp= -16.6 °C 5 10 Temperature 1st stage (°C) 15 Figure 4-23. Compressors suction volume for three stage cycle with propane.6 °C for the second stage (stated above).6 °C 2nd S. is affected by both modifications and the curve trend clearly demonstrates it. that the three compressors handle the same volumetric flow. with a slight reduction in all the parameters (i. 8 °C for the first and -14. Temp= -14. The results for the cold climate condition show the same behavior that has been shown and explained above.6 °C 2nd S. Temp= -15. warm climate Left figure: Second stage. The second stage compressor. An optimal configuration of the cycle to achieve the largest capacity would be. the volumetric flows are almost equal. on the other hand. however the best split is obtained by setting the first cycle temperature equal to 6 °C (with -14. The same analysis may be made for Figure 4-23.6 °C for the second stage) as might be seen in the figures above.Results and Discussion 80000 Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 75000 70000 65000 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 0 5 10 15 Temperature 1st stage (°C) 0 2nd S. where the third stage compressor (right frame) is not affected by the first stage temperature but only by the second stage and the curve shows a constant value for different values of the first stage temperature.6 °C 2nd S. as mentioned before. Right figure: Third stage The temperature of the natural gas after the second stage does not affect the first stage compressor. Temp= -13.6 °C 2nd S.6 °C 2nd S.: 67 . Temp= -17. For the temperatures that give the minimum work. hence all the curves are overlapped in Figure 4-22 and are only affected by the variation of the first stage temperature.

4 7.3 7. Temp= -16 °C 0 5 18000000 UA Heat Exchanger (kJ/°C. Temp= -16 °C Figure 4-25. Temp= -22 °C 2nd S. 7. Compressors duty for three stage cycle with propane. cold climate 2nd S. However.5 7. Temp= -22 °C 2nd S.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes compressor duty. in order to avoid a lack of information the figures with the cold climate results are presented below.8 Compressors Duty (MW) 7.1 7 -15 -10 -5 Temperature 1st stage (°C) Figure 4-24. Temp= -20 °C 2nd S.2 7.h) 17800000 17600000 17400000 17200000 17000000 16800000 16600000 16400000 -15 -10 -5 Temperature 1st stage (°C) 0 5 2nd S. Temp= -20 °C 2nd S. cold climate 68 . Temp= -18 °C 2nd S. Temp= -18 °C 2nd S. Heat exchangers UA value for three stage cycle with propane. UA value and suction volume). For this case the most suitable values were found to be -4.2 °C for the first and -20 °C for the second stage.6 7.7 7.

Right figure: Third stage 69 . cold climate Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 -15 2nd S. Temp= -18 °C 2nd S. Temp= -20 °C 2nd S. Temp= -16 °C Figure 4-26. first stage.Results and Discussion 70000 Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 -15 -10 -5 Temperature 1st stage (°C) 0 5 2nd S. Compressors suction volume for three stage cycle with propane. Temp= -20 °C 2nd S. Temp= -22 °C 2nd S. Compressor suction volume for three stage cycle with propane. Temp= -22 °C 2nd S. Temp= -16 °C -5 5 Temperature 1st stage (°C) -15 -10 -5 0 5 Temperature 1st stage (°C) Figure 4-27. cold climate Left figure: Second stage. Temp= -18 °C 2nd S.

6416 n-C4 st Molar flow 1 stage: 32300 kgmole/h Molar flow 2 stage: 47000 kgmole/h nd TINTERMEDIATE NG: 0 °C 70 .3 C2/ 0.0 °C Temperature NG after 2 stage: -14.5 bar Two stage MR MR composition: 0.2. Multistage compression MR composition: 0.7 C3 Single s. n-butane included MR composition: 0.3 C2/ 0.1 are implemented in an entire C3MR process with a different precooling configuration in order to see the real limitations and actual values of the improvements.8 °C nd Molar flow 1 stage: 39000 kgmole/h Molar flow 2 stage: 47000 kgmole/h Two stage MR.6416 C3/ 0.7 C3 Molar flow: 78500 kgmole/h PINTERMEDIATE: 8.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 4. Table 4-8.7 C3 st st nd Molar flow: 78500 kgmole/h TINTERMEDIATE NG: -3. Conditions for different modifications in the precooling cycle for C3MR process.2482 C2/ 0.6 °C Molar flow to NG cycle: 13800 kgmole/h Molar flow to MR cycle: 70500 kgmole/h Single stage MR MR composition: 0. Application of the different configurations to the C3MR process In this section the most suitable values for each configuration studied in Section 4. hence these values are presented below in Table 4-8 for the warm climate. MR.3 C2/ 0. warm climate Three stage C3 Temperature NG after 1 stage: 8. The flowrates of precooling refrigerant in each case are different from the stand-alone cycles due to the increase in heat load.

The pressure ratio is not taken into account and may be found in the previous section because it is not affected by the heat load variation. It is important to notice that. 400 350 Compressors Duty (MW) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Figure 4-28. the intermediate temperature reported was used for this case. is lower for the propane precooled process.88 % larger. taking as a reference the propane case. Compressor duty for C3MR process with modifications applied. while the two stage cycle without n-butane shows an increase of 2. the addition of n-butane to the mixed refrigerant. The single stage cycle is 14.53 %.2 st. warm climate Propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st.Results and Discussion As stated in Chapter 3 a supplementary consideration is studied in this particular case for the warm climate condition. Figure 4-28 shows the total compressor duty in Megawatts for the five configurations.1 % and 11. the mixed refrigerant configuration with n-butane gives a power consumption only 0. heat exchanger UA and volumetric flow at the suction of the compressor. The variables to be studied are the compressor duty. which is equivalent to the power requirement of the process. the compressor duty.5 % larger for the regular and multistage compression 71 . This is made taking the optimal composition from a previously optimized process [58]. compression) MR (2 stage) MR (2 stage with n-butane) As expected. The evaluation in this section is made by implementing the process with the previously given parameters and configurations in the precooling circuit and assess the differences between the configurations.

2 st. Power share between precooling and liquefaction cycle.0E+08 0.h) 5.0E+08 UA Heat Exchanger (kJ/°C.8 MR (1 stage) MR (1 st.13 times that of propane. the values for this parameter are shown in Figure 4-30. warm climate 72 .0E+08 2. the UA value of the heat exchangers is an important criterion for the selection.9 127.2 212. Heat exchangers UA for C3MR process with modifications applied. a value 2.0E+08 1.0E+08 3. which is the lowest among the studied configurations.9 94. on the other hand. The two stage cycle using only C2 and C3 gives. 6. compression) MR (2 stage) MR (2 stage with n-butane) Figure 4-30.8 212. Precooling 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Liquefaction/Subcooling 212. The share of the power consumption between the two cycles of the process is shown in Figure 4-29.2 st.0E+08 4.9 99. it is 3. What is remarkable from the figure is the enormous value when n-butane is added to the two stage cycle. warm climate Besides the power consumption of the process.9 92.2 212.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes respectively.1 Propane 212. MR (2 stage) MR (2 stage compression) with n-butane) Figure 4-29.9 135.0E+00 Propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st. All the mixed refrigerant configurations give a higher UA value than the propane case.37 times the propane case UA value.

700000 Vol. Since the entire C3MR process is studied. Precooling compressor suction volume for C3MR process with modifications applied. The capacity for the studied case is 60000 kgmole/h.1 %. if it is larger than the value for the precooling circuit compressor. Only the single stage mixed refrigerant precooling configurations (regular and with two stage compression) have a larger volumetric flow than the liquefaction/subcooling compressor. this parameter is important because defines the maximum capacity of a given configuration. flow to compressor (m3/h) 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 Figure 4-31. which for a 315 days yearly operation is equivalent to 8.Results and Discussion The volumetric flow at the suction of the compressor is also studied.5 % lower if n-butane is not part of the mixture.8 m3/h (the highest of the three compressors in the train). the suction volume of the liquefaction/subcooling compressors might be the constraint.4 Megatonnes of LNG per annum (MTPA). Nevertheless a two stage mixed refrigerant cycle gives a volumetric flow 24. warm climate Propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st. From the figure below using a single stage mixed refrigerant cycle for the precooling does not provide any improvement when referencing to a three stage precooling cycle. therefore only for those two cases the constraint in capacity is set by the precooling cycle. and is used purposely to have a clearer scenario of the differences and limitations. This value is higher than the maximum single train capacity installed by 2012. compression) MR (2 stage) MR (2 stage with n-butane) 73 . The suction volumes for the precooling compressor are shown in Figure 4-31 and for the liquefaction/subcooling cycle it is the same in all cases: 428437. otherwise the reduction is only 8.2 st.

3 Massflow COP (kg/h) (-) 3743791.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes A tabular summary of the variables studied for the C3MR process is given in Table 4-9.3 597749. From the results shown above an important conclusion is reached.76 3339282. Main process equipment count. does not benefit the process in terms of energy efficiency.8 0.70 3430442. for the warm climate condition using a mixed refrigerant in the precooling cycle. instead of a three stage propane circuit for the C3MR process.8 357782520.5 196310156. the complexity of the process is indeed reduced by the use of a mixed refrigerant in the precooling. Table 4-9. Nevertheless. C3MR cycle with modifications Precooling Compressor configuration Propane 4 MR (1 stage) 4 MR (1 st. heat exchanger UA value or capacity of the process.78 3131276. Summary of the results for the C3MR cycle with modifications. see Table 4-10.2 312.1 340.8 307. Flow (m3/h) 417746.5 384204. 74 . as well as the number of main unit operations required.68 3131276. compression) 5 MR (2 stage) 4 MR (2 stage with n-butane) 4 Process heat exchanger 7 2 2 3 3 Condenser Intercooler 4 4 5 4 4 Sum 15 10 12 11 11 Furthermore.7 UA (kJ/°C.1 315740.2 st.2 st.0 0.6 597744.8 196300245.h) 167700003.2 Vol.2 0. the implementation of the different configurations into the C3MR cycle for the cold climate condition is done by using the parameters chosen in the previous section as most suitable and the values shown in Table 4-11.2 565821996. warm climate Precooling configuration Three stage propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st.77 Table 4-10.3 0. the latter because the capacity limitation when using a propane precooled process is not provided by the precooling compressor but by the liquefaction/subcooling units. as for the warm climate case.0 348.3 0. compression) MR (2 stage) MR (2 stage with n-butane) Duty (MW) 305.

7 C3 Single s.6 C3 st st nd Molar flow: 59500 kgmole/h TINTERMEDIATE NG: -10 °C nd Molar flow 1 stage: 24300 kgmole/h Molar flow 2 stage: 42000 kgmole/h The compressor duty for the different configurations is shown in Figure 4-32. the two stage arrangement is only 1% larger.5 bar Two stage MR MR composition: 0. Conditions for different modifications in the precooling cycle for C3MR process.3 C2/ 0.Results and Discussion Table 4-11. cold climate Three stage C3 Temperature NG after 1 stage: -4. where the raise compared to the reference is plotted for both climate conditions and the different configurations.4 C2/ 0. taking the propane precooled process as a reference. MR. multistage compression MR composition: 0.2 °C Temperature NG after 2 stage: -20.7 % larger for the regular and multistage compression train respectively.3 C2/ 0. The difference between the configurations in terms of power consumption is smaller than in the warm climate case. this is shown in Figure 4-33.7 C3 Molar flow: 59500 kgmole/h PINTERMEDIATE: 6. while the single stage mixed refrigerant configuration gives a compressor duty which is 5.5 % and 6. 75 .0 °C Molar flow to NG cycle: 8550 kgmole/h Molar flow to MR cycle: 51700 kgmole/h Single stage MR MR composition: 0.

this has been explained in the previous section.2 st. Compressor duty for C3MR process with modifications applied. It is important to mention that the share in this case ranges 76 . compression) MR (2 stage) Figure 4-33. see Figure 4-16 and Figure 4-17. comparison of cold and warm climate Under the cold climate condition the difference is reduced because the mixed refrigerant case has a smaller temperature difference through the heat exchanger. Compressor duty variation. The share of the precooling cycle in the process energy consumption is presented below in Figure 4-34.2 st.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 300 250 Compressors Duty (MW) 200 150 100 50 0 Figure 4-32. compression) MR (2 stage) 16 Raise of compressor duty (%) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Cold Warm Propane (Reference) MR (1 stage) MR (1 st. cold climate Propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st.

higher for the cold climate.2 st. as previously explained.5E+08 1.5E+08 4.1 207. as opposed to the compressor duty.0E+08 UA Heat Exchanger (kJ/°C.h) 4.0E+08 2.5E+08 3. compression) MR (2 stage) 77 .0E+08 3. compression) MR (2 stage) Figure 4-34.1 Liquefaction/Subcooling Propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st. the increase in the UA value for the cold climate is.6 207. Heat exchangers UA for C3MR process with modifications applied. which means that the precooling cycle will represent a higher portion of the process if the ambient temperature is higher and vice versa. However.2 st.0E+08 1.4 73. cold climate Propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st. cold climate The heat exchanger UA value for the cold climate condition is shown in Figure 4-35.0E+00 Figure 4-35.5E+08 2. 5.5 70.1 207. This is basically because the temperature of the precooling stage is fixed to -36 °C. Power share between precooling and liquefaction cycle.4 57.0E+07 0.0E+08 5. the mixed refrigerant cases have larger UA values than the propane precooled.1 207. Precooling 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 54.Results and Discussion between 20 and 26 percent while for the warm condition it was between 30 and 39 percent.

8 3430442.85 78 .2 222483. compression) MR (2 stage) Duty (MW) 261.4 Massflow (kg/h) 2656844.43 280.41 264.8 Vol. the volumetric flow at the compressor suction is shown in Figure 4-36. cold climate Propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st. Using a mixed refrigerant in a two stage cycle gives a significant improvement in terms of volumetric flow.8 2373387.1 453994745. the volumetric flow of this cycle is the same for all the cases. The mixed refrigerant in one stage cycle does not benefit the suction volumetric flow.h) 148314276.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Moreover. For the four cases studied the volumetric flow of the precooling compressor does not exceed the value of the liquefaction/subcooling circuit.80 0. 450000 Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4-36. if the propane case is taken as the reference.6 201567905.86 0.8 201570432. 428756 m3/h. the value is reduced by 44%.2 st.8 COP (-) 0. compression) MR (2 stage) Table 4-12. A tabular summary for the different configurations studied under the cold climate condition is given in Table 4-12. Precooling compressor suction volume for C3MR process with modifications applied. cold climate Precooling configuration Propane MR (1 stage) MR (1 st. Therefore the constraint in capacity is not set by the precooling cycle.54 277. this value is increased 6%.2 st. Since the liquefaction/subcooling circuit is not altered.2 425114. Summary of the results for the C3MR cycle with modifications.3 2373387. Flow (m3/h) 400244.81 0.5 425114.64 UA (kJ/°C.

The capacity of the process in this case is also restricted by the mixed refrigerant cycle and therefore the reduction of the volumetric flow for the precooling does not represent a benefit in terms of capacity increase. the only variable that represents a benefit is the volumetric flow to the compressor. Based on the previously done studies the cycle to be implemented is a two stage cycle with an intermediate temperature which is approximately half of the temperature span of the process. the ethane composition in a binary mixture (C2/C3) has to be higher than 0. which is correspondingly linked with the heat exchanger size.13 in order to achieve this goal. This might be seen as a weak point of this configuration since the precooling equipment. similar to the ones obtained for the two stage cycle in the stand-alone studies (Section 4. When compared to the propane precooling arrangement (three stages) for a C3MR process. As might be seen in Figure 3-7. The results for this case are. a precooling cycle that covers a wider range of temperatures may represent an interesting case of study. the chosen values are -10 °C for the warm and -20 °C for the cold climate case.Results and Discussion Based on the variables studied. as has been learnt in the previous sections.6. cost around 70% less than the ones required for the rest of the liquefaction process. the selection of a precooling circuit with a mixed refrigerant. however it is attached to an increase in the heat exchanger UA value. Therefore the analysis of each variable is not presented again. but the tabular summary for the cold and warm climate condition studies is shown below. 4. Mixed refrigerant precooling temperature relocation In this section a stand-alone cycle to cool the natural gas until -50 °C is studied. whether it is a one or two stage cycle. is not the favored alternative for the cold climate condition. which may reduce the size of this equipment. Based on this. for instance the heat exchangers. see Section 2. Table 4-13 contains the results for the warm case and Table 4-14 for the cold condition. especially for the cold climate condition. It is noteworthy to remember that the precooling cycle for the cold climate case represents around 20 % of the entire process power requirement. The values considered most 79 .3. as expected.1). The single stage cycle configurations were excluded due to less importance for the effect of the evaluation. this possibility is addressed in the next sections.

40 0.77 32. which means that the chosen intermediate temperature is not the appropriate one. Tintermediate -10 °C C2 comp.44 13.91 1.93 Vol.80 0.98 25.18 19.57 15.59 40819. A case with an intermediate temperature of -15 °C is taken into account. Duty Flow C1 (MW) (m3/h) 18.65 13. The results are shown in Table 4-15.70 43141.12 14.41 57512.15 13.47 1.30 69831.24 2.57 UA1 (kJ/°C.41 55799.00 0.20 0.16 33.h) 13671148 14301778 15498928 17307330 19346094 21631011 23317154 23524252 21301760 18722960 UA2 (kJ/°C.62 13.40 0.97 14.74 31.60 0.43 6.74 11.73 15.59 27.34 5.00 0.82 P1 P2 P3 (bar) (bar) (bar) 5.14 4.90 0.20 0.71 5. (-) 1.30 0.71 8.35 1.70 3.58 46815.19 35879.25 14.55 7.31 12.58 40145.26 13. cold climate.65 17.57 46379.58 58521.15 Vol.61 9.h) 23435024 20686814 20539249 21348299 22320716 24081289 25110368 24687903 22371813 20712303 UA2 (kJ/°C.24 2.43 13.65 4.44 24.26 40971. (-) 1.96 46779.48 113687.03 5.74 23.79 30469.93 P1 (bar) 5.34 1.12 40856.02 30571. Summary for two stage cycle (to -50 °C).67 31555.18 78771.h) 12101936 12585945 13714453 15192629 17082631 19435634 22319304 23813266 22325506 20810496 Table 4-14.81 24.04 76936.27 4. Flow C2 (m3/h) 27071.87 51253.70 66170.96 UA1 (kJ/°C.70 0.23 9.50 0. Flow C2 (m3/h) 38981.60 0.76 69503.55 40727.38 7.68 69632.97 36395.47 62057. the red colored row represents the most suitable values.14 4.15 Vol.36 30067.59 33065.72 39423. Notice that for the warm climate case the volumetric flows for the compressors are far from equal.48 1.40 14.80 0.91 9.07 46.26 P2 P3 (bar) (bar) 17.31 23.69 22.91 1.88 22.72 16.70 3.45 28571.66 29.45 19.34 53739.17 10.79 29.h) 10031390 11080979 12680387 14906822 18143014 21835270 25948562 28562886 25218944 21642997 80 .78 8.70 0.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes suitable are in red colored font.17 3.65 4.35 43378.23 36.95 12.24 3.68 44699. Tintermediate -20 °C C2 comp. Duty Flow C1 (MW) (m3/h) 39.82 33326. Table 4-13.37 80510.50 0.79 2.50 Vol.09 51327.90 0.49 12. warm climate.74 10.21 98692.32 14.48 23.79 2.30 0.36 16.43 44368. Summary for two stage cycle (to -50 °C).11 24.65 41.12 25.17 3.07 27.

The cycles reaching a lower temperature (regular curves) give a smaller coefficient of performance than the processes until -36 °C (dashed curves) for both climate conditions.53 11.62 23. Duty Flow C1 (MW) (m3/h) 40.87 25.79 2.2 0. Coefficient of performance β (-) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. which gives less possibility to adapt the process heating curves in order to reduce the irreversibilities.30 0.4 0. (-) 1. Flow C2 (m3/h) 32861.91 1.31 6.57 33.41 24.14 43765.14 4.34 1.79 29.88 58387.77 52205.90 0.55 7.h) 25583819 21184610 21145811 21538027 22534693 23908195 23330837 23866085 22241741 20125514 UA2 (kJ/°C. Tintermediate -15 °C C2 comp.49 84060.77 32.93 24.65 4.07 36918. warm climate.90 48270.66 56405.60 0.40 14.45 49027.45 19.93 4.50 0.64 39888. The temperature interval for the cycles reaching a lower temperature is obviously higher.65 41.1 is the coefficient of performance (β).26 44694.15 9. the only parameter that may be compared between the cycle implemented in this section and the ones from Section 3.20 0.70 0.00 0.35 23.8 1 Warm (30 °C) to -50 °C Warm (30 °C) Cold (11 °C) to -50 °C Cold (11 °C) Figure 4-37.77 44365.33 27.25 89392.h) 10984677 12557341 13534965 15539514 17782321 20660141 23933691 24738047 23055998 20892482 Due to the difference in the temperature range.6 Ethane C2 composition (-) 0.29 Vol.83 8.15 Vol.84 79545.23 36.97 12.30 45670.87 23.Results and Discussion Table 4-15.65 29.81 34703. Summary for two stage cycle (to -50 °C).17 3. this is shown in Figure 4-37.47 1.59 66728.70 3.10 4. Coefficient of performance comparison for two stage cycle.26 15.24 2.69 22.50 13.36 16.80 0.12 25. different temperature range 81 .40 0.01 67031.96 UA1 (kJ/°C.24 96993.36 46.38 P1 P2 P3 (bar) (bar) (bar) 5.69 49834.

4.623 -15 -18 82 . to -50 °C C2/C3 composition (-) TINTERMEDIATE (°C) 0. Once more the temperature of the natural gas after the cycle is presented. due to the benefits that could be provided to the entire cycle if the precooling cycle is a mixed refrigerant circuit that cools the natural gas down to 50 °C.18 Propane three stage. to -36 °C Molar flow to NG (kgmole/h) Molar flow to MRLIQUEFACTION (kgmole/h) Molar flow to MRSUBCOOLING (kgmole/h) Precooling heat load (MW) Mixed refrigerant two stage. The conventional mixed refrigerant cycle used in the MFC® process is compared with a three stage propane cycle. the study of a Mixed Fluid Cascade (MFC®) process is considered important for the purpose of this work. Precooling parameters for the MFC process studies Precooling Parameter Temp.7 0. The study is carried out for both climate conditions considered for the previous cases. The parameters found as most suitable and used for the simulation of the precooling cycle of each case are given in Table 4-16. Table 4-16.3/0.5 -16.5 13850 47750 29900 52.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 4. NG 1st stage (°C) Temp.43 -4. Application of the different configurations to the MFC® process Even though the coefficient of performance for the stand-alone cycle reaching -50 °C is clearly lower than the one reaching -36 °C. yet it is linked to the pressure level of the stage through the temperature difference in the heat exchanger.377/0.5 -20 10170 25740 15550 41. basically. NG 2nd stage (°C) Condition Warm Cold 6.

7% above the one for the propane precooled. The duty share among the cycles for the propane precooled is 0.Results and Discussion Precooling Parameter Molar flow 1st stage (kgmole/h) Molar flow 2nd stage (kgmole/h) Precooling heat load (MW) Condition Warm Cold 52800 25700 64. in the propane case under the warm climate condition the optimal temperatures of the first and second cycle were found to be 8 °C and -14. leading to an overall lower process power consumption.4. Figure 4-38 shows the compressor duty for the processes under the warm climate condition. The MFC® process has a power consumption 3.27 47330 22300 51.18/0. For instance. 83 . When replacing the mixed refrigerant precooling cycle by a propane circuit (until -36 °C) the heat load in the precooling is reduced.35/0. but increased in the liquefaction cycle.41. which for this case has been favorable since the liquefaction cycle performs the cooling more efficiently.62 The values shown in Table 4-16 do not match in all the cases with the values found in the stand-alone cycle studies as the most suitable.24/0.6 °C respectively. The values from the table above were found to be the most suitable for the entire process simulation and the results from these simulations are shown below.42/0. for the stand-alone cycle. This difference in the optimal parameters for the cycle is due to the heat load variation provided by the addition of two streams to the precooling heat exchanger (the mixed refrigerant stream from the liquefaction and subcooling cycle). whilst for the MFC® case it is 0.

which is thought to be due to the shorter temperature difference in the heat exchanger.0E+08 0. the latter has a smaller UA value. warm climate 84 .0E+08 2.0E+00 MFC MFC (Propane) Subcooling Liquefaction Precooling Figure 4-39. in addition to this. MFC® with modifications. the UA value of the heat exchangers in both processes is taken into account. which as explained before increases the UA value for this configuration. this is shown in Figure 4-39. Compressor power comparison. even though the heat load of this cycle in the MFC® process is lower than in the propane precooled. The value in the precooling cycle is higher for the mixed refrigerant case.0E+08 6. which goes from 30 to -50° C. This is due to the increase in heat load linked to the temperature range. MFC® with modifications.h) 1. UA Heat Exchanger (kJ/°C. An important result to highlight is the UA value for the liquefaction cycle.0E+09 8.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 300 Compressors Duty (MW) 250 200 150 100 50 0 MFC MFC (Propane) Subcooling Liquefaction Precooling Figure 4-38.0E+08 4. warm climate Furthermore. the mixed refrigerant heat exchanger has an extra stream flowing through it. Heat exchanger UA values comparison.

warm climate Under the warm climate condition. 1.2E+06 1. the results for the cold climate condition simulations are shown below. as it is shown in Figure 4-40.0E+05 0. therefore it counteracts the reduction.Results and Discussion The last parameter considered is the suction volume of the compressor.0E+05 6.0E+00 MFC MFC (Propane) Subcooling Liquefaction Precooling Figure 4-40.0E+05 4. however in this case the suction volume for the mixed refrigerant case is larger than for the propane case. Compressor suction volume comparison.0E+06 8. which makes the reduction of heat transfer irreversibilities a challenging task and likewise increases the volume suction of the compressor significantly. UA of the heat exchangers and suction volume of the compressors (process capacity).0E+05 2. One of the main disadvantages of the mixed refrigerant precooling is the wide temperature span to be covered (from 30 °C to -50 °C).4E+06 Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 1. but when the same heat load is set for both cases. Using a mixed refrigerant provides a smaller volumetric flow than a propane circuit indeed. The total compressor duty when using a mixed fluid cascade is only 85 . the use of a three stage propane precooling circuit instead of the conventional two stage mixed refrigerant cycle for the MFC® process represents a benefit in terms of power consumption. from the previously studied cases the use of a mixed refrigerant has been beneficial in terms of this parameter (the volume has been reduced). In this case the heat load for the precooling cycle of the MFC® process is higher than for the MFC® with propane precooling. which for the given case results in a higher volumetric flow. On the other hand. MFC® with modifications.

MFC® with modifications. 200 Compressors Duty (MW) 150 100 50 0 MFC MFC (Propane) Subcooling Liquefaction Precooling Figure 4-41.0E+08 5.25/0. The subcooling heat exchangers have the same value since.0E+08 6. cold climate 86 .45 for the MFC® and 0. cold climate UA Heat Exchanger (kJ/°C. as described in Chapter 3. Compressor power comparison.0E+08 1. Whereas due to the heat load increase. Heat exchanger UA values comparison.2/0.0E+08 0.6% above the value for a process with a propane precooling arrangement.h) 7. The UA value for the process heat exchangers is given in Figure 4-42.3/0.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 1.0E+08 4.0E+00 MFC MFC (Propane) Subcooling Liquefaction Precooling Figure 4-42. as expected the mixed refrigerant precooling cycle has a larger UA value than the propane precooling circuit.0E+08 3.34/0. The share of duties between the cycles (precooling/liquefaction/subcooling) is 0. MFC® with modifications.0E+08 2. no variations in the subcooling cycle are made when the precooling configuration is modified. the liquefaction UA value is higher for the propane precooled process.46 for the propane precooled process.

Results and Discussion The volumetric flow comparison is represented in Figure 4-43 for the cold climate condition. represents a disadvantage because the precooling equipment. the process capacity is limited by the liquefaction compressor. cold climate In spite of its higher power consumption.6% above the propane precooled case. When a propane precooling configuration is used. MFC® with modifications. which. First.0E+05 8. which is only 1. as mentioned before. In second place.0E+05 6. Volumetric flow to compressor (m3/h) 1. the share between the three cycles is almost equal for the MFC® process. which has a value of 338855 cubic meters per hour. On the other hand. 87 . Compressor suction volume comparison. due to the capacity limitation that is introduced by the volumetric flow in the compressor.0E+05 5. Nevertheless.0E+05 3. since it does not deal with cryogenic temperatures has a lower capital cost. Therefore the overall result is a smaller volumetric flowrate.0E+06 9. which also represents a larger compressor. the mixed fluid cascade with the conventional mixed refrigerant precooling cycle is the favored choice under the cold climate conditions. but does not overpass it as in the warm climate case.0E+00 MFC MFC (Propane) Subcooling Liquefaction Precooling Figure 4-43. as might be seen in the figure below.0E+05 4.0E+05 7. with a value of 258048 cubic meters per hour. due to the small share that the precooling cycle has in the propane precooled MFC. in this case the heat load in the precooling counteracts the volumetric reduction effect of using a mixed refrigerant.0E+05 0.0E+05 1. the limitation is set by the subcooling compressor.0E+05 2. if the conventional mixed refrigerant precooling is used.

the work required to liquefy a unit mass of natural gas. These values are presented on kilowatt hour per kilogram LNG in Table 4-17.163 0.g. it does not require a flash separator.5. reducing.160 Warm 0. Based on the studies done this process is to be implemented in projects where the aim is low process efficiency with ambient conditions above 20 °C. when this process is compared to the C3MR process. Besides the energy efficiency. kWh/kg LNG Process A B C D Cold 0. Specific work comparison for the main studied processes. A process flow diagram for this configuration is proposed in Figure 4-44. The illustration given represents a three stage cycle in the precooling.237 0. Overall specific work comparison In this section the natural gas liquefaction processes studied are compared based on a benchmark criterion which is used frequently to compare different technologies. two stage mixed refrigerant cycle in the precooling (B) MFC® process (C) MFC® process with three stage propane cycle in the precooling (D) Table 4-17. a four stage cycle could be beneficial for cases were the ambient temperature is high enough.249 0. the MFC® process with a three stage propane precooling cycle (Process D) has the lower specific work among the processes presented for both climate conditions. which means that the composition of the refrigerant does not depend on specific conditions.287 0.294 0. therefore the complexity of the 88 . or when the efficiency needs to be improved (e.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 4. the processes considered important for the purpose of the comparison are as follows: • • • • C3MR process (A) C3MR process. The precooling circuit uses propane (red colored streams) in a three stage cycle. Based on the obtained results.: to fit existing equipment capacity).246 0.229 As it is shown in Table 4-17. whereas the liquefaction (yellow) and subcooling (blue) circuits are mixed refrigerant processes.

see Section 2. The equipment count for this process is increased when compared to the MFC® and the C3MR processes.5. Figure 4-44.Results and Discussion process. Process flow diagram of proposed high efficiency process. MFC modified 89 .

.

Under the cold climate.Conclusions Chapter 5. Conclusions The main differences related to technical performance between choosing a pure component or a mixed refrigerant configuration for the precooling cycle of LNG processes were addressed through this report. however. volumetric flow to the compressors (comp. The selection of such a three stage cycle with propane represents as well the best choice concerning the heat exchangers UA value.) and the share that the precooling cycle has in the entire process. a three stage propane configuration was found to be a better alternative than a two stage mixed refrigerant (C2/C3) arrangement under both climate conditions. however. cold -6 °C-). the purpose of this is to provide. UA value of the heat exchangers (UA HX). The criteria used for the selection are power consumption (power). A technical selection chart is given below. heat exchanger UA. the equipment count is larger than the one for a mixed refrigerant cycle. based on the obtained results. Many configurations were studied for the precooling cycle. a basis for future selection of the precooling stage configuration. The choice recommended 91 . this alternative was therefore discarded. it provided some improvements in the compressor duty for the warm climate case but the volumetric flow and the UA value were significantly increased. Using n-butane as part of the mixed refrigerant cycles was considered. volumetric flow at compressor suction (compressor size/process capacity) and pressure ratio (related to the compressor efficiency) for both climate conditions studied (warm 25 °C-. The mixed refrigerant configuration with cooling duties until -50 °C is a suggested solution for increasing the share in this case. only the most promising configurations are shown in the chart. In terms of energy efficiency. Although the heat exchanger UA and the compressor duty do not benefit from a two stage mixed refrigerant configuration (compared to the three stage propane). a single stage mixed refrigerant process was found to be the less beneficial in terms of compressor duty. the short temperature range gives the propane precooled process a disadvantage in terms of capacity share in the entire process. this arrangement has shown to be a possible alternative to improve (reduce) the volumetric flow of the compressors for any of the climate conditions.

dependent on project specific variables and new developed technologies. a new. even though it is not the best. which is the technical comparison of different precooling configurations. SHARE CHOICE COLD CLIMATE Three stage propane Two stage mixed refrigerant (-36 °C) Two stage mixed refrigerant (-50 °C) WARM CLIMATE Three stage propane Two stage mixed refrigerant (-36 °C) Two stage mixed refrigerant (-50 °C) Figure 5-1. POWER UA HX COMP. Finally the red colored parameters represent those in which the process is far from the most recommended and therefore based on those parameters such process is neither suggested nor convenient. yellow color means that the process may be considered as an alternative based on this parameter since. it is not far from it. Selection chart for precooling stage of LNG processes ✔ ✔ The chart is made using green for the most recommended process under each parameter. highly efficient configuration for natural gas liquefaction has been suggested for warm climate temperature 92 .Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes for each case is also given in this chart. In addition to the main goal achieved. consequently. notice that these are technical recommendations and that the ultimate choice will remain on the hands of project developer.

no previous reference in the open literature was found for such arrangement. 93 .Conclusions conditions (25 °C) based on the results obtained. A suggestion for the name of this process is propane precooled mixed refrigerant cascade (PPMRC). this configuration consists of 3 different cycles (as the MFC® process) in which the precooling circuit is a three stage propane instead of a mixed refrigerant.

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Recommendations for Further Work Chapter 6. For floating LNG the selection criteria is influenced by the small available plot area and the required robustness for the process. 95 . Recommendations Work for Further Since the most recent developments are showing high interest on floating LNG facilities. it is highly recommended to study the differences between the available liquefaction technologies and configurations in order to provide the project developers with technical differences and if possible a selection criteria. since it has to withstand different challenges regarding motion and flow stability.

Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 96 .

Transportation of natural gas: the impact of price variation on the choice between LNG and pipeline infrastructure.Y. and United States. Tusiani. 9.. Kotzot. Tex.. U. 453 p. Trigilio. Okla.K. 13. Finn. and R. 436 s. Advanced natural gas engineering2009. Administration. Tex. Liquefaction technology..J. and T. Bouza. X. and M. 14. and S. Nagelvoort. A. vii. T. 4. 2011. 8. 71-76. J. xiii. Ransbarger. 2004. H. Di Scipio.R. Hauppauge. International energy outlook and projections2011. 368 s. P. BP statistical review of world energy. 2010.D. 5. Finn. LNG Liquefaction -Not all plants are created equal. Speight. xxii. LNG industry.R.. Shukri. Tulsa. Co.J.. A. M. 22. M.: Nova Science Publishers. 2012: p. 97 . LNG technology selection.: London. LNG technology for offshore and midscale plants.. Liquefaction process evaluation and selection. 11. 2009. Houston. 453 p.S. J. Ulvestad: Oslo.: Gulf Pub. British Petroleum Co. Hydrocarbon engineering. Shearer. Johnson. Bosma. Wang. Ulvestad. and G. Economides. 2.. G. 2000. M. 2007.: Gulf Pub.. et al.E.. 2009. Tomlinson. 2007(SPRING 2007). A.J. Developments through history. 7.I.G. xxxi.L. LNG: a nontechnical guide2007. Co. Houston. Plunkett.E. v.: Nova Science Publishers. 3. 239 s. A fresh look at LNG process efficiency. Hauppauge.: PennWell..E. Energy Information Administration.. 12. Proceedings of the 1st Annual Gas Processing Symposium. N. International energy outlook and projections2011. p. N. W.Y. Modelling and Simulation of Natural Gas Liquefaction Process.References References 1. A. 6. 9(2): p. 10. vii. British Petroleum Company. Natural gas: a basic handbook2007.

The challenges of further cost reductions for new supply options (Pipeline. Fundamentals of natural gas: an international perspective2006. libraire.F. and K.C. et al. et al. 6th ed2007. 19. LNG operational Shipbrokers2006.. 79 bl. A Paris: Chez Bachelier. F. 70 s. Economides. 2007. S. M. Gas turbine theory. Associates. New York: Springer.. Shipbrokers. 6th ed2009. Jacobsen. 20. Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics : SI version.. Saravanamuttoo.... Okla. 2011. X. 202 s. FLNG Development: Strategic Approaches to New Growth Challenges. and M. Tulsa. p. and M. 81(14). [H. 27. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall. Bunnag. Real options in the LNG shipping industry. 5th ed2006. R. 17. Timmerhaus.G. I. GTL). Rogers. Incropera. Onshore LNG Production Process Selection.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 15. 590 p. Dahr]: Bergen.: PennWell Corp. xv. 16.I. Venkatarathnam. H. London: Witherby. 997 p... Cryogenic mixed refrigerant processes.W. 2011. LNG. International cryogenics monograph series2008. 2004: A Global Analysis of LNG Import & Export Projects2004: Poten & Partners. G. Hoboken. 118 p. H. M. 28.. 262 p. 1 folded leaf of plates. 25.. LNG costs reflect changes in economy and technology. Partners.D. Harlow. S. 24. Oil Gas J. LNG Cost & Competition. and H. 21. 4 .C.N. V. practice: Institute of Chartered Moran. p. Chandra.J. Carnot.H. H. 1983. 18.P. Cohen. NJ: Wiley.W. and G. 98 . Shapiro. S. England . 26. NJ: John Wiley. no. Mokhatab.o. DiNapoli. 22. 2003. Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu : et sur les machines propres à développer cette puissance1824. Cornot-Gandolphe. Identifying active constraint regions for optimal operation of process plants: with application to LNG and distillation processes. M. 2006. 133 s.. xxv. quai des Augustins. Poten.. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer. 55.. Norges teknisknaturvitenskapelige universitet: Trondheim. et al. 23. xvi. Hoboken. Dahr.(United States). viii.

et al. McKeever.053. 99 38. Optimal design and operation of a C3MR refrigeration system for natural gas liquefaction.]: IFAC. p.080/006. J. 11. S. and R. 35. Bower. Eng. 40. Berger. 2007. Roberts. 401-406. 40(7): p. Xu. E.. Ransbarger.. 1. Large capacity single train AP-XTM Hybrid LNG Process. and S. 1569-1574. 32. Optimal operation of a mixed fluid cascade LNG plant2006. 68(9). [Amsterdam]: Elsevier. and S. Ag. Prog. D. 42. [S. and G.. Computers & Chemical Engineering. M. Förg. 2003. et al.. A new LNG baseload process and manufacturing of the main heat exchanger. Gastech 2002.. Crawford. J. L. An ever evolving technology. Pillarella. 44. Heat transfer equipment for LNG projects. Floating LNG Solutions from the Drawing Board to Reality. S.References 29. 36.J. 43. et al. Chem.l.. 2004. 2011.B. Zhang. 33. M. Mortko. 2007(SPRING). Eschenbrenner. H. M. 34. 61. .B. 20. Jensen.(United States). N. Jensen.. The Snøhvit Project.. PRICO: A simple. B. 1996. M... 2008(SPRING). F. 241-246. 30. flexible proven approach to natural gas liquefaction. Analysis of modern natural gas liquefaction technologies. L. 2002. J. and R. Editor 2008. W. J. Pillarella. W. and Q.A.. Price. The C3MR Liquefaction Cycle: Versatility for a Fast Growing Ever Changing LNG Industry. et al. Plate-Fin versus Coil-Wound Heat Exchangers. 2002. LNG industry.. 2009: Germany. et al. Optimal operation of a simple LNG process2006. 37. A fresh look at LNG process efficiency. 41. Linde Technology..S. 31.R. Large LNG trains: Developing the optimal process cycle. LNG industry... Chemical and Petroleum Engineering. Faber. et al. 1972. ASA. Wang. et al. US Patent App. Kirillov. Reports on science and technology Linde. 2005.. 39.. Bauer. Skogestad. Skogestad. M. 1999. Natural Gas Liquefaction Process. Pillarella.

. 53.-E.. 55.S. D.W. 15(1): p. 49. Adaptation of LNG process and plant to arctic climate.O. 2007. p. G. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.. World Meteorological Organization.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 45. Handbook of heat transfer.. 2001. Ait-Ali... Nogal. E. Optimal mixed refrigerant liquefaction of natural gas. 2008. G. Condenser and coolers. NTNU. Optimal design and analysis of refrigeration systems for low temperature processes. W. 100 . F. 57.M. 54. U. Coyle. Natural gas liquefaction processes.E.A. Maranas. Massachusetts.M.. in Energy and Process Engineering2010. Norway. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals. 1057-1078. Vol. 47(22): p. Climate change monitoring report. Stanford University. A new two-constant equation of state. R. NTNU: Trondheim. D. Patel. Chemical Engineering Communications. and V. 8724-8740. 2006: Italy. 50. Robinson.. Helgestad.O. 1979. 2010. Burlington.A. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. 44. Inc. Optimal design of mixed refrigerant cycles. Synthesis of mixed refrigerant cascade cycles. 2002. 58. et al. NTNU: Trondheim. A..D. M. 47.G. 56.. 48. et al.C.. Vaidyaraman. 3.. Enhanced solutions for LNG plants.N.. 2008: p. Peng. The snøhvit design reflects a sustainable invironmental strategy. G. User’s Guide. 51..D.: Trondheim. in TEP08. 2005. 59-64. A. Specialization course2010. et al. Processes and pump services in the LNG industry. 189(8): p. Aspen Technology. and C. Gas. D.Y. 52. 1998: McGraw-Hill New York. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. (WMO). 1976.B. Modelling and optimization of the C3MR process for liquefaction of natural gas. S.. HYSYS. Department of Energy and Process Engineering..O. Venkatarathnam. Cryogenic Mixed Refrigerant Processes. Rohsenow. Heiersted. 59. and D. 46. in Process Systems Engineering2009. Fredheim. Lee. 149-220. Vebenstad. University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology.

p.References 60. Pantelides.B. and S. 2006. Elsevier. Jensen. 1569-1574. 101 . Skogestad. J. in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering. Editors. W. Marquardt and C. Optimal operation of a mixed fluid cascade LNG plant.

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standalone A-1 . Simple refrigeration cycle for mixed refrigerant.Appendix Appendix A: HYSYS® flowsheets simulated Figure A-1. Two stage refrigeration cycle for mixed refrigerant. standalone Figure A-2. Simple refrigeration cycle for pure component refrigerant. standalone Figure A-3.

standalone Figure A-5.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Figure A-4. Three stage propane refrigeration cycle. Liquefaction cycle for C3MR process studies A-2 .

Two stage mixed refrigerant precooling cycle for C3MR process studies A-3 . Three stage propane precooling cycle for C3MR process studies Figure A-7.Appendix Figure A-6. Single stage mixed refrigerant precooling cycle for C3MR process studies Figure A-8.

MFC® process with propane precooling cycle A-4 . MFC® process Figure A-10.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Figure A-9.

55 38.46 138797418.03 184474065.25 59.54 133732710.00 28500.78 135868654.89 37.94 34.00 22500.46 -7.05 138791900.00 28500.90 137831606.58 49.14 -10.12 22.16 178117806.23 2.68 48.53 55.04 26.00 38000.29 38.02 58.15 6.50 131229681.00 22250.41 202907748.05 6.06 -11.00 26000.23 130153685.51 18.45 123905022.52 -9.02 24.38 35.85 36.56 211834097.00 42500.10 193798636.00 30500.58 34.00 21500.98 53.00 25750.03 195330805.92 128506570.36 50.00 43000.72 37.38 134776385.84 135804233.33 134865169.32 24.00 26500.76 210357888.12 15.74 12.15 -5.36 -0.68 55.67 123306873.00 29500.00 39000.00 36.18 37.20 -10.00 26750.78 57.47 129060122.45 132811956.9 C3= 0.23 35.55 38.00 42000.80 28.82 5.63 205902098.02 38.58 137814312.82 38.29 20.00 40000.25 34.26 54.00 23250.41 53.46 C2= 0.56 0.00 34500.22 47.61 58.92 -1.80 51.79 17.91 35.00 22750.89 9.90 176509185.52 Tout (°C) Flow (kmol/h) 27.51 8.23 -9.Appendix Appendix B: Stand-alone study details Table B-1.13 48.14 186044763.95 56.18 199893144.46 -4.00 44000.13 -2.00 41500.52 1.21 -6.36 19.96 -12.51 198377903.00 27750.36 56.00 21250.00 25000.32 171632171.40 0.89 129609136.69 B-1 .00 21750.92 50.05 174892225.00 24750.00 31500.08 34.00 38500.70 35.68 208877228.66 60.00 32000.95 139738593.88 Pressure exp= 830 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 169988478.48 49.51 4.42 34.59 136816726.27 132288671.91 125085464.00 32500.00 22000.63 22.60 213305965.00 20750.30 173266652.33 -4.43 58.07 126817897.23 196857174.84 59.14 -11.00 38.98 21.47 60.00 29000.28 38.26 219152086.03 127948401.07 35.00 41000.10 55.07 187608548.83 -13.29 182896249.00 24000.35 190716227. warm climate C2= 1 C3= 0 Flow (kmol/h) 27500.15 36.03 49.00 25500.00 24250.00 23500.00 36500.00 Pressure exp= 750 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 122703306.25 -8.00 28000.00 47.83 54.77 -6.90 9.66 207392004.92 12.32 125667947.82 Tout (°C) 29.00 40500.00 28250.39 10.30 36.75 36.97 26.00 25250.00 34000.46 37.82 192260501.91 139766448.00 39500.00 36000.68 5.88 181311090.00 43500.00 27500.99 136857325.96 126245396. Parameters for the stand-alone single stage cycle.32 179718356.95 -3.15 37.79 1.75 34.07 60.00 35000.00 33000.05 2.00 37000.00 33500.22 16.74 38.45 8.40 131761268.02 204407388.00 26250.68 52.83 217696561.24 -7.54 35.96 124497853.38 201403045.11 52.45 36.55 52.30 10.44 37.06 -4.00 37500.00 31000.00 21000.84 -0.77 216237096.36 127385538.41 214773597.69 15.00 35500.97 4.00 27000.80 133846426.24 51.45 130693843.29 189165636.81 -1.35 4.99 -8.60 36.20 57.00 30000.50 13.23 -12.77 18.00 23000.20 13.1 20500.00 27250.00 24500.00 23750.

81 71.31 71.14 77.11 74.00 29000.42 274945796.55 226373748.34 -32.87 74.71 146186052.35 73.00 60500.80 41.00 53000.54 -26.37 -25.00 45000.27 272263559.70 250181313.62 76.22 261355692.35 39.44 277701560.19 -16.00 52000.68 64.07 -18.05 -24.00 56000.27 70.09 39.66 -21.93 67.00 30250.36 -22.23 146863348.10 264089101.22 -22.00 61000.00 52500.54 142500657.07 39.00 61.00 31500.00 62000.63 75.22 -19.95 223495933.49 69.00 30750.04 28750.00 55000.47 64.89 -29.00 32250.04 71.24 -35.00 140721793.90 -19.42 269532293.11 40.84 146013509.12 261293373.27 143509324.03 -37.58 72.90 -30.13 241971735.12 74.56 241740229.39 -23.44 258614019.86 65.00 49000.00 32500.16 -16.23 -30.00 30500.00 31000.46 -35.11 266814540.39 76.05 244770164.00 64000.92 -24.15 -36.87 -31.23 -27.82 255863768.21 67.00 56500.88 B-2 .79 144413461.00 48000.76 224936594.00 58500.00 47500.58 39.00 51500.12 -16.76 -27.28 61.00 51000.61 -34.00 33000.73 238903878.09 147055087.08 62.07 71.00 47000.98 141592628.84 258529492.39 233509566.36 40.57 145305605.31 -34.00 62500.48 62.00 31250.27 -23.87 75.07 64.00 54500.00 46000.36 -16.00 63000.00 32000.13 220603764.00 59000.37 272242626.00 29750.88 -38.00 30000.68 62.15 67.29 -35.87 -18.95 -20.95 -17.00 55500.00 45500.75 255756428.00 46500.20 232088821.30 -31.03 -11.67 -26.26 65.34 -33.73 -18.73 143396458.84 72.43 67.04 -22.84 -28.00 50000.26 140672052.22 266794917.37 77.64 -25.08 39.25 -25.63 236341905.62 222051684.00 57500.00 48500.47 247558186.99 229237844.82 -23.00 58000.00 29250.00 63500.00 54000.00 32750.36 74.65 66.07 147912981.76 -14.19 227807472.78 -27.63 145152596.88 63.00 31750.84 269533204.66 274986257.67 -21.95 252973827.83 40.00 60000.44 -13.32 40.00 50500.54 234927239.54 -15.00 29500.12 -29.83 247378491.00 49500.00 57000.77 69.61 40.97 -28.61 39.31 -15.87 239162467.99 277656842.24 -14.60 73.08 147702373.00 59500.48 -24.56 40.81 230664937.33 39.85 40.02 -22.71 -20.00 64500.94 142592885.86 39.72 68.73 -33.00 65000.97 141663820.70 264048408.28 250336207.67 144280340.30 244564944.00 53500.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 44500.57 -20.99 68.27 253104613.36 66.08 40.00 61500.09 41.28 63.48 -19.54 70.81 -32.

00 17500.13 0.68 31.19 31.45 -6.00 18250.00 20375.00 20250.61 114914127.00 19375.85 110888333.00 Pressure exp= 598 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 98106656.00 20000.24 103519479.3 Flow (kmol/h) 16500.43 111827011.68 4.05 14.00 17625.67 109430537.36 112286477.92 31.56 27.68 31.77 28.73 107766253.77 0.70 -5.88 11.00 18000.74 27.57 98461888.48 0.00 C2= 0.19 105253629.00 21250.75 9.26 20.15 32.62 5.65 109820335.10 114480269.04 113149415.00 19750.65 11.48 27.39 113186480.06 31.35 102779549.04 32.16 115337748.42 24.63 27.00 20875.80 31.12 30.26 5.8 C3= 0.02 2.00 18125.15 Tout (°C) 30.87 110804756.78 30.23 114062174.67 30.00 17375.00 17125.54 109923309.68 1.12 113627340.65 28.00 19375.80 31.00 16875.00 22500.88 104986553.00 19000.94 29.06 11.00 22000.25 18.04 32.50 102392594.82 112739689.90 31.00 20500.59 104234396.00 19500.44 31.40 111762364.82 6.67 104636903.22 28.13 103152292.00 19125.00 19875.33 28.42 21.09 23.91 B-3 .00 18375.56 31.67 115757793.89 104582094.00 17000.81 112231118.09 7.44 101153329.32 111286747.85 100355174.82 -0.92 -3.38 112693390.38 27.61 102001138.66 7.00 19750.88 27.37 100291203.92 32.18 31.92 12.23 17.00 18250.99 100778953.30 10.00 21750.18 108423859.05 29.63 3.00 20125.19 108290755.65 3.26 30.00 18750.00 114911936.21 -4.00 20750.58 103915754.33 103880611.00 19875.85 9.76 28.08 30.49 12.36 14.37 27.00 105330149.21 28.46 99032437.00 18875.95 29.69 -0.81 114491073.00 18625.31 22.00 19250.00 17250.44 28.47 31.00 20000.61 18.62 115331423.00 19125.51 27.00 20625.99 28.00 22125.75 21.69 101601784.37 30.64 103166359.00 16625.71 29.35 99846783.53 108807846.11 28.85 13.33 28.07 1.30 31.84 25.91 30.00 17750.14 29.00 22250.00 20625.26 29.36 5.53 30.43 31.00 21500.95 28.55 17.32 31.01 99394086.00 22375.91 -1.22 30.76 27.29 109317662.00 21125.07 14.66 28.16 98574062.26 -2.84 10.00 18125.35 27.Appendix C2= 0.00 18625.00 18875.55 28.40 1.46 19.00 16750.83 29.86 27.00 20500.98 2.00 17875.70 101194532.80 30.93 31.00 19250.44 28.76 28.00 19625.00 21000.07 29.98 27.42 23.02 29.57 26.59 110315992.52 102776273.96 20.64 104280005.00 18500.00 19500.00 20125.13 101572063.68 15.37 23.2 Flow (kmol/h) 18000.00 Pressure exp= 672 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 107388134.49 26.27 99922986.64 30.97 30.87 28.27 102384956.51 113599009.00 19000.00 21625.16 29.88 4.05 31.28 16.00 18750.47 -2.21 115743047.00 20375.79 98932508.56 31.47 25.29 99481940.51 30.00 21000.00 19625.7 C3= 0.00 20750.31 16.56 101982458.00 20875.46 19.23 108930763.55 28.97 28.86 28.43 111361086.10 28.00 18375.91 6.61 27.59 8.81 8.49 100726387.38 107909695.00 20250.00 21375.40 30.95 27.00 21875.25 27.52 103545502.24 Tout (°C) 30.29 104921378.75 114042658.00 18500.60 110409201.

73 117718858.81 87818486.37 -5.00 14700.00 25000.76 -1.30 116580916.18 32.00 16000.65 -14.92 25.98 107389520.13 118161526.72 -15.91 33.19 -19.34 33.49 -16.48 32.00 22750.39 88152597.76 106938235.47 33.58 -7.73 88800874.85 25.82 21.96 21125.50 121012189.01 33.72 120020239.61 33.24 33.00 22875.5 Flow (kmol/h) 14500.00 16300.00 25250.00 14800.37 88840545.61 32.90 -17.49 24.39 24.70 118098086.84 92653121.39 19.92 -14.48 -11.30 119658538.20 -16.10 24.00 15700.75 105578934.00 15300.66 -14.28 27.68 19.62 29.74 25.83 93044745.33 29.00 15100.00 16200.38 32.64 26.36 33.35 0.53 29.00 23875.49 33.14 33.15 -8.00 15800.00 21375.10 88480207.68 Tout (°C) 28.26 -3.50 -9.00 25875.03 117334415.50 33.00 21250.00 24125.65 24.59 29.22 25.00 24375.26 32.00 14600.41 24.82 -16.33 120553633.74 121076218.08 92306849.03 33.07 118920204.4 Flow (kmol/h) 15500.44 -14.45 117774388.51 29.00 24875.00 23500.77 -7.00 22750.97 93368628.27 106630179.00 15900.37 32.84 -10.00 24500.75 29.69 92992180.00 23125.06 -9.87 29.18 107534569.24 26.75 -4.50 24.00 121538719.68 106315425.62 119291881.00 24000.94 Tout (°C) 28.38 -12.00 25750.82 32.00 Pressure exp= 525 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 92033395.71 -17.56 25.00 22500.01 24.13 -13.88 120612249.00 25625.30 118543442.63 33.82 119205165.00 14900.50 32.21 33.22 -6.12 106209043.83 29.00 23375.00 16100.94 87886057.48 -2.00 22250.21 116984158.25 106514012.00 25500.00 105665494.08 -13.45 -10.81 32.42 27.83 25.00 15600.59 24.00 21625.00 23625.60 92714346.29 118472169.59 32.00 25125.72 88211302.70 32.00 24625.34 B-4 .85 116549600.17 116149079.91 -6.00 15200.27 -18.18 117381957.96 22.15 -19.66 -7.00 21500.75 25.00 15000.00 116172155.00 22375.72 32.00 24250.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 22625.21 -9.57 107668468.44 29.94 120093626.64 120474836.73 106812364.19 107822998.82 -11.6 0.00 23750.17 24.00 22125.50 29.00 22875.00 25375.01 24.87 0.27 32.85 118841173.40 -13.94 -4.81 119564207.5 0.11 33.65 22.00 21875.30 -17.86 93324819.81 -11.04 107104176.67 24.58 24.54 105993891.93 32.24 116944687.96 107240481.12 -12.67 29.00 26000.47 92377316.00 22000.42 -15.35 29.16 -8.75 21.42 29.80 -11.98 -14.61 -17.66 25.32 24.00 23000.64 25.00 22625.95 29.00 Pressure exp= 453 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 87554231.00 21750.71 29.64 105897377.88 29.06 88529584.00 23000.00 23250.79 29.00 24750.30 29.

25 -6.18 91064266.00 20100.62 25.44 26.80 98044362.00 16500.71 13.00 16700.56 -10.00 17500.11 92085624.27 92539063.87 15.00 17000.49 5.00 18300.00 19400.00 89114236.85 97332569.85 14.88 26.00 16000.60 26.00 20000.48 1.68 26.00 19000.19 92013635.00 93650902.88 25.58 25.04 99137895.13 -12.07 -14.66 96035513.84 24.00 18900.19 93370076.02 26.00 17300.10 93246067.00 15900.16 -13.02 4.45 27.81 14.00 17000.00 18800.10 26.92 25.51 13.52 26.21 27.33 -13.00 16900.13 -9.43 25.00 19100.00 19500.50 90008320.83 26.82 94590812.07 -2.28 26.59 26.36 27.00 16900.18 94301953.74 98270812.50 95735657.57 5.95 27.00 16800.40 91100757.25 93997105.53 3.48 -11.82 18.00 15600.55 93562336.14 96571562.00 17100.61 97497366.56 25.17 8.59 12.00 15500.51 25.00 25.00 17600.95 90810656.45 25.00 16800.97 26.08 17.51 9.03 10.36 25.86 -3.62 1.08 27.00 18400.00 18600.56 -7.16 89419250.47 98170168.84 95756760.00 16200.23 97575291.02 27.00 19900.77 25.10 1.54 27.75 24.24 -1.00 17200.19 26.36 26.66 90837802.77 -10.00 18200.15 92315552.00 16300.59 -3.24 2.00 16100.00 16600.23 25.90 26.31 25.00 17500.35 89143226.85 25.15 25.00 18100.81 -11.52 -15.00 17800.30 8.08 25.00 17300.00 15800.51 91849217.82 3.00 17200.44 20.10 -2.53 15.00 18700.00 18900.60 91356967.94 -10.00 18600.23 27.26 -0.35 91552042.00 17900.35 95178547.00 25.00 16500.27 27.15 27.18 4.02 -6.90 89727033.76 -0.74 -13.81 92756215.73 97726992.07 17.52 92860208.45 27.25 90282635.81 93969435.Appendix 16400.58 17.96 92657999.36 27.00 20200.19 26.22 -5.79 97084816.02 90291369.30 -1.39 97812538.82 16.00 17900.00 18200.23 25.00 17600.00 16700.95 24.71 94600611.21 97951243.59 11.07 -9.51 91311459.38 25.65 96306417.77 97021784.79 25.71 25.82 25.74 26.00 18400.39 92449537.50 98812793.58 0.00 18700.00 19200.94 25.00 20300.61 96775728.37 92234768.61 89438695.42 10.82 -7.46 91606270.47 98488669.46 -4.71 8.86 15400.52 26.16 96267334.00 18800.39 -8.18 2.68 25.81 26.30 27.00 16600.92 95473945.00 17700.37 96004375.30 25.00 17700.12 95186401.48 7.74 98813748.58 96524593.92 24.03 -8.00 17800.61 10.22 0.81 -15.99 94891664.04 27.64 25.68 -6.00 98491938.84 24.76 24.50 95461118.43 B-5 .67 26.00 19700.74 25.92 12.02 90007737.00 18500.22 98795445.00 17100.36 26.08 25.82 92967066.00 18000.66 97262314.00 17400.94 -10.07 96831009.44 -4.35 7.00 19800.50 25.11 26.17 27.65 94893156.16 89717057.18 26.00 18000.01 26.22 93685015.24 93056214.00 18500.90 25.89 91786080.91 -4.00 19000.45 -11.22 6.44 26.00 20400.42 -7.45 -12.00 15700.00 19300.28 26.99 20.85 6.59 -3.57 94283769.16 25.00 19600.75 26.00 18100.00 20500.18 90568032.00 90550055.00 17400.10 27.54 11.00 16400.00 18300.08 93171669.

32 4.39 89110430.90 89594582.54 84959921.35 24.00 15400.06 85230694.04 Pressure exp= 315 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 83047230.06 24.51 23.97 24.35 23.92 -5.00 14100.09 85140402.00 14100.71 84663554.69 24.62 87445195.6 Flow (kmol/h) 14000.00 13300.54 29.63 -7.00 16900.87 -7.13 11.56 89772614.14 24.54 85247580.00 13700.00 14800.36 24.91 23.62 -6.00 16700.29 88166142.87 89319125.00 16800.7 Flow (kmol/h) 13000.81 -15.52 23.00 16900.00 14600.00 14500.61 24.00 16600.86 -2.00 Pressure exp= 383 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) Tout (°C) 85079235.00 13200.38 86075794.00 14600.60 23.00 17400.91 88203357.41 24.33 87672766.07 20.00 15600.75 24.45 22.07 23.98 23.83 23.90 23.00 15800.04 86313141.00 13500.84 9.41 7.51 -5.98 24.07 86845229.74 -14.00 0.13 0.00 16000.85 17.24 24.11 24.25 84623947.58 87460284.36 83388839.24 -7.65 10.46 83302459.00 14900.00 15200.60 88053627.89 24.94 -3.64 -10.83 23.40 5.72 23.32 87541336.62 85759038.05 -16.51 12.40 85453840.00 15100.78 24.44 23.48 -12.00 17900.22 88441103.12 24.76 23.00 16500.55 24.38 24.49 24.00 16800.82 23.62 20.93 9.65 26.29 24.00 16700.19 -9.00 16200.32 19.00 16600.04 24.85 89902810.76 89018577.65 23.17 12.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 0.92 -1.57 6.00 14500.48 14.28 86558724.35 24.00 15500.63 85802627.00 13400.22 83981550.53 2.84 24.58 86899311.00 14700.97 -13.00 17800.63 24.00 15500.16 87665845.05 24.79 -8.67 87705481.68 23.00 14400.38 18.22 24.42 23.26 23.00 15200.00 14900.14 23.00 16100.87 24.33 84931726.19 7.40 89520715.34 -3.91 23.00 15100.49 24.44 87863606.25 24.4 0.00 15000.13 -1.01 B-6 .00 17500.00 14000.00 17000.88 86618077.28 -14.00 17700.49 87164781.00 17200.36 85719382.00 15700.36 84307245.07 15.14 20.00 15900.00 17600.90 86059324.50 24.00 13600.73 24.43 24.00 15600.00 16400.85 -1.00 17300.29 24.00 16100.14 24.74 87317316.17 24.61 13.00 16400.42 24.16 23.05 -14.60 7.94 88671484.50 84044262.90 23.98 23.92 24.46 24.38 24.24 85797185.17 0.10 -11.14 0.57 24.00 16000.33 23.96 86056096.21 24.35 25.00 14700.79 5.00 17100.00 13900.25 -5.61 -17.92 -10.15 89217617.00 14300.00 16200.00 -12.22 -3.15 87025507.00 13100.62 87177235.32 24.00 14400.28 24.67 87915442.94 26.74 23.87 16.00 13800.00 16300.00 16300.81 24.00 14200.03 88894571.93 88358874.87 8.98 24.15 14.00 14300.94 4.76 23.12 2.77 23.01 89715258.24 23.43 23.86 87958175.00 15300.3 0.81 23.41 -4.43 87422572.14 86796153.15 83721154.00 15400.59 86597007.00 15000.99 87246861.96 0.21 11.83 87757436.20 85526635.74 15.04 85403478.00 15700.43 24.06 88378538.00 16500.00 14200.68 23.54 Tout (°C) 28.58 18.30 87965683.63 23.63 88150676.25 2.43 87085306.70 88812425.55 86901633.19 24.43 3.83 23.70 -16.82 21.00 15300.00 15900.77 -9.90 86326582.07 83646650.71 -10.05 86345115.59 23.01 86340558.93 86626077.34 89409601.42 85520960.04 84358372.74 -12.60 88599100.05 86027049.67 24.00 14800.00 15800.37 23.06 24.

94 3.42 24.2 0.69 24.18 24.28 84215489.08 24.39 14.78 23.00 14075.89 86265164.11 24.12 12.99 85400528.00 14600.34 0.66 23.40 -5.00 12650.30 24.46 22.00 12325.08 87129910.39 89335738.44 85147951.00 13550.41 24.40 3.38 -18.32 7.51 16.00 12875.00 14750.00 14200.10 23.89 86200755.00 13475.50 86292193.00 14125.25 15.31 1.40 84158739.62 24.77 17000.59 -3.78 23.32 9.82 83438153.34 87868563.37 87915393.63 87659270.73 -4.65 25.81 24.18 -5.90 84664048.00 13000.91 5.96 86473229.00 13925.11 23.53 85177880.22 87605151.82 24.57 85284679.18 0.00 12175.60 84414130.26 -3.43 86001054.25 -2.36 5.07 10.00 13775.23 23.82 20.32 -1.04 22.28 85627616.52 23.00 Pressure exp= 239 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 83169679.00 13100.43 17.13 23.63 85382637.Appendix 18000.20 24.91 22.00 12400.00 14375.55 24.44 4.41 85834637.96 -3.53 23.72 23.26 24.59 23.81 29.81 23.41 14.27 -0.00 13025.54 2.86 23.49 24.87 86260782.50 88126292.00 11950.84 23.00 13300.13 24.60 23.63 24.97 24.08 19.45 26.00 13375.00 13850.65 87397462.38 23.33 24.65 89556331.56 24.13 84944730.8 Flow (kmol/h) 12500.45 23.65 19.61 88650196.97 24.00 13225.00 12550.00 12475.00 13150.43 88883449.11 13.85 84463881.00 13825.00 13750.88 10.72 4.39 89112609.00 12950.85 85611245.60 B-7 .16 23.00 14050.00 18100.76 85404955.16 -1.46 23.07 24.00 14675.62 0.62 88410803.48 24.54 83961621.00 11.00 88235966.51 -18.67 2.09 84706854.47 87066534.00 14000.12 24.00 12775.52 5.61 85703856.44 88165886.00 13700.64 83362243.57 85901964.69 23.00 13675.58 86778315.12 86849429.96 24.00 14150.02 24.00 Pressure exp= 183 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 85089793.65 18.25 -2.98 -16.00 14525.00 13600.15 83899047.00 14300.93 86575420.00 13450.89 23.72 16.80 6.20 84908547.77 17.32 0.00 12700.13 24.72 23.00 12025.75 24.60 27.02 86493487.90 23.28 24.31 88865928.88 Tout (°C) 28.19 Tout (°C) 26.27 12.11 -0.94 9.00 90083422.02 24.79 23.05 24.31 89331578.95 23.00 12725.71 87335998.91 86874224.00 14275.66 83703438.08 86675586.03 24.00 12800.65 23.77 86054262.22 24.83 86461590.00 13400.99 85597045.00 12100.68 24.00 13525.00 13325.62 87061045.97 83632240.49 21.00 11875.00 14900.26 88624921.33 85844293.76 86658676.00 12250.94 23.00 13625.96 23.74 -5.00 13075.64 23.68 7.00 13975.00 13175.9 Flow (kmol/h) 11800.00 14225.32 23.00 12850.00 13900.00 13250.31 26.47 86856556.39 23.00 12575.33 89943744.00 14450.19 89100800.35 24.35 11.75 24.18 23.68 -6.25 23.10 19.92 8.90 23.28 88378393.00 12625.02 24.1 0.00 14975.86 24.72 23.50 15.27 86053659.31 23.01 1.00 14825.00 12925.85 23.90 7.

95 90600920.16 15.69 89989839.28 24.34 -9.21 25.00 12550.61 25.26 93688409.17 93578478.06 -7.53 -12.00 Pressure exp= 121 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 90891604.05 25.45 25.48 24.00 15200.00 11950.00 11575.00 11725.00 11500.09 8.00 12175.00 87283147.40 11.34 -11.25 -8.81 25.41 24.74 14350.80 -13.00 14800.00 11650.47 24.93 25.09 26.00 11425.79 12.55 25.00 12925.00 11800.59 91839244.00 12400.30 88102221.80 -7.12 93028952.00 15275.21 27.39 10.16 87565762.00 15500.41 25.00 14950.82 6.45 3.81 88126462.27 20.00 15725.00 15100.54 31.17 25.14 90657094.92 92200444.16 -13.30 25.61 94008558.83 24.04 87878589.63 23.26 24.18 25.01 90175277.17 26.47 92554884.30 87899937.62 -8.84 25.24 -10.71 25.60 18.00 11275.54 93361899.35 -7.00 12850.00 12475.43 94322418.29 -14.00 15125.72 5.00 15575.11 25.00 15350.10 25.94 24.00 12775.05 90888335.73 17.73 -11.00 11875.25 24.28 88352456.06 92689492.02 26.89 -10.29 26.09 20.00 12025.29 94853545.54 -4.25 25.82 -15.63 90829161.00 14725.00 14500.00 89553495.00 15875.00 24.35 25.49 90372153.00 15025.07 89765989.35 Tout (°C) 30.06 25.51 25.99 26.32 87841277.63 89775715.40 24.82 89973237.75 93906701.00 14425.85 28.00 14575.20 26.51 25.26 26.93 90402401.28 87128179.21 B-8 .47 93243819.00 12325.24 15.70 87398205.99 25.24 90198722.32 24.42 24.25 91471195.20 24.67 91096205.00 15250.17 -17.06 25.91 -9.81 94544139.00 15950.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 15050.30 -15.60 4.50 92902648.35 24.90 25.76 13.00 12100.00 15175.87 22.88 94228564.75 25.96 -15.88 24.42 24.03 8.00 15650.23 25.00 11350.73 -14.00 15425.28 -14.11 87619996.34 24.48 -9.89 -17.34 0 1 Flow (kmol/h) 11200.77 87347627.75 91264883.00 12625.65 25.13 87654437.00 14875.46 91631221.00 14650.72 92343439.00 15800.64 91990710.93 25.15 94630137.11 26.00 12700.84 -12.00 12250.38 -12.

90 26.76 96030850.45 26.98 97857749.76 97617812.72 -16.00 15100.68 26.74 95156868.00 15250.72 27.00 14500.37 98896567.00 13750.13 -28.20 98089813.00 13075.26 -4.53 26.09 96310407.45 27.45 -29.00 13900.00 14575.00 16000.41 99216933.92 96584189.34 -6.20 -21.00 13525.02 -0.00 13600.86 -2.00 15850.58 -26.00 15025.14 -18.00 15400.14 -2.55 97620184.00 15475.00 14125.40 27.69 26.40 2.50 -34.32 27.50 -32.97 -23.31 27.62 -31.47 27.58 -18.37 26.39 -12.76 26.84 26.86 99469379.01 -25.40 95454147.12 95800616.98 98316418.00 15700.23 95227326.83 -22.83 26.25 27.98 27.00 13150.05 27.38 27.12 27.39 -9.32 96849497.84 -14.00 15775.00 15175.00 14875.00 15550.00 14800.83 -26.26 97377070.83 95745452.63 27.41 -19.60 97111275.32 96078468.94 99269690.02 97862669.98 26.12 99525389.43 26.75 26.74 99563684.63 -23.Appendix 13000.91 26.92 -12.32 26.59 96874013.00 13225.00 14050.49 27.57 27.05 27.00 14950.93 96350542.36 95516924.80 1.00 14275.00 -8.00 -20.98 -10.00 13375.25 27.89 98963897.00 14200.06 -30.17 96613971.18 27.06 -33.65 27.00 14350.00 15325.00 15625.52 26.40 -10.00 14425.60 26.12 27.66 27.73 27.00 14725.07 97128363.00 13300.00 13450.00 13675.95 B-9 .25 -16.94 -4.00 13825.00 14650.89 99146372.85 98101984.11 100079817.00 -31.75 -0.99 -6.16 98811334.00 15925.00 13975.50 98335799.56 27.57 -28.12 99822057.00 94931753.87 98646183.33 -14.16 99780486.40 -22.60 98564161.62 97367363.54 27.18 27.61 26.

00 15400.82 55267811.94 53512850.01 -31.00 49493162.00 Pressure exp= 750 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 48428528.35 15.9 0.28 15.89 -3.77 49732857.43 -30.88 -27.39 50207224.64 -24.03 -28.79 4.04 15.11 -10.00 13200.65 13.38 -35.90 -31.73 -29.00 14200.74 51218097.83 14.00 14400.10 48748005.62 49561009.30 54239686.73 49314704.75 13.00 16200.27 48923496.00 13000.00 16400.00 17800.03 -30.31 49640295.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes Table B-2.48 6.16 1.39 Tout (°C) 9.05 14.56 54828384.00 15800.42 -29. Parameters for the stand-alone single stage cycle.95 2.52 55048893.06 -38.98 0.33 15.90 14.21 15.00 13400.00 13800.74 54891154.30 15.00 15600.00 12800.39 -28.15 51414538.06 -38.55 -30.57 13.59 13.72 49382517.88 -30.78 14.00 13800.20 54021248.42 49132692.39 -22.03 49836468.00 17600.28 55161946.88 13.1 Flow (kmol/h) 12000.45 -8.94 14.29 15.00 15800.58 -16.51 55326261.26 15.00 14400.00 18400.07 15.95 13.71 13.25 -12.00 16000.00 Pressure exp= 830 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 53221256.48 54435263.54 -26.34 15.76 53903234.72 -5.71 -20.00 12200.66 50073777.00 17400.50 54524688.10 54133368.32 15.05 50850325.61 13.67 55129140.00 -10.06 0.39 51029823.09 55192268.37 15.12 -31.00 12400.00 15200.87 50679406.68 -30.55 49404929.00 16400.32 -5.13 14.00 14600.15 54948789.00 13600.03 -36.00 14200.70 49070031.71 50518201.09 54608640.94 54760419.66 -24.04 48839423.12 13.90 -29.99 14.28 Tout (°C) 9.00 13200.00 16600.68 13.00 15000.00 15400.77 13.09 -2.00 15600.64 -38.73 13.00 18400.03 14.69 13.31 15.82 49343450.28 53779230.79 -30.91 13.51 13.58 -29.23 15.00 17200.00 18000.00 17200.12 15.70 -22.00 17000.67 -18.25 49000331.63 13.00 14000.00 15000.00 15200.06 -38.18 49950006.20 -29.48 13.59 54340289.25 -29.67 -18.30 -30.00 5.31 54687193.22 -15.69 -33.73 49441547.72 13.97 15.66 13.00 16000.29 48649130.00 14800.57 50365733.23 14.72 13.06 -38.15 15.17 14.86 14.00 14800.45 13.81 13.00 17800.07 -20.00 16800.46 55390742.04 49188405.08 14.19 49365636.72 49279331.00 18200.40 48542679.63 53370259.00 14000.19 15.97 -31.54 13.17 -30.00 17000.00 16200.00 16600.00 16800.00 17400.00 13400.84 13.22 53649137.17 15.00 18200.00 17600.79 13. cold climate C2= 1 C3 = 0 Flow (kmol/h) 13000.70 -13.31 55224337.00 12600.69 -8.60 -0.25 15.66 55001350.00 14600.00 18000.70 13.42 55091472.09 15.00 13600.20 49237257.22 B-10 .01 15.71 13.08 -29.44 -14.

83 42497786.21 -22.14 42980837.01 -24.04 -26.85 11.00 13800.00 15500.33 -24.99 -4.07 -25.00 16200.00 13200.00 12900.64 12.00 12400.47 42431234.00 14700.86 11.00 16000.57 43243074.52 -24.00 10700.87 11.20 13.27 46112120.97 45057505.67 44470664.95 11.17 -23.00 11500.55 -22.39 -20.15 12.59 12.3 Flow (kmol/h) 10500.40 12.09 -7.50 12.76 45450643.62 12.00 14500.00 Pressure exp= 672 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 44966732.60 -23.00 11400.86 11.06 -11.00 16100.01 12.00 14800.71 -22.76 42555136.19 45190904.00 14000.24 45139455.50 -23.72 42697838.00 15800.60 45906193.13 -24.69 47345540.86 11.61 0.73 45419726.76 11.00 12100.06 12.00 12000.71 -23.00 13600.94 12.21 43103184.00 15700.58 42798554.00 16300.00 12800.11 -10.Appendix 0.64 12.97 12.14 B-11 .30 -21.37 -17.00 14300.75 -8.19 45594834.00 11900.00 14200.00 47723944.00 13300.22 42739801.89 -15.14 46774651.33 -26.39 45726994.10 12.00 15200.70 12.00 11600.00 14600.89 -26.11 46418314.00 12200.04 42877505.68 -21.46 -23.60 12.52 45333059.00 11700.25 12.58 12.74 -23.94 43577847.55 45665527.38 -22.00 13000.65 12.63 45505818.00 14400.68 12.49 42696495.31 Tout (°C) 8.11 -21.67 12.64 12.57 -25.76 2.00 15400.70 -20.49 5.82 11.68 45380563.00 15900.20 -0.32 -23.49 12.92 -24.00 13900.00 16800.04 45473400.00 10900.00 16900.00 14100.88 -24.99 42687400.24 45488148.05 13.94 11.05 44116206.80 Tout (°C) 9.87 -23.67 12.89 45855444.00 15000.89 12.00 11100.63 44652601.00 12700.00 13500.49 -20.97 -23.75 12.52 12.30 12.81 12.63 12.96 45543022.00 12500.00 11300.00 15600.20 12.15 -1.56 12.26 13.00 17000.16 42668873.28 45494176.99 13.00 16500.87 43935787.00 16700.85 45277113.04 -22.35 -4.66 46084515.83 11.29 46966584.00 16400.37 47908754.79 11.44 45548215.47 -26.00 16600.71 -24.73 -25.00 13700.08 42704805.24 45372527.02 -23.48 47156004.00 11800.00 12300.61 12.00 15300.84 11.35 12.89 -25.21 42640829.16 46592139.49 -21.63 12.7 0.04 -12.54 12.66 -18.52 47531258.00 12600.19 -26.45 12.74 12.26 -14.85 12.86 11.03 45212616.71 12.28 -20.00 13100.00 15100.8 0.86 -22.65 45011938.07 43756940.80 11.88 5.20 46258638.91 -21.00 Pressure exp= 598 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 42353913.15 13.41 -25.00 14900.35 -20.65 12.49 2.89 11.21 44832822.10 13.03 43403750.61 45754369.00 13400.77 12.47 45979442.24 -25.2 Flow (kmol/h) 11200.55 12.91 11.39 44295314.92 42603172.

86 10.16 40323712.92 -19.09 0.00 13400.25 11.05 44410003.38 41214483.00 12400.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 0.64 11.00 10000.79 42212705.00 11200.33 11.41 39541022.52 39189076.85 43063499.00 15200.26 11.18 42724992.00 -20.00 14400.05 -22.05 42222194.89 10.00 17000.65 40812311.57 39404637.66 44242303.91 -21.00 16000.66 40008479.43 Tout (°C) Pressure exp= 453 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 38965167.11 11.91 11.54 40637331.75 42530330.54 -20.00 11800.00 11200.00 14600.61 42371242.46 11.59 11.66 43227524.00 14600.62 -2.36 -21.5 Flow (kmol/h) 9400.73 11.11 -19.15 -20.38 40164866.29 39696066.66 41266343.22 -3.10 12.66 -20.10 -17.68 41107864.89 10.17 -22.24 -21.95 -21.00 -19.29 11.89 10.31 -19.00 15200.00 10800.48 -19.41 43397969.79 -21.03 11.96 40476789.74 -19.00 15400.10 -21.58 39132680.00 11400.73 -18.24 11.00 15600.00 13600.91 40635435.38 -21.82 11.01 12.98 11.52 -21.22 5.80 -20.00 14200.59 11.84 41900709.25 -21.32 10.65 -20.90 10.00 15000.00 15000.76 41422816.98 39192571.00 16800.53 40671301.65 39190924.30 11.85 -19.30 -19.23 11.58 40949862.42 -18.28 40727117.45 11.68 11.43 -10.63 11.00 10800.38 12.96 12.29 11.00 15600.40 11.33 42056794.46 -19.84 10.95 10.92 39229195.54 -22.29 11.50 42689015.00 11000.82 10.91 44577811.37 11.00 14400.09 4.69 -18.86 43735978.51 11.42 11.00 11600.00 12000.00 14800.90 Tout (°C) 10.48 44072267.00 10200.00 14200.00 12000.00 12800.20 11.05 43568077.00 12200.12 41545860.27 11.77 11.18 42892908.00 12800.16 -19.47 -21.66 -19.14 40647306.68 39033224.00 13800.28 -20.92 11.58 -21.24 12.86 11.60 -19.39 39301480.00 14000.00 11400.00 16400.00 13200.00 10200.49 -20.65 -22.20 12.00 13600.00 14000.34 12.45 41056779.00 10600.33 -20.00 11600.6 0.83 -20.47 -6.00 13800.50 11.59 40616361.29 11.99 -17.00 15400.00 11000.02 -20.88 -20.00 12600.79 -20.07 11.23 39164466.00 12600.07 41580780.00 13200.52 -18.00 12400.00 16000.41 -20.30 -22.75 41884757.72 41382042.97 42387722.27 -13.34 11.15 12.96 40647618.29 11.44 41718002.04 41738808.54 11.34 42052171.73 42849684.00 9800.37 11.05 12.80 40488671.31 11.29 12.00 13400.92 -22.00 43903172.00 12200.73 11.5 0.00 9600.00 16600.31 40584613.95 40792161.00 10400.00 16200.16 11.87 11.00 14800.86 39851070.28 11.00 15800.87 10.75 39184396.97 40542260.00 13000.60 -18.19 44742452.14 -21.02 -21.68 11.16 -10.77 11.88 10.42 -22.88 10.04 39088924.61 40645103.68 B-12 .95 40921149.00 13000.69 -14.66 -21.36 -18.92 10.00 10600.00 11800.81 11.00 0.17 -20.85 1.00 15800.53 42557954.00 10400.76 Pressure exp= 525 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 40422828.53 -7.00 8.55 11.4 Flow (kmol/h) 10000.

70 38165788.69 38899614.00 15000.84 -22.17 11.00 11400.43 -21.80 -21.05 11.60 38303696.66 41270522.00 11200.00 9000.78 40269987.00 13200.65 40988241.11 -23.00 12600.3 0.30 11.31 38999903.00 12400.59 10.95 40820631.91 -22.87 -20.00 10400.45 -19.12 -9.39 38581441.00 13400.33 -20.06 38227509.72 10.93 40412946.00 11600.73 -19.00 14600.50 11.33 41130083.81 10.53 10.76 10.67 37928581.89 10.91 42010723.10 39709532.80 41268906.71 41121166.19 11.98 -20.63 11.37 38861009.62 10.42 11.00 10600.66 10.00 9200.00 13800.55 10.05 -23.00 10200.83 38442610.43 11.18 39987684.71 -21.79 10.87 10.00 15000.76 38184918.00 9600.00 9800.00 14200.26 11.21 11.54 10.00 10200.24 41866547.91 39192913.99 11.83 10.25 40521932.23 11.00 15400.08 38272720.59 -13.00 11000.61 -19.34 11.49 39849727.13 11.91 37905436.59 38753246.00 13000.00 -22.19 37818078.52 10.62 -22.83 39284357.55 -21.00 9600.39 11.76 10.18 B-13 .00 11400.08 0.38 11.00 13000.63 10.03 38274141.00 15200.82 -21.11 11.10 -20.88 40671220.86 -19.24 40372121.77 -20.89 -21.33 -21.56 38043597.00 12400.00 14800.39 -22.44 -20.00 10800.00 13400.00 14000.69 -22.29 40698850.93 41716190.72 10.06 -22.00 10000.29 -0.31 -22.00 14200.22 -19.31 11.81 37753591.64 10.54 10.49 10.66 -20.46 37938188.55 11.11 -21.00 15800.08 -21.00 12000.7 Flow (kmol/h) 8600.57 10.08 -19.15 11.71 Tout (°C) 9.91 10.00 11800.59 11.97 -22.14 -22.00 12600.68 10.23 -22.51 10.36 39141371.00 13600.60 40968854.09 11.86 39928628.67 11.48 -19.49 -5.00 12200.00 Pressure exp= 383 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 38060524.60 10.02 39563191.00 14000.00 15600.51 38257212.99 40841610.00 Pressure exp= 315 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 37675017.00 9800.00 8800.37 -21.90 40554823.64 10.46 11.55 -20.23 38278396.00 12200.43 38365209.01 11.63 10.58 10.95 10.98 38606557.00 10400.03 11.27 11.00 12800.00 13600.41 41416177.65 -21.23 -21.00 11600.24 4.06 38297377.97 -21.27 -21.54 10.23 -8.00 14400.00 9400.34 11.00 10000.76 -22.00 14400.61 42164787.74 -21.18 -21.21 -20.64 41566395.63 10.07 11.54 -22.00 9400.62 40130194.24 4.85 10.00 11800.60 0.00 11000.83 40077143.92 -18.Appendix 0.61 10.35 -19.96 38720035.19 39633929.39 39781009.00 14800.63 10.49 37868644.57 10.46 Tout (°C) 9.25 38470178.00 10800.00 14600.00 12800.13 -21.11 -4.00 16000.75 37935930.47 10.00 13200.44 -12.89 39339760.69 10.66 39422594.46 -22.62 -21.51 -16.40 39482390.00 13800.30 38129305.52 -21.00 9200.00 11200.00 12000.93 10.4 0.55 10.97 11.91 -22.13 37967579.71 40220791.6 Flow (kmol/h) 9000.98 -23.46 -21.15 39046417.00 10600.

95 41853557.66 -24.27 41951921.02 12.77 10.46 -30.64 10.00 8500.38 38396489.64 10.00 11100.57 -30.37 40586221.33 11.84 -25.72 -24.00 9200.8 Flow (kmol/h) 8200.04 11.27 39197407.44 -30.09 41288530.35 11.55 -30.49 -30.00 10600.00 9800.04 11.31 11.89 10.51 -30.66 38781919.67 41512263.Evaluation and selection of the precooling stage for LNG processes 0.93 10.79 -25.00 12100.51 -25.67 10.20 -30.10 Tout (°C) 9.00 12500.81 40055639.43 39056904.73 10.67 41715874.65 11.13 11.00 Pressure exp= 183 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 39218279.00 8800.76 42537413.08 39808950.00 11800.85 38034322.00 8600.30 -25.00 8400.29 11.41 -25.48 39721605.09 -30.61 -6.00 11400.29 39767423.82 -16.03 11.96 10.65 40490410.00 10700.00 12000.00 11200.00 14700.00 12800.06 -30.65 -25.39 11.51 -18.78 11.86 11.28 41657058.69 39676632.19 -5.00 13000.70 10.24 41430015.93 10.98 12.00 11000.38 41219666.55 11.58 38305089.09 11.00 9900.00 15000.00 13800.00 11.02 -25.12 -9.80 -11.46 -25.00 11600.43 11.35 3.97 -25.00 -30.00 9500.94 11.17 -30.00 13700.46 38314937.23 39751397.06 39616334.00 14500.41 11.00 9700.12 -30.19 41365905.30 -30.63 B-14 .00 14900.86 42392561.01 0.00 Pressure exp= 239 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 37935263.00 11500.82 11.00 14000.00 11.44 40447630.00 14100.00 12400.61 -30.57 41147197.42 -30.53 -30.1 0.00 10100.82 41070991.89 10.00 10000.23 -30.00 14600.79 -24.68 -21.00 12700.00 9400.98 11.15 42686698.31 40726510.73 11.88 -25.00 14400.98 -23.00 10200.00 8100.06 40635357.00 8300.62 10.46 10.69 11.35 -30.00 14800.25 11.21 11.00 13500.88 39910111.25 -30.00 12900.00 13900.57 10.14 -25.92 -0.58 38329170.00 12200.86 39540547.85 10.22 4.00 10900.79 42098687.34 40925631.00 13400.46 40782499.59 43129027.59 11.00 13200.67 40197495.18 39341737.59 40307052.25 -25.63 10.44 39468109.78 38918324.00 11900.75 -25.65 10.61 11.27 11.89 38279564.00 14300.70 40342917.69 39333920.92 -29.00 8900.15 -30.37 -30.00 10500.16 11.06 11.69 40166161.00 9000.08 11.00 14200.77 -1.00 13600.70 40026530.57 11.48 39887814.00 9100.00 12600.00 10400.55 38116971.62 10.00 10800.36 43571660.80 42833288.00 13100.76 41569510.81 10.20 11.00 10300.89 -14.85 -24.43 41805267.30 -24.97 -26.47 11.00 8700.36 38185657.59 -30.9 Flow (kmol/h) 7900.37 11.56 -25.55 38240100.45 11.61 10.61 -25.90 11.40 -30.2 0.95 43425128.03 -30.96 11.28 -30.53 11.71 42982501.93 -25.70 -25.46 39610190.63 Tout (°C) 10.17 11.02 11.77 39449083.12 11.54 10.00 12300.00 9300.98 -30.91 -24.08 -25.49 11.11 43276519.00 11700.00 13300.05 11.37 41006921.32 -30.37 -25.00 9600.06 12.24 11.35 -25.00 11300.05 42245320.59 10.32 38645518.23 39749271.19 -25.51 11.35 38507668.33 40870846.

06 -38.46 43334986.00 13000.06 -38.84 11.00 8400.00 9600.48 47593812.27 12.00 Pressure exp= 121 kPa Power (MW and kJ/h) 42301100.32 46568959.00 9200.00 8600.00 9400.13 13.17 3.00 13200.00 11000.06 -38.06 -38.60 12.06 -38.62 46227341.06 B-15 .15 -38.06 -38.34 43156791.23 11.04 46910576.15 -18.94 12.96 11.27 Tout (°C) 9.06 -38.70 12.00 13400.60 43836017.37 47764621.65 -37.60 42468387.00 11800.01 12.06 -38.00 10400.29 -2.63 47423003.03 13.99 12.22 12.00 13600.00 12800.32 12.00 15000.48 45202488.71 43665208.01 43108401.00 12400.17 13.74 44860870.76 43188996.88 44690061.97 42962433.04 12.00 8800.03 45714914.83 42864488.06 -38.06 -38.06 -38.15 44348444.00 11400.97 11.13 12.89 12.00 14000.00 10200.75 47252194.67 43043673.21 -28.38 -7.22 13.06 -38.06 -38.29 44177635.06 -38.00 7800.75 12.88 11.26 -23.06 -38.17 45544106.98 13.19 46739768.46 12.00 9000.00 12.75 11.30 45373297.37 12.41 12.08 13.51 12.00 13800.06 -38.47 46398150.06 -38.79 12.84 12.93 11.06 -38.00 9800.86 -13.06 -38.00 11600.43 44006826.00 14200.00 12200.06 -38.34 43494399.76 46056532.18 12.Appendix 0 1 Flow (kmol/h) 7600.08 12.80 11.00 8000.00 14600.65 12.00 11200.00 12000.06 -38.92 47081385.70 42750784.91 11.06 -38.86 43231061.00 -32.90 45885723.06 -38.60 45031679.49 42618179.00 10800.00 14400.00 12600.00 10000.56 12.00 10600.06 -38.06 -38.00 14800.00 8200.01 44519252.06 -38.06 -38.

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based on the minimum work to be achieved. The result of the optimization is shown in Equation C. k is the ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume (Cp/Cv). a differentiation of W is performed and the resulting expression is set to equal zero. 𝑃1 (C.3. R is the universal gas constant.1.2. the amount of work required to do the task is given by Equation C. 𝑘 𝑃𝑖 �𝑇1 �� � 𝑊 = 𝑅 𝑘 − 1 𝑃1 𝑘−1 𝑘 𝑃2 − 1� + 𝑇𝑖 �� � 𝑃𝑖 𝑘−1 𝑘 − 1�� (C.1) W represents the sum of the work of the first and second stage compressors. P1 and T1 are known inlet pressure and temperature.Appendix Appendix C: Multistage compression Consider a process in which a gas at certain conditions of pressure (P1) and temperature (T1) has to increase its pressure to a given P2. 𝑃1 𝑇1 𝑘 (C. If the process will be carried out through two consecutive stages with intercooling. 𝑃𝑖 (𝑜𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑙) 𝑇𝑖 2𝑘−2 =� � �𝑃3 . In order to optimize such a two stage compression process. 𝑃𝑖 (𝑜𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑙 ) = �𝑃3 . this is shown in Equation C.3) C-1 . under adiabatic conditions. Pi and Ti are the pressure and temperature of the intermediate stage.2) For most of the practical applications the given equation can be further simplified if it is assumed that the temperature achieved by the intercooler between stages (Ti) is equal to the inlet temperature of the compressor (T1). whilst P2 is the pressure to be reached by the process.