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The process of dividing the model into small pieces is called meshing. The behavior of each element is well-known under all possible support and load scenarios. The finite element method uses elements with different shapes. Elements share common points called nodes.
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Uploading Simulation (SW)
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Designer (SW Simulation)
Linear static load analysis (SimulationXpress) (Includes many limitations)
Professional (SW Simulation Professional)
Linear static load analysis, Thermal analysis, Buckling analysis, Frequency analysis, Drop test analysis, Fatigue analysis Optimization analysis
Advance Professional (SW Simulation Premium)
The features of the Professional package plus: Nonlinear analysis and Dynamic loading condition
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
SolidWorks Simulation -Advance Professional Select New Study Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 4 .
5 .Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
less than 1 Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 6 .Plot Type Options Right click on results and select plot types 2008 2009 Safety factor applied to strength.
7 .Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
For each natural frequency.SW Simulation Professional Stress analysis due to static loads . Frequency analysis can help you avoid failure due to excessive stresses caused by Mechanical resonance. High stresses are produced if a body is subjected to a dynamic load vibrating at one of its natural frequencies.Static studies calculate displacements. and factor of safety distribution. Ken Youssefi . strains.A body in motion tends to vibrate at certain frequencies called natural frequencies. A factor of safety less than unity indicates part failure. Frequency analysis calculates the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes. The lowest natural frequency is called the fundamental frequency. reaction forces. Frequency (Vibration) analysis . stresses. Large factors of safety in a contiguous region indicate low stresses and that you can probably remove some material from this region. 8 Engineering Dept. This phenomenon is called resonance. the body takes a certain shape called mode shape.
Ken Youssefi the optimum solution using the least number of runs. and radiation conditions. only the lowest buckling load is of interest.Slender structures. temp. subject to axial loads can fail due to buckling at load levels lower than those required to cause material failure. Buckling analysis . Thermal studies can help in avoiding undesirable thermal conditions like overheating and melting. and heat flow considering heat generation. Buckling can occur in different modes. convection.SW Simulation Professional Thermal analysis . Optimization . called columns. conduction. gradients. In many cases. 9 .Optimization studies automate the search for the optimum design based on a geometric design.Thermal studies calculate temperatures. The software is equipped with a technology to quickly detect trends and identify Mechanical Engineering Dept.
The number of cycles to failure depends on the material and the stress fluctuations. strains.SW Simulation Professional Fatigue analysis . accelerations. Ken Youssefi . Fatigue studies evaluate the consumed life of an object based on fatigue events and S-N curves.Repeated (cyclic) loading weakens objects over time even when the induced stresses are considerably less than allowable stress. Due to the large amount of data. in addition to gravity. The program solves a dynamic problem as a function of time. 10 Mechanical Engineering Dept. and stresses. This information. Drop Test Studies . is provided by a curve called the S-N curve (stress vs number of cycle to failure). It is possible to plot and graph displacements. can be specified. The dropping distance or the velocity at the time of impact. velocities. the program saves results at certain instants and locations as instructed before running the analysis.Drop test studies evaluate the effect of dropping the design on a rigid floor.
For thermal studies. and stresses at incrementally varying levels of loads and restraints. and contact. strains. nonlinear material properties. you can use nonlinear studies to solve the problem. The main sources of nonlinearity are: large displacements.SW Simulation Professional Nonlinear analysis . Solving a nonlinear problem requires much more time and resources than solving a similar linear static study.When the assumptions of linear static analysis do not apply. Nonlinear studies refer to nonlinear structural studies. 11 . the software automatically solves a linear or nonlinear problem based on material properties and thermal restraints and loads. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. reaction forces. Nonlinear studies calculate displacements.
12 .Mesh Elements used by SW Simulation • Beam elements (1D) Draft quality High quality • Shell elements (2D) • Solid elements (3D) Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 13 .Mesh Elements used by SW Simulation Draft quality High quality Certain shapes can be modeled using either solid or shell elements such as a plate.
The addition of rotational DOF allows for evaluation of bending stresses due to rotation of one node relative to another. Shell elements.Nodal Degree of Freedom (DOF) The model's degrees of freedom (DOF) are assigned at the nodes. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 14 . This bypasses the necessity of modeling the physical thickness. Usually solid elements have three DOF. Rotations are accomplished through translations of a node relative to another node. have six DOF per node: three translations and three rotations. all translational. on the other hand. For a thermal analysis. only one temperature DOF exists at each node. The assignment of nodal DOF also depends on the class of analysis.
All elements are tetrahedral with straight or curved edges Node Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.Mesh Type in SW Simulation Solid Use the solid mesh for bulky models. 15 .
The thickness of elements is calculated automatically based on surface pairs. During meshing. View the mesh and see if it represents the actual model before proceeding with the solution. the software creates shell elements based on midsurfaces. This option is not available for assemblies and surface models and can fail to generate the proper mesh for complex parts and parts with intersections. 16 .Mesh Type in SW Simulation Shell mesh using mid-surfaces Use this option for sheet metals and simple thin solid parts made of a single material. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Mesh Type in SW Simulation Shell mesh using surfaces This option allows you to create shells on selected faces or surfaces. material. For each shell. and formulation. It is available for solid parts. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. and surface models. 17 . Shell elements are placed such that the associated face or surface is located at the middle of the element across the thickness. solid assemblies. you can specify thickness.
Mesh Type in SW Simulation
Use this option to simulate frames, and truss structures. The program creates elements automatically from weldments or you can define elements manually . A beam element is a line element defined by two end points and a cross-section. Beam elements are capable of resisting axial, bending, shear, and torsional loads. Trusses resist axial loads only.
This option is available only if you have a solid body in the document. It is possible to create shells as well as solids. When meshing, the software creates shells with shell elements and solids with tetrahedral solid elements. Use this option if the model
includes bulky as well as thin objects.
Optimization and fatigue studies do not require mesh type.
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When you mesh a model, the software generates a mixture of solid,
shell, spring, and contact elements based on the created geometry. The program automatically creates the following meshes:
Solid mesh Shell mesh Beam Mixed mesh
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SW Simulation’s Help
SW Simulation provides extensive on-line help and tutorials
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21 .SW Simulation Menu Tool bars Main Loads Result Tools Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Select Study Study name Mesh type. 22 .SW Simulation To start analyzing the model. selection is done automatically by the program Select analysis type Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. not in 2009. you should start with the definition of a study.
23 .SW Simulation –Option menu Set Mesh quality to High Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
24 .Creating Mesh Use the bar to set the mesh density Right click the Mesh folder to display the pop-up menu. Select Create Mesh Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Effect of Mesh Size Coarse Medium Fine Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 25 .
the program automatically applies mesh controls to small features.Mesh Characteristics Automatic transition . Increasing the tolerance may resolve meshing problems Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 26 . Global element size Tolerance is set at 5%. and other fine details of your model. fillets. holes. Nodes are merged if the distance between them is less than 5% of the element size. Uncheck Automatic transition before meshing large models with many small features and details to avoid generating a very large number of elements.
The Jacobian check is based on a number of points located within each element.Parabolic elements can map curved geometry much more accurately than linear elements of the same size. In extremely sharp or curved boundaries. The default value of 4 should be fine for most applications. it is possible to generate distorted elements with edges crossing over each other causing the mesh generation to fail. 27 .Mesh Characteristics Jacobian Points . Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. Increase that for extremely curved surfaces.
Irregular tetrahedra are created by the program. Sometimes. These distorted elements have high aspect ratio. . Analogously. An aspect ratio that is too high causes element degeneration. an equilateral triangle is the ideal shape for a shell element. which in turn affects the quality of the results.Mesh Quality The ideal shape of a tetrahedral element is a regular tetrahedron with the aspect ratio of 1.
Aspect Ratio Right click the Mesh icon and select Create Mesh Plot Select Aspect ratio Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 29 .
SW Automesher Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 30 .
it says that any node must not be contained within the circumcircle of a triangle or circumsphere of any tetrahedral within the mesh Delaunay triangulations maximize the minimum angle of all the angles of the triangles in the triangulation. The process avoids narrow triangles.Mesh Quality – Automesher (SW) Standard mesh (automesher) It is preferred to use the Standard automesher (default). . Simply stated. sometimes called the "empty sphere" property. as they have large circumcircles compared to their area Triangle element The Delaunay triangulation with all the circumcircles and their centers (in red). The program uses the Voronoi-Delaunay meshing technique. By far the most popular of the triangle (2D) and tetrahedral (3D) meshing techniques are those utilizing the Delaunay criterion. The Delaunay criterion. it is faster than the Curved-based mesh method (Alternate automesher).
A Voronoi segment can be defined as the line segment between the circumcircle centers of two adjacent triangles or tetrahedra. The new node is introduced at a point along the Voronoi segment in order to satisfy the best local size criteria. It merely generates a set of existing points in space. redefining the triangles or tetrahedra locally as each new node is inserted to maintain the Delaunay criterion. It is the method Connecting the centers of the that is chosen for defining where to locate the circumcircles produces the interior nodes that distinguishes one Delaunay Voronoi diagram (in red) algorithm from another.Mesh Quality – Automesher (SW) The Delaunay criterion in itself. This method tends to generate very structured looking meshes with six triangles at every internal node. As such it is necessary to provide a method for generating node locations within the geometry. is not an algorithm for generating a mesh. The boundary nodes are then triangulated according to the Delaunay criterion. Nodes are then inserted incrementally into the existing mesh. A typical approach is to first mesh the boundary of the geometry to provide an initial set of nodes. .
H. or moving front method.Mesh Quality – Automesher (SW) Curved Based mesh (Alternate automesher) The Curved based mesh method uses the Advancing Front meshing technique. Lo at the University of Hong Kong. where triangles have been formed at the boundary. In this method. The mesher creates more elements in higher-curvature areas automatically (without need for mesh control). the front will advance to fill the remainder of the area with triangles. The figure shows a simple two-dimensional example of the advancing front. As the algorithm progresses. Two of the main contributors to this method are Rainald Lohner at George Mason University and S. the tetrahedra are built progressively inward from the triangulated surface. The technique disregards the mesh control and automatic transition settings. It should only be used when the Standard automesher fails Another very popular family of triangle and tetrahedron mesh generation algorithms is the advancing front. . An active front is maintained where new tetrahedra are formed.
SW Simulation .Materials Right click on the material icon to edit To assign material select Material and choose Apply Material to All Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 34 .
35 .Type of Restraints (supports) Select the Fixtures (Restraints) option Fixtures menu Standard option: Fixed support Sliding support Pin support Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Type of Restraints (supports) Advanced supports Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 36 .
The rotational degrees of freedom are not constrained for shell elements. 37 . no reference geometry is needed. For shell elements. and faces Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. it sets the translational and the rotational degrees of freedom to zero. No reference geometry is used. and faces Immovable (no translation) – SW 2008 This restraint type sets all translational degrees of freedom to zero. edges. Selectable entities: vertices.Type of Restraints (supports) Fixed (no rotation and translation) This is used for build-in or rigid supports. this restraint type sets all translational degrees of freedom to zero (solid elements do not have rotational degrees of freedom). edges. This is the same as fixed If solid elements are used. For solid elements. When using this restraint type. Selectable entities: vertices.
38 . The procedures to apply the symmetry restraint type to solid meshes and shell meshes using mid-surface are identical. In general. restraints. Symmetry requires that geometry. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.Type of Restraints (supports) Symmetry For shell models. Plane of symmetry You can use symmetry to analyze a portion of the model instead of the full model. When appropriate. taking advantage of symmetry can help you reduce the size of the problem and obtain more accurate results. and material properties be symmetrical. symmetry requires that faces coinciding with planes of symmetry should be prevented from moving in the normal direction and rotating about the other two orthogonal directions. using symmetry is not recommended for buckling and frequency studies. loads.
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 39 .Type of Restraints – Symmetry (Solid Mesh) The model DOFs restrained for solid meshes: 1 translation Plane of symmetry Analyze one half of the model by applying the Symmetry constrained to the faces of symmetry.
Type of Restraints – Symmetry (Solid Mesh) The model is symmetrical with respect to two planes Analyze one quarter of the model by applying the Symmetry constraint to the faces of symmetry. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 40 .
Type of Restraints – Symmetry (Solid Mesh) DOFs restrained for solid meshes: 1 translation Axisymmetrical model. apply the Symmetry restraints to analyze the whole model. Make sure the wedge angle is not too small. use a wedge. 41 . Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Type of Restraints – Symmetry (Shell Mesh) For studies created with Shell mesh using mid-surfaces. symmetry restraints are applied on the faces coinciding with the planes of symmetry of the model along the model thickness. Displacement (translation) normal to the face is restrained. 42 . Axial symmetry Mid-Surface element Rotation about radial and axial directions are restrained. circumferential direction The axisymmetrical model can be studied by analyzing a wedge of the model Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
A quarter of the model can Mechanical be analyzed Engineering Dept.Type of Restraints – Symmetry (Shell Mesh) Planar symmetry Mid-Surface element Ken Youssefi The model is symmetric about two planes. 43 . xz and yz planes.
44 . symmetry restraints are applied manually on shell edges located on the planes of symmetry of the model Surface model with Axial Symmetry Select the axis of the shell as a reference and set the rotations about radial and axial and translation in the circumferential directions to zero on the vertical edges.Type of Restraints – Symmetry (Shell Mesh) For studies created with Shell mesh using surfaces..` Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
The face can shrink or expand under loading. The radius and the length of the cylindrical face remain constant under loading. Hinge Use the Hinge restraint to specify that a cylindrical face can ONLY rotate about its own axis.Type of Restraints Roller/Sliding Use the Roller/Sliding restraint to specify that a planar face can move freely on its plane but CANNOT move in the direction normal to its plane. 45 . Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. This condition is similar to selecting the On cylindrical face restraint type and setting the radial and axial components to zero.
circumferential. Each face can have a different axis. The radial. 46 .Type of Restraints – On Cylindrical Face You can use this option only when all the selected faces are cylindrical. and axial directions for each face are based on its own axis. DOFs restrained for solid meshes: 3 translations DOFs restrained for shell meshes: 3 translations and 3 rotations Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Dir. Translation in the other two directions. 2 and Normal are set to zero Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. The selected face can only slide in the direction shown (dashed red line).Type of Restraints – On Flat Face You can use this option only when all the selected faces are planar. and Normal). Each face can be in a different plane. 47 . Each face is restrained relative to its own directions (Direction 1. Direction 2.
On Flat Face The selected face can slide in the directions 1 and 2. Translation in the normal direction is set to zero. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.Type of Restraints . 48 .
Type of Restraints . The face is allowed to move in Face Dir 1.On Flat Face It is required to have the inner slider free to slide along the direction shown Use the On Flat Face restraint and specify zero displacement along Face Dir 2 and Normal to the face. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 49 .
Type of Restraints .On Flat Face The desk is free to slide on the ground (dashed red arrows) but not to move up and down (normal direction. blue arrow) The selected flat faces can slide freely in Dir 1 and Dir 2 but are restrained in the Normal direction 50 Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. .
The radial. Set the translations in the other two directions to zero to achieve this. Each face can have a different center.Type of Restraints – On Spherical Face You can use this option only when all the selected faces are spherical. longitude. The spherical face of the reflector can only rotate in the latitude direction. 51 . DOFs restrained for solid meshes: 3 translations Ken Youssefi DOFs restrained for shell meshes: 3 translations and 3 rotations Mechanical Engineering Dept. and latitude directions for each face are based on its own center.
Type of Restraints – On Spherical Face A handle Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 52 .
axis. edges. The reference can be a plane. or face. Reference plane Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 53 . Using this option you can prescribe restraints on vertices.Type of Restraints – Use Reference Geometry You can use a selected reference geometry to apply restraints. and faces. edge.
The selected face of the cylindrical hole can rotate about or move along the reference axis (in blue) Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. For shell meshes.Type of Restraints – Use Reference Geometry You can use an axis as a reference to apply restraints. and axial directions. you can prescribe rotations in reference to these directions. You can prescribe the translations in the radial. 54 . circumferential.
flywheels. fans. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 55 .Type of Restraints – Cyclic Symmetry Cyclic symmetry allows you to analyze a model with circular patterns around an axis by modeling a representative segment. Model one sixth of the wheel and apply Cyclic Symmetry to the cut faces The Cyclic Symmetry restraint can be applied to a solid model and for a static case only. restraints. and motor rotors can usually be analyzed using cyclic symmetry. and loading conditions must be similar for all other segments making up the model. The geometry. Apply it to two sections and define the axis of revolution for the symmetry. The segment can be a part or an assembly . Turbine.
Stress Analysis.Example Select Study and choose New Study from the toolbar or Simulation menu Name the study Select study type. Static Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 56 .
57 .Material selection Simulation menu→ choose Apply Material. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. Create a new material by specifying it’s mechanical properties or edit the exciting one in the library.Stress Analysis.
Material selection From Library files select 1023 steel Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.Stress Analysis. 58 .
face Translation Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. Symbols used to show translational and rotational restraints Rotation Select the entity.Stress Analysis – Restraint Selection Select the desired type of restraint (support). fixed. 59 .
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. location.Apply Load (Force) Select the type of load. direction.Stress Analysis . 60 . and magnitude.
Stress Analysis .Apply Load (Force) Select the edge for load location Specify value. 61 . units and direction of the force Choose the direction of the load by selecting the edge Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
material. 62 . and restraints. you are ready to run the solver.Run Command After selecting study type. mesh type. load. Select Run Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.Stress Analysis .
7 MPa. 63 .Results Stress distribution Yield strength = 282.Stress Analysis . stress around the hole = 14030 MPa Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. max.
Stress Analysis . Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 64 .45 mm.Results Displacement Maximum deflection at the tip is 16.
You can specify mesh control at vertices. 65 . and components From the SolidWorks Simulation manager. A smaller element size in a region improves the accuracy of results in that region.Stress Analysis – Mesh Control Mesh control refers to specifying different element sizes at different regions in the model. select Mesh and right click Choose Apply Mesh Control option Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. faces. edges.
stress location) to create finer mesh. 66 . Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.Stress Analysis – Mesh Control Select the edges of the two holes (max.
Without mesh control 67 .Stress Analysis – Mesh Control Finer mesh at the hole With mesh control Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
with finer mesh around the holes. stress = 14030 MPa. without finer mesh around the holes Max. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.Stress Analysis – Mesh Control Max. 2. 68 .5% higher. stress = 14370 MPa.
69 . No change in max.Stress Analysis – Effect of Restraint Type Change the back face restraint from fixed to immovable. stress Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
70 .Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept.
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