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Styles of Thinking

The thought styles are perspective or filters used to understand and to see the reality. The form as a person sees the world, affects the type of question that it makes and what it accepted as explanation. The people analyze the problems of different forms, due to selective perception and to the conditioning. The scientific inquiry is the preferred method for the researchers to analyze the problems being of great importance the sources of high-quality and high value that will go to produce the best results for one determined situation or decision to be taken. The empirics try to describe, to explain and to foresee on the basis of information gotten through the comments. The empirics uses experiences and methods of logical induction, including and statistics mathematical. The empirics also uses the modeling of a procedure for the collection of information, that can be used to decide if one definitive understanding of a problem and its possible solution are correct. The rationalism differs from the empirics for the fact of that the rationalists believe that all the knowledge can be deduced of the known laws or the basic truths of the nature, being more good understood and decided through the formal logic and of the mathematics, being that such efforts are operated independently of the comment and the collection of data. The Philosophy of Science classifies six main styles of thinking associates to the scientific method, as half important to assure the “truth”. It does not have a perspective that it is best. It must be known the advantages to find the information, as well as the strong and weak points of the selected perspective. 1. Untested opinion They are not of very value to improve the understanding of the reality. They involve myth, illogical superstition, conclusions and intuition in the form of “reaffirmation of the certainty feeling”, even so rare this feeling persists after occurrence the fact. 2. Self-evident truth Determined proposals can seem reasonable at one definitive time or place, but they are not true. Examples: “all drivers are on the right side of the road”; “practices of quality methods of the Japanese industry are universally applicable to the Brazilian problems of productivity”. 3. Method of the authority This method is based on people who have authority, to increase the confidence on the knowledge. The vision of these sources must be accepted with caution. The problem is that, frequently, the authority depends more the position than its specialty, nor always supplying tests with integrity, quality, beyond the disposal presenting an open and balanced case. 4. Literary style This approach is used in many classic case studies in social sciences. The literary perspective says that “a person, a movement or all a culture can be interpreted much m ore in terms and perspective specific intentions and of the actors of what in terms of abstract and general categories of the auto-explanatory project of the scientists”. As it is difficult to generalize from studies of individual cases, the literary style restricts the capacity to derive generally applicable knowledge or truths. 5. Scientific method The current scientific methods join the best aspects of the logic and rational boarding with the observations aspects of the empirical orientation in a joined and systematic perspective. The essential principles of the scientific method are:- Direct observation of the phenomenon;- Variables, methods and procedures clearly defined; - Hypotheses that can be empirically tested; - Capacity to exclude contrary hypotheses; - Justification of the form of statistics conclusions, non linguistics ones; - Process of self-correction. 6. Postulational style. The objective of this perspective is to reduce the study object the mathematical and formal terms, calls of postulates, of form to generate a mathematical model that can answer for any phenomenon that has a similar form. Examples: computerized simulations in the areas of operations, production and marketing. Source: