You are on page 1of 33

Installation and Configuration Guide Extractor-based Data Acquisition by SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection

 SAP HANA Appliance Software SPS 04
Target Audience ■ ■ ■ Consultants Administrators Others

Public Document version 1.0 – 07/12/2012

Installation and Configuration Guide

History of Changes
The SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection (DXC) Installation and Configuration Guide is regularly updated at http://service.sap.com/hana  Installation and Initial Configuration. Make sure you have the latest version of this document by checking SAP Service Marketplace immediately before starting the installation. The following table provides an overview of the most important changes that were made in the latest versions. Master Guide Version 1.00 (April 30, 2012) Important Changes Initial version of the document

2

April 2012

Installation and Configuration Guide

Contents
1 Getting Started ............................................................................................... 5 1.1 About this Document................................................................................ 5 1.2 Related Information ................................................................................. 6 1.2.1 Planning Information ......................................................................... 6 1.2.2 Further Useful Links .......................................................................... 6 1.3 Important SAP Notes ............................................................................... 7 2 Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection............................... 9 2.2 Setup steps in SAP HANA ..................................................................... 11 2.2.1 Enabling XSEngine and ICM Service .............................................. 11 2.2.2 Setup of SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection ........................... 12 2.3 Delivery Unit Import ............................................................................... 12 2.4 Application Server Configuration ........................................................... 12 2.4.1 Testing the Setup of the DXC Application ....................................... 13 2.4.2 Creating a DXC User in SAP HANA ................................................ 13 2.4.3 Creating a DXC Schema in SAP HANA .......................................... 14 2.5 Setup Steps in the SAP Business Suite System .................................... 14 2.5.1 Create an HTTP Connection to the SAP HANA System ................. 14 2.5.2 Configure DXC HTTP Interface Destination .................................... 15 2.5.3 Choose the System-Wide Setting for DataSources ......................... 15 2.5.4 Create and Populate a Table to Specify the DataSources Used by DXC ................................................................................................. 16 2.5.5 Indicate the Table Used to Specify the DataSources for Use with DXC ................................................................................................. 17 2.5.6 Designate the Schema in SAP HANA to Store IMDSOs ................. 18 3 Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse ......................... 19 3.1 Install Business Content DataSources ................................................... 19 3.2 Replicate DataSources .......................................................................... 19 3.3 Create InfoPackages ............................................................................. 20 3.4 Monitor Data Load in the Source SAP Business Suite System .............. 21 3.5 Verifying Data Transfer in the SAP HANA Database ............................. 21 3.6 Create a Process Chain for Regular Data Transfer ............................... 22 3.7 Monitoring the Activation Process of In-Memory DataStore Objects in SAP HANA............................................................................................. 24 3.8 Setup Email Alerting for the Activation Process of In-Memory DataStore Objects in SAP HANA ........................................................... 24 3.9 DXC and SAP HANA Data Modeling ..................................................... 25 3.10 Further Information .............................................................................. 25 4 Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The “Sidecar” Approach ..... 27 5 References ................................................................................................... 29

April 2012

3

Installation and Configuration Guide 4 April 2012 .

6C).1 About this Document Purpose This Installation and Configuration Guide is the central starting point for the technical implementation of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection in an SAP HANA appliance.  Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse This section gives an overview of the configuration of SAP Business Warehouse and how to transfer data from DataSources to SAP HANA using DXC. This guide refers you to the required detailed information about:    Import of delivery units SAP Notes Configuration documentation For a general overview of the available SAP documentation.  Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The “Sidecar” Approach This section gives an overview of the “sidecar” approach which covers the following use cases: o You want to implement DXC with an older version of SAP Business Suite system. see The Main SAP Documentation Types. this guide gives information about basic operation of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection.sap. Additionally. It also contains references to the most important SAP Notes that apply to the installation and configuration of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection. that is. o You already use the embedded BW system and do not want to use it for the purpose of transferring data from BW to SAP HANA using DXC. which you can find on SAP Service Marketplace at http://service. The central starting point for the technical upgrade of your SAP application/solution is the Upgrade Master Guide. You can find scenario-specific information in this guide.  Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection This section gives an overview of the installation of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection and the different setup steps. April 2012 5 . not based on SAP NetWeaver 7. 1. Use this guide to get an overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection. This Installation and Configuration Guide consists of the following main sections:  Getting Started This section gives an overview of the purpose of this document. and its scenarios from a technical perspective. particularly scheduling and monitoring of extraction and load.Getting Started 1 Getting Started The SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection (DXC) Installation and Configuration Guide provides information about setup and technical configuration of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection (DXC).com/instguides.0 or higher (for example 4. its delivery units.

sap.com/<quick link> http://help.2.com/instguides. calculation of hardware requirements .2 Related Information 1. enter http://service.com/instguides http://service.com/hana  SAP HANA Appliance  Administration Guide http://service.Getting Started  References This section gives an overview of related documents containing further information about the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection.com/platforms To access the Platform Availablity Matrix directly. We strongly recommend that you use the documents available here.sap.com/performance http://service.com/irj/sdn/ha http://service. http://service.sap.com/message http://service.sap. 1. The guides are regularly updated.com/sp-stacks 1.com/pam.sap.sap.com/securityguide http://www.com/quicksizer http://service.sap.com/notes 6 April 2012 . disk and memory resource with the Quick Sizer tool Released platforms and technology-related topics such as maintenance strategies and language support Network security High Availability Performance Information about Support Package Stacks.2.2 Further Useful Links The following table lists further useful links on SAP Service Marketplace: Content Information about creating error messages SAP Notes search Location on SAP Service Marketplace http://service.sdn. You can find the most current information about the technical implementation of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection and the latest installation and configuration guides on SAP Service Marketplace at http://service.such as CPU. latest software versions and patch level requirements Location on SAP Service Marketplace http://service.sap.sap.sap.1 Planning Information For more information about planning topics not covered in this guide. see the following content on SAP Service Marketplace: Content Latest versions of installation and upgrade guides General information about the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection SAP HANA Administration Guide Sizing.sap.sap.sap.

3 Important SAP Notes You must read the following SAP Notes before you start the installation. Apply this note to the source SAP Business Suite system only if you have the “sidecar” scenario described in section Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The "Sidecar" Approach. 1710236 1714852 SAP HANA DXC: DataSource Restrictions Troubleshooting SAP HANA DXC issues Lists specific DataSources not supported by DXC. Make sure that you have the up-to-date version of each SAP Note. Provides information on how to monitor SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection (DXC). Before applying this not to your SAP Business Suite system. Guidance for troubleshooting DXC issues and the 1670518 1688750 DataSource: Reading a property in the source system 1701750 DataSource: Secondary Index on the PSA 1677278 DataSource: Changing the Key Definition (A version) April 2012 7 . in particular the activation processing for In-Memory DataStore Objects (IMDSOs).sap. SAP Note Number 1583403 Title Direct extractor connection to SAP HANA SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection: Monitoring Description Main note for setup steps required in the source SAP Business Suite system. These SAP Notes contain the most recent information on the installation. Provides a report where you can define a semantic key for any DataSources that are missing keys. which you can find on SAP Service Marketplace at http://service. If your DataSource is missing a key. first apply SAP note 1701750 to any BW systems connected to the SAP Business Suite system you are using with DXC. DataSources without keys will cause an error when you try to generate the In-Memory DataStore Object in SAP HANA.com/notes.Getting Started 1. as well as corrections to the installation documentation. apply this note to any BW systems connected to the SAP Business Suite system you are using with DXC.

1714933 DXC: Partitioning In-Memory DSO tables 8 April 2012 . Provides information about partitioning active data tables of IMDSOs where large data volume is expected.Getting Started appropriate action to take. 1665553 Handling issues with IMDSO activation – SAP HANA DXC Discusses how to report issues with In-Memory DataStore Object activation to SAP.

A key point about DXC is that in many use cases. The alternative configuration is available for SAP Business Suite systems based on releases lower than SAP NetWeaver 7.htm and http://help.htm). which are based on SAP Business Suite entities. For more April 2012 9 . transformation.sap. SAP Business Content DataSource Extractors have been available for many years as a basis for data modeling and data acquisition for SAP Business Warehouse.0 or higher – such as ECC 6. data from different areas in SAP Business Suite systems requires application logic to appropriately represent business documents.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection 2 Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connect (DXC) is a means for providing out-of-the-box foundational data models to SAP HANA. every 15 minutes). DXC is a batch-driven data acquisition technique.com/saphelp_nw70/helpdata/en/6e/fe6e420f00d242e10000000a1550b0/conte nt.com/saphelp_nw04/helpdata/en/49/ae67401d4988448036b180dc9ec1e6/fram eset. for example. The rationale for DXC is essentially simple. now with DXC. DXC is also a data acquisition method. In many cases.   The default configuration is available for SAP Business Suite systems based on SAP NetWeaver 7. it should be considered as a form of extraction.sap.6. these SAP Business Content DataSource Extractors are available to deliver data directly to SAP HANA. Overview of the DXC Rationale:  Leverage pre-existing foundational data models of SAP Business Suite entities for use in SAP HANA data mart scenarios: o Significantly reduces complexity of data modeling tasks in SAP HANA o Speeds up timelines for SAP HANA implementation projects  Provide semantically rich data from SAP Business Suite to SAP HANA: o Ensures that data appropriately represents the state of business documents from ERP o Application logic to give the data the appropriate contextual meaning is already built into many extractors  Simplicity / Low TCO: o Re-uses existing proprietary extraction. Customer projects may face significant complexity in modeling entities in SAP Business Suite systems. batch-driven data acquisition at certain intervals is sufficient (for example.0. see http://help.0 – such as SAP ERP 4. and load mechanism built into SAP Business Suite systems over a simple http(s) connection to SAP HANA o No additional server or application needed in system landscape  Change data capture (delta handling): o Efficient data acquisition – only bring new or changed data into SAP HANA o DXC provides a mechanism to properly handle data from all delta processing types Default DXC Configuration for SAP Business Suite DXC is available in different configurations based on the SAP Business Suite system. low TCO data acquisition for SAP HANA leveraging existing delivered data models. transformation and load although its transformation capabilities are limited to user exit for extraction (for more information.

and instead sends data to SAP HANA. An In-Memory DataStore Object (IMDSO) is generated in SAP HANA. data warehousing. process chains. and they rely on that one. this embedded BW system inside SAP Business Suite systems is actually not utilized. the data load monitor. As of SAP NetWeaver version 7. DXC does not require BW on SAP HANA. since most customers who run BW have it installed on a separate server. The active data table of the IMDSO can be utilized as a basis for building data models in SAP HANA (attribute views. Also with DXC. SAP Business Warehouse (BW) is part of SAP NetWeaver itself. analytical views. which directly corresponds to the structure of the DataSource you are working with.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection information about the configuration with a SAP Business Suite system based on releases lower than SAP NetWeaver 7. With the default DXC configuration. 10 April 2012 . Generally. This IMDSO consists of several tables and an activation mechanism. data is not loaded into the embedded BW system. etc – which are all well known from operating SAP Business Warehouse. which means a BW system exists inside SAP Business Suite systems such as ERP (ECC 6. DXC extraction processing essentially bypasses the normal dataflow. An SAP Business Suite system is based on SAP NetWeaver. Typically. the extraction and load process is virtually the same as when extracting and loading SAP Business Warehouse – you rely on InfoPackage scheduling.0. Data is transferred from the source SAP Business Suite system using an HTTP connection. we utilize the scheduling and monitoring features of this embedded BW system. see section Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The "Sidecar" Approach.0. or reporting / BI. This BW system is referred to as an “embedded BW system”. Instead.0 or higher). The following illustration depicts the default configuration of DXC. but do not utilize its other aspects such as storing data. data is redirected into SAP HANA. and calculation views).

Click Save to save the new value. a green light showing the number 1 on the Host column should be displayed. depending on the instance number of your installation. Open SAP HANA studio. If the value 1 is not displayed. expand the xsengine section. Check if the XSEngine is running by accessing the following URL: http://<hostname>:80<instance number> The port name in this URL may differ on your system. Right-click your SAP HANA instance and select Administration from the context menu to open the Administration perspective of your SAP HANA instance. April 2012 11 .2. For the instances parameter. 4. 2.ini section.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection 2. double-click the instances parameter and change the configuration value from 0 to 1.1 Enabling XSEngine and ICM Service Ensure that the necessary technology components in SAP HANA are running. 6. a green light showing the number 1 on the Host column should be displayed.ini section and then the sapwebdisp section. Click Save to save the new value. 5. 8. 3. If the value 1 is not displayed.2   Setup steps in SAP HANA This section describes the following steps: Enabling XSEngine and ICM Service Setup of the Direct Extractor Connection 2. proceed as follows to enable them: 1. double-click the instances parameter and change the configuration value from 0 to 1. 7. that is:   the XSEngine the ICM service If these services are not running. Expand the daemon. Select the Configuration tab. If the XSEngine and ICM are operational. you should see the following information on your screen: SAP XSEngine is up and running. Continuing in the daemon. For the xsengine parameter.

and click Finish. Open SAP HANA studio and change to the SAP HANA modeler perspective. 6.    Import the delivery unit for DXC Configure the XS Application server to utilize DXC Verify that DXC is operational 2. Acquire the delivery unit archive from the SAP Service Marketplace at http://service. Importing the delivery unit For importing the delivery unit. 2. 12 April 2012 . choose Delivery Unit and click Next.sap. 2. an entry has to be added in the application server configuration. enter libxsdxc. 4. 2. Keep the existing defaults. put a comma after the existing value and add the value libxsdxc. Select Client and navigate to the location on your local computer where you have stored the delivery unit archive.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection 2. libxsdxc. 4.2 Setup of SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection The setup of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection application consists of the following parts. expand the HANA Content node. 1. Once the delivery unit import is completed.4 Application Server Configuration The use of the DXC application has to be enabled with the XSEngine component of SAP HANA. On the Quick launch tab. prepare the delivery unit archive for import.3 Delivery Unit Import Prerequisites Prior to importing the delivery unit. 3.com/swdc and save it to a location on your local computer.ini section and then the application_container section. Open the SAP HANA studio and select the instance of the SAP HANA database. in the Content section choose Import. Expand the xsengine. The status in the Object import simulation should display green lights. 3. In the New Value field. 5. Select the delivery unit archive and click OK. Open the Administration perspective and select the Configuration tab. Right-click the application_list parameter and select Change from the context menu. If another value is already there. do the following: 1.2. To do so. the message Completed Successfully is displayed. 5. In the lower right part of the screen you should see a tab display for Job Log. with a progress indicator under Current. for example searchservice. In the Import dialog.

Response status is 2. choose the Landscape tab. 401 Unauthorized (as expected) Sending second request (authorized). in location such as /usr/sap/<SID>/HDC<sysnum>/backup. 2.zip. 6. In the navigation tree. Use ftp or a similar utility to place the connection test file from the ZIP file on the Linux file system. a python script is provided. you will be prompted to save a file with the name dxc.. Open SAP HANA studio and select your SAP HANA system. the XSEngine has to be restarted. 2.. done. enter a password and confirm the password. 2.xscfunc Using database user 'SYSTEM' and password '<password>' Sending first request (unauthorized). In order to make the new configuration effective. On the Granted Roles tab.. The DXC application should be accessible now by using the following URL: http://<hostname>:80<instance number>/dxc/dxc. To check the setup. To create this user – in the following sections referred to as the DXC user – do the following: 1. 1. 2. 3.4. 4. Unzip the file DXCConnectionTest. 3. The status light will change to yellow and then to red.xscfunc If the check is successful. Right-click Users and select New User. you will see the following results: Testing connectivity of url: http://localhost:80<instance number>/DXC/DXC. select Catalog  Authorization  Users.. In the User Name field. 5.xscfunc to your computer. April 2012 13 . 3. for example DXCUSER.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection 6. Right-click the xsengine service and select Stop. Check if DXC is operational.2 Creating a DXC User in SAP HANA Create a user who has the privileges to execute the DXC extraction and load.4. enter an appropriate name. The contents of this file are not important. In the Administration perspective of SAP HANA studio. Run the python script with the following command (provide password for SYSTEM user): python connectionTest. Response status is done. Click Save. add the roles PUBLIC and MONITORING. Proceed as follows: 1. the test is successful if calling this URL produces this file. Right-click the xsengine service again and select Start missing services.1 Testing the Setup of the DXC Application You can check if the setup of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection application was successful and works as expected. 200 OK (as expected) CONNECTION TEST SUCCESSFUL 4.py --httpport=80<instance number> --dbpwd =<password for SAP HANA database> If the connection test was successful. Select internal authentication.

select the node HTTP Connections to External Server and click the Create icon.5. In SAP HANA studio.1 Create an HTTP Connection to the SAP HANA System In the SAP Business Suite system. 2. enter /dxc/dxc. 3. You should create a distinct schema for each specific SAP Business Suite system that you will connect to this SAP HANA system with DXC. create an HTTP destination of type G using the transaction SM59. 2. In the Technical Settings tab. 1. please refer to SAP note 1583403. The port number is 80<instance number> of your SAP HANA database.4.5       Setup Steps in the SAP Business Suite System Setup in the SAP Business Suite comprises the following steps: Create an HTTP Connection to the SAP HANA System Configure DXC HTTP Interface Destination Choose the System-Wide Setting for DataSources Create and Populate a Table to Specify the DataSources Used by DXC (only if you choose the setting DATASOURCE) Indicate the Table Used to Specify the DataSources for Use with DXC (only if you choose the setting DATASOURCE) Designate the Schema in SAP HANA to Store In-Memory DataStore Objects For more information. Provide a name for the HTTP destination. Click Deploy or press F8 to create the schema. Click the green Deploy icon. enter the target host name and the port number of your remote SAP HANA system in the Target Host and Service No.3 Creating a DXC Schema in SAP HANA Create a schema for use with the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection which is owned by the DXC user. execute the following SQL statement: create schema <SCHEMANAME> owned by <DXCUSERNAME> Example: create schema R3TSCHEMA owned by DXCUSER 2.xscfunc. 4.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection 7. On the Configuration of RFC Connections screen. for example DXC_HANA_CONNECTION_<SID>. 2. 1. In the Path Prefix field. 2. fields. 14 April 2012 .

which is the primary BW configuration table. 2. 6. depending on your choice. choose Basic Authentication and provide the user name and password of your DXC user. if you are using the embedded BW for some purpose other than DXC (or you might in the future). unless you are using the “sidecar” approach discussed in section Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The "Sidecar" Approach. Keep in mind that subsequent references to SAP BW typically refer to the embedded BW system which lives inside the SAP Business Suite system. . 2. the HTTP destination to the SAP HANA system created earlier is designated as the connection used for DXC.5. 1. Create an additional entry object PSA_TO_HDB. 2. o In the OBJECT field. When you choose this value. the embedded BW could potentially become completely disabled. for example DXC_HANA_CONNECTION_<SID>. Make sure that you use upper and lower case letters for the name of the HTTP destination correctly. and then click Execute (F8) to create the table entry. In the VALUE field. Use transaction SA38 to execute the program SAP_RSADMIN_MAINTAIN. depending on the option which is best in your scenario: o GLOBAL All DataSources are available for use with DXC.If you are using the embedded BW. it is no longer possible to execute any BW processes or reports in the source system. enter the value PSA_TO_HDB_DESTINATION. o In the VALUE field. enter either the value GLOBAL. the choice in this section is very important. and make the choice only after proper consideration. The choice you make for this next configuration setting determines whether the normal BW functionality is available in the system you are using with DXC. Keep in mind that this refers to the BW system used with DXC (which is typically the the embedded BW inside an SAP Business Suite system. . Use transaction SA38 to execute the program SAP_RSADMIN_MAINTAIN. which is very often not April 2012 15 . enter the name of the HTTP destination you created. Take time to discuss the implications of the choice you make here. Click Save. 1. you specify the extent of the use of DXC in the source SAP Business Suite system. Nontheless.2 Configure DXC HTTP Interface Destination Create an entry in the table RSADMIN.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection 5. Click Insert. On the Logon & Security tab. 2. In this table. it would not be affected (no matter what choice you make in this section). SYSTEM or DATASOURCE.3 Choose the System-Wide Setting for DataSources In this configuration step.5.If you have a remote BW connected to this SAP Business Suite system.

o SYSTEM Only the specified clients are used with DXC. 1. then choose this option. 16 April 2012 . enter a custom table name. in the Delivery Class field. 3. On the Delivery and Maintenance tab. transformed and loaded into the PSA of the SAP BW system. then in order to be able to use specifc DataSources with DXC. Click Create. this setting has no impact (except in the “sidecar” scenario. o In the Database Table field. Any DataSources not specified can be extracted. o Select the checkboxes in the Key and Initial Values columns. o In the Data element column. transformed and loaded into the PSA of the SAP BW system (typically this is the embedded BW). Press ENTER to apply the changes and to change to the next table row. Fill out the first table row as follows: o In the Field column. where it does . 2. Click Execute (F8) to create the table entry. for example ZDXCDATASOURCES. provide description for the table. 6. 4. 4. select C. o In the Short Description field. you have to create a customer-specific database table to list the DataSources to use with DXC.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection used). 7. Use transaction SE11 to create a new table. List. If you have a separate SAP BW system connected to this SAP Business Suite system. The remaining clients are available for DataSources to be extracted. Once you have decided on the appropriate configuration setting. If you decide to use the DATASOURCE setting. Fill out the next table row as follows: o In the Field column. 3. see section Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The "Sidecar" Approach). enter the text for that choice (for example DATASOURCE). If this SAP BW system (embedded BW or sidecar BW) is used for other purposes besides DXC.4 Create and Populate a Table to Specify the DataSources Used by DXC The steps described in this section are only required if you choose the value DATASOURCE for the PSA_TO_HDB entry object. and click Insert. enter the value LOGSYS. 2. and choose Display/Maintenance Allowed from the Data Browser/Table View Maint. for example DataSources for DXC. keep in mind that any DataSources you choose to be used by DXC cannot be used in this (embedded or sidecar) SAP BW system.5. Change to the Fields tab. However. 5. o DATASOURCE Only the specified DataSources are used with DXC. enter the value ROOSOURCER. enter the value DATASOURCE.

Repeat this action for all DataSources (and all associated relevant clients) that you want to use with DXC. assign this to a change request for eventual transport. Enter the specific DataSource name and logical system name for the relevant client.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection o Select the checkbox in the Key column. Click Technical Settings. 12. April 2012 17 . o In the Data element column. 8. enter the table name you created in the previous section. Activation warnings can generally be ignored in this case. for example ZDXCDATASOURCES and click Create. and enter them with proper spelling. You have successfully created and populated a table to designate the specific DataSources / clients that you will use with DXC.5. 9. consult with someone responsible for transporting objects in your system landscape. 10. Press ENTER to apply the changes. You can add entries to this table later if you decide to work with additional DataSources. 1. Create table entries for the specific DataSources that you will use with DXC. enter the value PSA_TO_HDB_DATASOURCETABLE. 2. 2.5 Indicate the Table Used to Specify the DataSources for Use with DXC The steps described in this section are only required if you choose the value DATASOURCE for the PSA_TO_HDB entry object. Click Save and then click the green circle with an arrow to return to the previous screen. so you will need to know the exact technical name for the DataSource and logical system name. o In the OBJECT field. There is no value help dropdown here. 13. 1. A dialog box appears where you can enter an appropriate customer package (starting with “Z”) for the object directory entry. 3. and choose 0 in the Size category field. In the next dialog box. Click Save. Use transaction SA38 to execute the program SAP_RSADMIN_MAINTAIN. Use transaction SE16. enter APPL2 in the Data Class field. enter the value RSSLOGSYS. Click Activate to activate the table. 11. If you are not sure which package to use. Do not select the checkbox in the Initial Values column. In the next screen. 14.

for example R3TSCHEMA. An IMDSO is a set of tables with an activation mechanism.5. Use transaction SA38 to execute the program SAP_RSADMIN_MAINTAIN. 2. Perform the following actions: 1. 2. see the section Creating a DXC Schema in SAP HANA. enter the name of the SAP HANA database schema to use.Overview of the SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection o In the VALUE field. In order to make sure that the IMDSOs are generated in the appropriate schema into the SAP HANA database. for example ZDXCDATASOURCES. 2. Click Insert. 18 April 2012 . and then click Execute (F8). Create the entry object PSA_TO_HDB_SCHEMA. In the VALUE filed. enter the name of the name of the table you created in the previous section to hold the specific DataSources you want to enable for DXC. For more information about creating DXC schema. Use the schema that you created in SAP HANA.6 Designate the Schema in SAP HANA to Store IMDSOs Within the SAP HANA database. an In-Memory DataStore Object (IMDSO) is generated for each DataSource. assign the DXC schema to be used.

Select the specific DataSource that you want to install and click Activate DataSources. many configurations are performed automatically. the transaction RSA1 or other BW-related functions cannot be used in any other client. 1. It is very difficult to change to another client later. If prompted about the type of DataSource. In the Change DataSources dialog.2 Replicate DataSources The next steps involve working in the BW Data Warehousing workbench (transaction RSA1).x type DataSource. do not choose the old 3. For further information about creating source systems for this purpose.com/nw_platform  <your SAP NetWeaver Platform version>  Application Help  SAP Library  <your language>  SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse. click the Activate icon. as once you have executed transaction RSA1. All DataSources that have been installed using transaction RSA5 are transferred to the Data Warehousing workbench. Right-click the source system you are working with and select Replicate DataSources. InfoPackages.Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse 3 Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse The next steps require SAP Business Warehouse (BW) knowledge. please refer to the SAP BW documentation and online help at http://help. you have to create source systems for any clients in the SAP Business Suite system that should be able to extract data and load it to the SAP HANA database.1 Install Business Content DataSources 1. BW functionality is used to provide foundational data models to SAP HANA and to transfer data to SAP HANA via DXC. please refer to the BW documentation at http://help. if you are unsure which SAP Business Content DataSources you should work with. in particular working with DataSources. Be aware that once you have decided which client in your system is the BW client. 2. Additionally.sap. Consider the client to use for the BW client carefully.sap.com/nw_platform  <your SAP NetWeaver Platform version>  Application Help  SAP Library  <your language>  SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse. If you do not have prior SAP BW knowledge. In order to be able to transfer data. Although data is not sent into BW when working with DXC. you are encouraged to work with someone such as a consultant who is familiar with DataSources as well as data load scheduling and monitoring in BW. For further information about working with the various SAP BW concepts and tasks described in this guide. Use transaction RSA5 to start the Installation of DataSource from Business Content. you are encouraged to work with someone who has knowledge of the specific domain area. Right-click the DataSource(s) you want to work with and select Change. 3. April 2012 19 . choose DataSource for all. This creates an In-Memory DataStore Object (IMDSO) in the SAP HANA database that corresponds to the DataSource structure. 3. 2. and Extraction/Load in a BW context. 3.

2.3 Create InfoPackages In order to be able to load the DataSources into the SAP HANA database. When a DXC extraction/load job executes. or several InfoPackages for full load using selection criteria. o /BIC/A<DATASOURCENAME>70. This activation mechanism preserves proper sequence of records and ensures that all delta processing types (change data capture) are handled appropriately. you have to create InfoPackages for the DataSources. it loads the entire series of data packages for this job into this activation queue. This is the table that will end up storing all of the data that gets loaded into this IMDSO from DXC. for performance reasons it makes sense to partition the active data table of that IMDSO. Expand the folder for Tables and you should see the tables that make up the IMDSO. On the Schedule tab. In the Data Warehousing workbench. In some cases. and then in a separate step they are activated into the active data table. 3. please refer to SAP note 1714933. This table is the one to use in SAP HANA data modeling – it is a base DB (columnar) table that can be used in attribute views. 1. 2. 3. and click Start to schedule the extraction job. etc. create the following InfoPackages:   One InfoPackage for the delta initialization One InfoPackage for the regular delta data loads Otherwise. 20 April 2012 . create an InfoPackage for full load. In the Modeling perspective. The tables include the DataSource with the following naming convention: o /BIC/A<DATASOURCENAME>00 This is the active data table. if delta processing is not available. right-click the DataSource you are working with and select Create InfoPackage. For information on partitioning the active data table of an IMDSO. Log on to SAP HANA studio with the DXC user. select the appropriate options and click Save. it is feasible to have delta processing (change data capture). /BIC/A<DATASOURCENAME>AO. 3. schedule it to load data into your IMDSO in the SAP HANA database. o /BIC/A<DATASOURCENAME>40 This is the activation queue table. In this case. for example R3TSCHEMA. If you expect a significant data volume to accumulate in a particular IMDSO. After the InfoPackage has been created. /BIC/A<DATASOURCENAME>80. calculation views. etc.Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse You can see the In-Memory DataStore Object in the modeling perspective of SAP HANA studio: 1. analytic views. In the Create InfoPackage dialog. These are technical tables used to control the activation process. locate and expand the schema that you created for this source system. select the appropriate time for the job to execute.

and choose a data package. Log on to SAP HANA studio with the DXC user. If you encounter such an activation failure. 1.Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse 3. Expand the node Update PSA.4 Monitor Data Load in the Source SAP Business Suite System After the data load is started. The data is loaded into the activation queue table for the corresponding IMDSO in the SAP HANA database. 3. although a status message is displayed stating that the request was successfully loaded to PSA. In the Data Warehousing Workbench. 2. 3. Click the Details tab to get detailed information about the records that have been transferred. see Monitor Data Load in the Source SAP Business Suite System). Click the Status tab to get detailed information about the data load. errors in the activation process will be displayed here. You can navigate through the structure of the processed data packets: 1. 2. 2. The order in which data is loaded is important for data consistency. all subsequent data activation for an IMDSO will be blocked if a (failed) request is still available in the activation queue table of the IMDSO.Administrator Workbench dialog appears. for example /BIC/A0VER_SCARR_ATR00. Look for Processing (Data Packets). You should see records of the data packages temporarily stored in the activation queue table. Find the activation queue table of the IMDSO you are working with. 1. 4. you can monitor the status of the InfoPackages. the data is immediately activated into the active data table of the IMDSO. If the table is empty (and you see success indicators in the data load monitor. You should see a message like this: Data package 1 saved to remote SAP HANA DB You can also expand the node for Subsequent Processing. After the data for a given extraction job has successfully been loaded into the activation queue of the IMDSO. Therefore. please refer to SAP note 1665553. The naming convention of the active table for the IMDSO is /BIC/A<name of the DataSource>00. 3. and expand the node for the schema for the specific SAP Business Suite system from which you scheduled an extraction / load job. April 2012 21 . Expand the Catalog node. select the InfoPackage you want to monitor and click the Monitor icon. The Monitor .5 Verifying Data Transfer in the SAP HANA Database You can verify which data has been loaded into the SAP HANA database. Right-click this table and select Open Content. then the records have been activated into the active data table.

sap. please consult the BW documentation at http://help. For this purpose a monitoring view and alerting features in the SAP HANA statistics server are provided (see sections Monitoring the Activation Process of InMemory DataStore Objects in SAP HANA and Setup Email Alerting for the Activation Process of In-Memory DataStore Objects in SAP HANA). including delta initializations. The following illustration gives an example of a process chain.Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse When the data load activation is completed.com/nw_platform  <your SAP NetWeaver Platform version>  Application Help  SAP Library  <your language>  SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse. you can create a process chain for extractions and loads at a regular interval. using the appropriate InfoPackages. the aforementioned steps (checking table contents) are not typically performed in normal operations. This document does not provide explicit detail for the practice of creating process chains.6 Create a Process Chain for Regular Data Transfer Once you perform any initial data loads. This table holds the historical records also. however. 5. all records from all the data packages will reside in the active data table of the IMDSO. or consult colleagues who have knowledge of BW process chains for information on how to work with them. The naming convention of the active table for the IMDSO is /BIC/A<name of the DataSource>00. You should see all data extracted from this DataSource there. 3. While it may be interesting to see the main tables of the IMDSO that store data. 22 April 2012 . Right-click this table and select Open Content. for example /BIC/A0VER_SCARR_ATR00.

it will automatically add a change run process to follow. and ignore any warnings about the change run. April 2012 23 .Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse If you have master data loads in your process chain. you can delete the ones automatically added to your process chain. This is not necessary for DXC loads into the SAP HANA database.

You can view status information in this table. In the Configure Check Settings dialog. This view resides in the schema SYS. administrators can receive an email informing about the failure. Right-click the M_EXTRACTORS view. Check the value in the Status column.7 Monitoring the Activation Process of In-Memory DataStore Objects in SAP HANA Most of the monitoring tasks are performed using the BW monitoring features in the embedded BW of the SAP Business Suite system (or in the attached BW in the “sidecar” scenario mentioned in section Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The "Sidecar" Approach).8 Setup Email Alerting for the Activation Process of In-Memory DataStore Objects in SAP HANA The SAP HANA statistics server features altering for various aspects of operating the system. To set up email alerting in case of failure of the activation of an IMDSO.Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse 3. its technical name is M_EXTRACTORS. 4. Locate the M_EXTRACTORS view. it includes an automatic email alerting mechanism to inform designated administrarors of issues arising within SAP HANA. change to the Administration perspective. InfoPackage monitoring and Process Chain monitoring covers nearly all of the processing steps involved in extracting data from the source system and loading it into the activation queue of the SAP HANA IMDSO. and then expand the SYS node. proceed as follows: 1. 2. its monitoring is decoupled from the other processes which are driven from the BW S-API. The activation status table of the IMDSO is displayed in the Table Name column with the naming convention /BIC/A<name of the DataSource>AO. and select Open Content. Expand the Catalog node. 3. so that appropriate corrective action can be taken. Look for the DataSource name which you want to monitor. Since this action takes place solely inside SAP HANA. Log on to SAP HANA studio with the DXC user. 5. In SAP HANA studio. search for the following description: Direct extractor connection (DXC) status information (M_EXTRACTORS) It might be easier to move the pane divider towards the right and look for the technical name M_EXTRACTORS. Click the Configure Check Settings icon. enter the appropriate values in the following fields: o Sender Email Address 24 April 2012 . successful activations have the value OK. and chose the Alerts tab. 3. The view is displayed with its description first. 3. The statistics server includes a feature where the records of the M_EXTRACTORS view are evaluated on a regular interval (once every 15 minutes) to check if any activations have failed. 6. 2. SAP HANA provides a monitoring view that holds the status of IMDSO activation. In the event of a failed activation. for example /BIC/A0VER_SCARR_ATRAO. The only step that is not handled with this type of monitoring is the activation processing of the IMDSO. To locate the view. 1.

in the context of your use case. Click Configure Recipients for Specific Checks.10 Further Information In the following sections you will find a few clarifying comments about further considerations. for example /BIC/A0VER_SCARR_ATR00. Click OK. When creating SAP HANA data models simply utilize active data tables of the relevant IMDSOs as base tables in data modeling. Type of Data It makes sense to consider the type of data the DataSource provides. since the SAP HANA applicance does not have a concept like BW does of “non-cumulative key figures”. Of course. 5. For a list of DataSources not supported with DXC. please refer to SAP note 1710236. 7. however. and then click OK in the Configure Check Settings dialog. the naming convention of the active table for the IMDSO is /BIC/A<name of the DataSource>00. a DataSource like 2LIS_03_BF (Material Movements data) is not well suited for use with DXC since it provides data that essentially requires the special features for inventory that BW provides. There are a very small number of DataSources related to inventory data. type in the email address of any administrators or specialists who should get an email in case an In-Memory DataStore Object activation fails. that these are general settings for all types of statistics server alerts in SAP HANA. 4. Select the checkbox for Check In-Memory DataStore Object Activation. Normally you can skip the section Recipients Email Addess for All Checks (unless you want to get emails for any type of error condition in SAP HANA). Click Add Recipients. Remember. 8. there is a corresponding InMemory DataStore Object (IMDSO) that is loaded. For example.9 DXC and SAP HANA Data Modeling For each DataSource represented in the example process chain. 6. In the SAP HANA database. The SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection (DXC) is available for all SAP Business Content DataSources. 3. In the subsequent dialog. we recommend working with BW itself instead of the SAP HANA appliance. BW on HANA offers its own set of benefits. There are special features in BW designed for working with inventory data that are not available in SAP HANA natively. In such use cases (inventory data). which will pose challenges in working with an SAP HANA appliance. 3. several data modeling tasks have to be performed which include:    creating attribute views analytical views calculation views The basis for data modeling is the active data tables. Please note.Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse o SMTP Server o SMTP Port Typically an email address is created in the company email system which is used for sending alerts for this pupose. April 2012 25 .

If you run into this issue. you will get an error message. database tables are created where a primary key is necessary. as well its provision of foundational models from SAP Business Suite systems that offer semantically rich data in a straightforward manner. Its simplicity. Conclusion W e encourage you to explore DXC’s value for a significant number of use cases . DataSources Without Keys One requirement for DXC is that DataSources or extract structures have a unique semantic key defined. since with the IMDSO. This is not particularly problematic for DXC. some SAP Business Content DataSources do not provide delta handling (change data capture). This is important for DXC’s features in SAP HANA.Configuration Steps Specific to SAP Business Warehouse Also. and of course any new records will be added – but be aware that if you delete transactional records in the Business Suite system (in cases where the DataSource does not offer delta handling). and therefore the IMDSO itself cannot generate delta datasets for use by another data mart in SAP HANA appliance (unlike in BW. It is important to first apply SAP note 1701750 to any BW system that is connected to the source SAP Business Suite system you are working with before applying SAP note 1677278. the deletion will not propagate the deletion through to the IMDSO in the SAP HANA appliance. in some cases this may mean long-running extraction jobs transferring large datasets to the SAP HANA appliance. refer to SAP notes 1677278 and 1701750. 26 April 2012 . While DXC certainly works with DataSources that do not have a delta mechanism. If you try to activate a DataSource for DXC that does not have a key. no layering concept exists in SAP HANA appliance). but you should be aware that the InMemory DataStore Object (IMDSO) that is generated by DXC does not include a change log. surely offers unique advantages for your SAP HANA project. Any identical records will not be duplicated.

DXC can be implemented with a “sidecar” approach.0 or higher (e. The following illustration depicts another variation of the “sidecar” approach. However.0 or higher. ECC 6. that instead of using the “embedded BW” inside the SAP Business Suite system. in use with SAP Business Suite systems based on SAP NetWeaver 7. also there may be some general preference to avoid the use of the embedded BW system on an SAP Business Suite system. in some cases. In order to enable DXC when such conditions exist.0 or higher (e. 4.0). the customer might be reluctant to use it for this purpose. Extracted data will not be loaded into the connected SAP BW system.g. The following illustration depicts the basic “sidecar” approach.6C). and therefore not based on SAP NetWeaver 7. this default configuration relies on the “embedded BW” which exists inside of SAP NetWeaver 7. a separate connected BW system can be used as an intermediary system for scheduling and managing the extraction job in the connected SAP Business Suite system. Another similar variation is available to customers running “SAP NetWeaver BW Powered by SAP HANA” (aka BW on HANA). April 2012 27 . As a consequence. customers may be interested in implementing DXC with an SAP Business Suite system that is older. instead the data flow will be redirected to the SAP HANA system. This means. Again. which sends the extracted data directly to SAP HANA. Another use case might be that the “embedded BW” is already in use.g. even though it is primarily used for scheduling and monitoring of extraction jobs in that scenario.Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The “Sidecar” Approach 4 Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The “Sidecar” Approach In this Installation and Configuration Guide we discussed the default configuration for DXC.

must be performed in the “sidecar” BW system. In addition. In other words. SAP note 1688750 must be applied to the SAP Business Suite source system. then certainly with the “sidecar” approach you should use the setting DATASOURCE. the steps outlined to perform in the SAP Business Suite system (which are based on SAP note 1583403). 28 April 2012 . the choices outlined in section Choose the System-Wide Setting for DataSources are particularly important. the use of a particular DataSource with DXC in the “sidecar” approach is a “binary” decision: Either a DataSource can be used with DXC or it can be used in the normal manner to load data into the “sidecar” BW system – it cannot be used for both purposes. it simply performs the same function from a remote BW system. and specify the particular DataSources that can be used with DXC. you cannot use that DataSource for normal BW operations in the “sidecar” BW system. If this BW is used for any other purpose than DXC. This “sidecar” BW is used in very much the same way that the “embedded BW” is utilized in the default configuration. When you choose to utilize a particular DataSource with DXC.Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The “Sidecar” Approach In either of the sidecar approaches illustrated here. If you decide to utilize the “sidecar” approach.

DataSources without keys will cause an error when you try to generate the In-Memory DataStore Object in SAP HANA. first apply SAP note 1701750 to any BW systems connected to the SAP Business Suite system you are using with DXC. Apply this note to the source SAP Business Suite system only if you have the “sidecar” scenario described in section Appendix – DXC System Landscape Variants: The “Sidecar” Approach. apply this note to any BW systems connected to the SAP Business Suite system you are using with DXC. Provides information about partitioning active data tables of IMDSOs where large data volume is expected. 1670518 1688750 DataSource: Reading a property in the source system 1701750 DataSource: Secondary Index on the PSA 1677278 DataSource: Changing the Key Definition (A version) 1665553 1714933 April 2012 29 .References 5 References List of SAP Notes The following table lists all SAP Notes mentioned in this Installation and Configuration Guide. SAP Note Number 1583403 Title Direct extractor connection to SAP HANA SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection: Monitoring Description Gives instructions on how to connect your ERP system to an SAP HANA database. in particular the activation processing for In-Memory DataStore Objects (IMDSOs). Before applying this not to your SAP Business Suite system. If your DataSource is missing a key. 1710236 1714852 SAP HANA DXC: DataSource Restrictions Troubleshooting SAP HANA DXC issues Handling issues with IMDSO activation – SAP HANA DXC DXC: Partitioning In-Memory DSO tables Lists specific DataSources not supported by DXC. Provides a report where you can define a semantic key for any DataSources that are missing keys. Discusses how to report issues with In-Memory DataStore Object activation to SAP. Provides information on how to monitor SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection (DXC). Guidance for troubleshooting DXC issues and the appropriate action to take.

References 30 April 2012 .

and W3C are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C®. GPFS. WebSphere. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Data contained in this document serves informational purposes only. RETAIN. PostScript. OS/390. Crystal Decisions. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and its affiliates. System i5. zEnterprise. BlackBerry. PowerPoint. Silverlight. SAP NetWeaver. App Store.SAP AG Dietmar-Hopp-Allee 16 69190 Walldorf Germany T +49/18 05/34 34 24 F +49/18 05/34 34 20 www. and Smarter Planet are trademarks or registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. Motorola is a registered trademark of Motorola Trademark Holdings LLC. System x. BlackBerry PlayBook. and MultiWin are trademarks or registered trademarks of Citrix Systems Inc. and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and other countries. System z10. World Wide Web Consortium. Linux is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries. Informix. POWER6. Any Java™ Source Code delivered with this product is only to be used by SAP’s Support Services and may not be modified or alt ered in any way.sap. DB2 Connect. National product specifications may vary. iPad. and other Sybase products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sybase Inc. Citrix. These materials are subject to change without notice. HTML. BlackBerry Curve. pureScale. Retina. YouTube. Acrobat. and Reader are trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and other countries. the Adobe logo. System i. Safari. z/VM. Google Data API. Crystal Reports. Power Architecture. Google Sync. POWER6+. Sybase is an SAP company. Documentation in the SAP Service Marketplace You can find this documentation at the following Internet address: service. Siri. Adobe. PartnerEdge. OS/2. as is any decompilation of these components. Wi-Fi is a registered trademark of Wi-Fi Alliance. B2B 360°. INTERMEC is a registered trademark of Intermec Technologies Corporation.com © Copyright 2012 SAP AG. System p. iPhoto. VideoFrame. X/Open. Excel. BBM. iPhone. The only warranties for SAP Group products and services are those that are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Google App Engine. All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty. HACMP. BlackBerry Storm. Storwize. AIX. MetaFrame. BusinessObjects. RACF. BlackBerry Storm2. m@gic EDDY. Program Neighborhood. BlackBerry Pearl. ByDesign. Google Mail. PowerVM. Google Mobile Ads. POWER7. and B2B 360° Services are registered trademarks of Crossgate AG in Germany and other countries. Disclaimer Some components of this product are based on Java™. and BlackBerry App World are trademarks or registered trademarks of Research in Motion Limited. Redbooks. StreamWork. iPod. Google Checkout. and Visual Studio are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Google Voice. iBooks. These materials are provided by SAP AG and its affiliated companies ("SAP Group") for informational purposes only. IBM. iAnywhere. Bluetooth is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG Inc. Business Objects is an SAP company. R/3. Outlook. SAP HANA. Microsoft. Crossgate. Xcelsius. Google Maps. All rights reserved SAP Library document classification: PUBLIC No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. Windows. System p5. WinFrame. without representation or warranty of any kind. XHTML. Power Systems. Crossgate is an SAP company. z10. if any. SAP. and other Business Objects products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Business Objects Software Ltd. SAP BusinessObjects Explorer. Dalvik and Android are trademarks or registered trademarks of Google Inc. Computop is a registered trademark of Computop Wirtschaftsinformatik GmbH. Gmail. Business Objects and the Business Objects logo. and Xcode are trademarks or registered trademarks of Apple Inc. System Storage. Multi-Touch. POWER. Sybase 365. Google Store. Google Apps. XML. PowerPC. SQL Anywhere. Google Mobile.sap. BlackBerry Bold. DB2. ICA. Any code change in these components may cause unpredictable and severe malfunctions and is therefore expressively prohibited. UNIX. Web Intelligence. RIM.com/instguides . OSF/1. Google Updater. System z. Objective-C. Duet. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. iTunes. DB2 Universal Database. BlackBerry Torch. IOS is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems Inc. Apple. Google Mobile Updater. PowerHA. XIV. and SAP Group shall not be liable for errors or omissions with respect to the materials. Sybase and Adaptive Server. Intelligent Miner. BladeCenter. Tivoli. and Motif are registered trademarks of the Open Group. z/OS.

Variable user entry. and individual key words of a programming language. upgrade and database tools. screen titles. for example. SELECT and INCLUDE.Typographic Conventions Type Style Example Text Represents Words or characters that appear on the screen. table names. pushbuttons as well as menu names. Pointed brackets indicate that you replace these words and characters with appropriate entries. These include field names. Icons Icon Meaning Caution Example Note Recommendation Syntax EXAMPLE TEXT Example text Example text <Example text> EXAMPLE TEXT . function keys (such as F2) or the ENTER key. transaction codes. program names. Cross-references to other documentation Example text Emphasized words or phrases in body text. These include report names. These are words or characters that you enter in the system exactly as they appear in the documentation. This includes file and directory names and their paths. for example. when surrounded by body text. Screen output. Keys on the keyboard. source code as well as names of installation. Exact user entry. names of variables and parameters. paths and options. messages. titles of graphics and tables Names of elements in the system.