# Foundations of Physics, VoL 18, No.

7, 1988

Quantum Graphic Dynamics
Stanley P. Gudder 1
Received June 12, 1986 A discrete quantum mechanics is developed and used to construct models for discrete space-time and for the internal dynamics of elementary particles. This dynamics is given in terms of particles performing a quantum random walk on a multigraph.

1. I N T R O D U C T I O N David Bohm published a fascinating article 25 years ago in which he proposed a topological formulation of quantum theory/~) He called this formulation a topo-chronology theory, by which he meant the study of order and relationship in process. The basis of his theory is that every action is a result of discrete primary actions which take place at the speed of light c. A general action at a speed less than c consists of a zig-zag series of primary contacts at the speed e, and all apparently continuous movements at speeds less than c are to be explained as the result of such a trembling movement. According to Bohm: "This fits in with modern relativistic quantum mechanical ideas concerning the movement of the electron. Dirac's equation implies, for example, that the electron moves at the speed of light in trembling movements (called Zitterbewegungen). (The average velocity, which is less than that of light, then corresponds to a kind of circulation in a spiral path that is responsible for the phenomena associated with the electron spin.)" This explains why c is absolute. In fact, c is the only possible speed and all others are only apparent. As a simplified example, suppose a particle moving in one dimension travels two steps

1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80208.
751

752

Gudder

forward and one step backward in a repeated motion. Although its actual speed is c, it has an apparent speed of c/3. Bohm then proposes a mathematical model for his topo-chronology theory. He represents every actual movement by a point (or vertex) and every actual process of immediate contact between such moments by a line (or edge). This corresponds mathematically to a graph. Relationships which define each moment in terms of past moments are described by certain kinds of matrices. He indicates that these matrices have a close connection with fermions and bosons and they might provide an explanation for the structure of elementary particles. In the present paper we intend to expand upon Bohm's ideas by constructing various concrete mathematical models. However, instead of calling this a topochronology theory we shall use the term quantum graphic dynamics. As its name implies, quantum graphic dynamics (QGD) consists of two main ingredients, a graph and a quantum dynamics. The graph (or multigraph) is interpreted as a generalized discrete phase space in which the vertices represent discrete positions which a particle can occupy and the edges represent discrete directions that a particle can propagate. The quantum dynamics is induced by a transition amplitude which generates a quantum random walk on the graph. Our developmment of QGD has two purposes.. First, QGD can be used to describe the motion of a particle in discrete space-time. In this case, the graph represents an actual discrete phase space and the discrete time is given by the time steps of the random walk. Second, QGD can be used to describe the internal dynamics of "elementary particles." In this case, the vertices represent quarklike constituents of a particle, and edges represent interaction paths for gluons which are emitted and absorbed by the vertices. A vertex can emit or absorb a gluon at each time step of the random walk. In Section 2 we begin the development of QGD for an abstract multigraph. Section 3 illustrates this theory by considering two models of discrete space-time. The first model is a cubic lattice, and the second is a tree model. Section 4 develops a multigraph model for elementary particles, and Section 5 derives the gluon dynamics for these multigraphs. For other approaches to discrete quantum mechanics, the reader is referred to Refs. 1-4 and 6-9.

2. ABSTRACT MULTIGRAPHS In a previous paper, ~5) we began to develop a theory of discrete quantum mechanics. To make the present work self-contained, we shall review

a loop is considered to be two edges incident to a vertex. v2}~E..Quantum GraphicDynamics 753 some of that material here. q) = ~ a(q. each loop incident to a vertex adds two to its degree. and the oneelement sets in E are called loops. q~) A(q~. The elements of V are called vertices. E).. As far as the degree is concerned. Suppose that V = {vj:j~J} and that the edges containing vj are denoted by ejk. The phase space on G is the set S = {(vj. we write vr 2_ vs and say that vr.) e S. and vj 2_ v / w e write q 2_ q'.q')=O if q J_ q' and for every ql. n + 1. ( q o . ej~):j~J. An n-path p ~ ~n(q0. q.(qo. Thus. an n-path is a sequence of not necessarily distinct elements q0......(qo. q. We interpret V as a set of discrete position coordinates for a particle and adjacent vertices correspond to "nearest neighbor" positions. vs} ~E...} ~ ~. q)} and by convention Ao(qo . q. q2) . so it represents a direction of momentum.. If p = {qo. q). q2 ~ S we have A(ql. and a repeated pair of edges is called a biedge. Moreover. the initial and final elements of the n-path. q2) = q q (~ q l q 2 (1) where . If {vr. q' = (vj. The degree of a vertex is the number of edges containing (or incident to) it... the two-element sets in E are called edges. q) is a possible trajectory for a particle moving in a discrete phase space from qo to q in n time steps. 5 we only considered graphs while in this work we shall require a theory on multigraphs.(qo. q)j2. where V is a nonempty set and E is a collection of one. the n-step transition amplitude from qo to q is A. ~ S with qj 2_ qj+ 1. q). The sets in E may be repeated.(qo.. the amplitude of p is A(p)= A(qo. q ) = (~qoq" The n-step transition probability from qo to q is P. A multigraph is a pair G = ( V. 1. A function A: S × S ~ C is a transition amplitude if A(q. 825/18/7-5 . q ) = Z {A(p): P ~ .k. q. respectively.and two-element subsets of V. q) A(q2. J = 9 . ejk). A(q. ej. Denote the set of n-paths with initial element qo and final element q by ~. If e = {vl. For n E ~. k~K(j)} ~ Vx E If q = (vj. We call q0. qv) A(q. in Ref...~ denotes the complex conjugate of A. An edge corresponds to a direction that a particle can move. then a particle located at Vl can move along e to v2 in one time step. q ) = [An(qo. k~K(j). q ~ S..) For qo. v~ are adjacent (r may equal s).

where 6q(q')=6qq. if a particle is at q' at time t. It is clear that this should equal 6q~q2. q)l 2 = Z q q' [A~(q.. we interpret A(q. Then A(q. . then ~q IA. we obtain ~P~+l(q) = ~ An(qo. qo) are unit vectors in/2(8).1 . We call Eq. 5. we then interpret A(ql. Similar reasoning applies to the other equality in Eq.(qo. q) = ~ A(q'. Unbqo ). We have already noted that ~n is a unit vector in I2(S). q)A(q2. q') as the probability amplitude that a particle moves from q to q' in one time step and we interpret A(q. q) be the wave function. The next result slightly generalizes a theorem in Ref. q)f(q') q' We call T and U propagators for A./(q. q') f(q'). n~ ~. Applying Theorem l(b). q) Let 12(S) be the Hilbert space of functions {f: S ~ C: 52q If(q)] 2 < oo } with inner product ( f . (a) T and U are unitary operators and U = T*. q)= ( T"3q. Fix qo~ S and let Sn(q)= An(qo. (1). g ) = ~ f(q) g(q). q) is the total probability amplitude that a particle moves from q~ to q2 in zero time steps. First.754 Gudder We can motivate our definition of a transition amplitude physically. (~qo) = ((~q. It follows from T h e o r e m l ( a ) that A. q') is the probability amplitude that it was at q at time t . q)A(q2. It states that probability is conserved and that an amplitude Chapman-Kolmogorov equality holds. Theorem 1. q')=0 if q l_ q' means that a particle can only move to adjacent vertices in one time step.. q') An m(q'. m ~<n.). U be linear operators on /2(8) defied by (Tf)(q) = ~ A(q.(. (b) An(qo . T h e o r e m 2. q') as the probability amplitude that a particle moves from q' to q in minus one time steps. qo)12= 1. q): ~ Am(qo. Alternatively. (a) m. q) as the probability amplitude that a particle moves from ql to q2 via q in zero time steps. A. (2) the discrete wave equation. q') A(q'. (b) If An(qo. 5. . An orthonormal basis for/2(S) is {6q:qsS}. q) t~. Moreover. n ~ ~.(qo. Let T. It follows that Zq A(ql. q' (Uf)(q) = ~ A(q'.. The following result is a slight generalization of a theorem proved in Ref. then .(q') q' q' (2) We shall later show that the difference equation (2) is a discrete analog of the Dirac equation.

C be the following 2 x 2 matrices B= beiO a J' C = ce iO l and let M be the 2m x 2m matrix consisting of B's on the main diagonal and C's elsewhere.. 0). (j'. The physical interpretation of this function (in a slightly different form) and the following result are given in Ref.. A is a transition amplitude if and only if the following three equations hold: (a) a 2 + b 2 + 2 ( m . Let V = Z ' .2)c = 0. a . DISCRETE SPACE-TIME M O D E L S 755 In this section we illustrate the theory developed in Section 2 with two discrete space-time models.. and these will be useful later. if A is a transition amplitude. 0 . b.k 2 n . . 5. if m ~ 1.k): j e V. It follows from a direct computation that a .1 ) are eigenvectors of B and C with respective eigenvalues a + be i°...k'))= t a be ~° cd ° if k ' = k if k ' = .. We first consider cubic lattices of arbitrary dimension. It is easy to check that 0 1 = ( 1 . C as follows: A((j.. O.1 )c 2 = 0.. t). 1.. _+2.be i° and 2ce ~. . /~2m i = (0... 0.1 ) c 2 = l . /~2m}} We now define the function A: S x S--.. ~b6 [0. k).. (b) a b c o s O + (m . Let B. ~:3 = (0.. m We can then represent the phase space S as S = {(j.. c > 0 . and A((j.. We now derive some other characterizations for A to be a transition amplitude. 0.k if k' ¢ _+k where a..} be the cubic lattice of dimension m. then only two of the five parameters are left unspecified. define vl L v2 if one of their components differ by one and the others are equal. Define the following unit vectors in N" /~1 = (1.. (j+k. Thus.be i° is an eigenvalue .. v2e V.. k ' ) ) = 0 otherwise.. 1) k2n = . (c) a cos ~b+ b cos(0 . k e {k. 0 : = ( 1 . n = 1.1..~b) + (m .k).... 0. v2 are nearest neighbors and the edges are represented by lines joining nearest neighbors. 2~). 0 . Thus vl ± Vz if and only if v~.. 0) . Theorem 3. Z = {0. + 1..Quantum Graphic Dynamics 3. For vl.

01. we have 0 = E M)e~/iJ'k = 2ab cos 0 + 2(m . there are two cases.. 0 . 0)/.. 2m.. I J ...k = 2ac cos ¢ + 2bc cos(0 -...... Then ~. 0)/2 (01.2 0 1 . we obtain 1 =~ k I M j k l 2 = a 2 + b 2 + 2 ( m ..1)c 2 and hence Condition (a) of Theorem 3 holds. . 2m. j./2 Moreover.bei°l = la + be ~° ..J2(m- 1)m Theorem 4. 01 .. and the following are corresponding orthonormal eigenvectors: (01. In the first case.J ' l = 1 and min(j.1. 0...1) ce~Ot = 1.~b) + 2(m . Otherwise. l a . 0 . The following statements are equivalent: (a) (b) (c) A is a transition amplitude..0 1 .. and denote its entries by Mik.... then M is a normal matrix with eigenvalues of modulus one.k M~k-Myk= ~jj. For this case.. If j = j ' ..... M is a unitary matrix.1)c 2 k and hence (b) of Theorem 3 holds. Finally.. a + be ~°+ 2(m . k = 1. Now suppose M is unitary. 01. 01 .. It follows from the spectral theorem that M is unitary and hence (c) holds. 0 . 0)/x/J2 (01.2ce ~ is an eigenvalue with multiplicity m .( r n 1)01)/. j' = 1.2ceeOl -= la + be i° + 2(m .1 ) ce ~ is a nondegenerate eigenvalue of M with corresponding normalized eigenvector (01. (0.. f ) is odd. a + be ~°.... If j C j'. P r o o f That (a) implies (b) follows from expanding the squares of the expressions in (b) and applying Theorem 3.756 Gudder of M with multiplicity m and the following are corresponding orthonormat eigenvectors: (02. If (b) holds.. we have the second case which gives 0 = ~ mjk Mj. 0. 02)/. j..2)c 2 k . . ..../L.

For concreteness.. while the right-hand side has the time variable n fixed and the position variable j is incremented.j-1)] (8) A similar procedure shows that Eq.j-k2m) where M is the unitary matrix considered above. (8) also holds for ~2(n. Assume A is a transition amplitude and write Eq.let us consider the one-dimensional case. (2) as follows: 2m ~n+l(J'for)= 2 A((J--fCs'~s)'(J'fCr))~tn(J--ks'fCs) S=l (3) If we use the notation ~S(n. j From Eq. It follows that b = ( 1 . the parameters c and ~ do not appear and the conditions for unitarity in Theorem 3 become: a2+b2= 1. The solution of (4) in closed form appears to be quite difficult.).. m = 1. we can write (3) in matrix form: " = M " (4) .. Otherwise. (4) is equivalent to the following two equations.j+l)+~l(n. where j s Z: O~(n + 1. | We now consider the discrete wave equation in this context.j)=a[~t(n. In this case.a Z ) 1/2 and 0 = ~/2 or 3rr/2. c = 0 and m = l. j . j - (5) (6) 1 ) + a~.~l(n. j + 1) 02(n + 1.2(n. For simplicity. In this case.. (8) is a discrete analog of the Klein-Gordon equation. j). Eq. j) = ibO'(n.2) ia (7) Substituting (7) into (6) and simplifying gives 01(n+l. 2m. j + 1) i 1) +~. Notice that Eq./~.~ ~l(n + l .j)+~kl(n-l. j) = ~. (4) is a discrete analog of Dirac's equation since the left-hand side has the position variable j fixed and the time variable n is incremented. j . 5.(j. s = 1.. (5) we obtain ~tZ(n. Eq. This has been solved for m = 1 in Ref.. we obtain (c) of Theorem 3.Quantum GraphicDynamics 757 If c ¢ 0 and m ~>2. j)=aOl(n.1) + ibO2(n. In a rough sense. suppose 0 = re/2. Although the method employed there .j)j [/2m(n. We thus have only one fi'ee parameter 0 < a < 1. j) = . ab cos 0 = 0. so this condition is vacuous.

D -D .. the work involved is very tedious. we can diagonalize M and solve the momentum problem.. (m--1)D . 23 = a + be ~° . " --O .2 c d ~. P2.758 Gudder can be extended to higher dimensions. (4) over j. ~s)) J / We call ~b.-. define the 2 x 2 matrices °--I'1 'd. 22 = a + b d ° + 2(m . (j.... D .. a related problem which is physically relevant can be easily solved..1)D 1 [ _~ P3 =~mm o1 and from the spectral theorem we have M = 21P~ + 22P2 + )~3P3 . Then the projections P1. Since we know the eigenpairs for M (these were listed right before Theorem 4).. respectively..1 ) e g °.l 0 E . direction at time n given that it began at qo at time 0. we obtain = M ~+l ~+1(2m) L~bn(2m)] (9) l+o(i )/ Since ~bo(S ) is clearly a unit vector in C 2m and M is unitary. We call this the momentum problem.. 0 . • 1 P2 =~mm D D .(s) the m o m e n t u m wave f u n c t i o n and note that it gives the probability amplitude that a particle moves in the /~.. P3 onto the eigenspaces for the eigenvalues 21 = a . To facilitate this.. it follows that ~bn(s) is a unit vector in C 2m. Let On(s) = ~ tpS(n. However. j ) = ~ An(qo. become 1 el =~ iio.-(m D / _D -1) "1 D 1 (10) ( m .be i°.. If we sum Eq.

..1)~. In this model a particle can move in an arbitrary finite number of directions. E) be the graph in which the edges are represented by the straight lines between adjacent vertices... y ~ V..k). Physically.. 2n. k): v.. Let G = (V. kj~ {/~1. Let n e N.. We call a point x ~ ~2 accessible if it has the form x = ~ k s.1)b 2= 1 (11) acos 0 + ( n 1)b=0 (t2) Hence. Then ~bo(S)= 6. q~.k..r The cubic lattices just considered do not give a very realistic model since the directions of motion are quite limited.r + [a + be i° + 2(m . It is easy to check that A is a transition amplitude if and only if it satisfies a 2+ (2n-. Form the unit vectors ~1./~2~.Quantum Graphic Dynamics 759 Suppose the initial momentum is in the/~r direction.n ) ( 1 .a 2 ~ 1/'2 b= (13) cos 0 = (1 . If a particle is moving in direction k. there is only one free parameter which we take to be a.. (10) gives the following explicit solution to the momentum problem: ~ ( s ) = (a -. and let c~rr/n be an angle.1) cei~]"(P2)sr + (a + be i° . (9). a particle can only move in six directions. Solving (11) and (12) in terms of a gives { 1 .y e {/c~. k).(x+k.r and. Let V be the set of accessible points and.}... by Eq.and three-dimensional cases. 0~ [0. /~2~}. We now define a function A: S x S ~ C as follows: A((x. b > 0 . Thus.2cei¢)n(P3). then at the next time step it continues in this direction with amplitude a and changes to one of the other possible directions with amplitude be ~°. We shall. however. where /~j-/~l= c o s ( j . We begin in two dimensions. we can use some of our previous results in the next model.. this may be interpreted as follows. The phase space S can be represented as follows: s = {(x. j=2. Applying Eq. However.. Let/~1 be a unit vector in R 2 which we take for concreteness to be in the horizontal direction. (x'.. k ' ) ) = 0 otherwise. for x.. restrict our attention to the two./~2.a 2 ) "] i/2 a \ 2-~~-1] (14) .))={a be ~° if k ' = k if k' ¢ k where a. For example.-.. 2re) and A((x. in the threedimensional case. the /~s are unit vectors and each forms an angle ~ with its predecessor. define x _1_y if x .(s)= ( M ~ o ) ( s ) .bei°)~(Pl).

E) and A: S x S-~ C in a similar way as we did in two dimensions.k l .. For n ~ N we again let ~ = rein. The solution to the momentum problem is similar to our previous work. ~r. 2~. c~ .. (4) except that the matrix M is replaced by the 2n x 2n matrix M' with a's on the main diagonal and be i° elsewhere..1 polar angles ~. we obtain (15) (16) b= 1/n..-.. ~r = . (14).1 ) 2 ] b 2=1 (17) a c o s O+n(n-.. We now define G = ( V. ~.1)/n.1)/n<. 2~.2 + l ] .[ n 2 + ( n . Including the unit vectors ~i.1 )~. We now have n polar angles. we now have r = 2n(n . 0=g In this model.1 ) + 2 unit vectors/~t .. The unitarity conditions now become a2q . Form a spherical coordinate system and let/~1 be a unit vector in the vertical direction..t )~ we have 2n azimuthal angles 0. n~.t) 2 + n . (n .. 1) but must satisfy (n-.a< 1 In the limiting case a = (n ...1 ) b = O Solving (17) and (18) in terms of a gives b= I 1.1) directions. (20) we must have [ ( n . In fact. the discrete wave equation is similar to Eq.a2 ] 1/2 (t8) n2+ cos = a -l?J n2 + ~ 1) z (19) (20) Again because of Eq. all we have to do is replace ce ~ by be ~° whenever it appears..760 Gudder Because of Eq.. and for each of the n .. The extension of the above to three dimensions is straightforward.1)2 +n2(n - 1)2] -1. ( 2 n . a cannot have arbitrary values in the interval (0.1 ~ < a < l In the limiting case we obtain b = I n 2 + ( n . 0=re . Construct a unit vector ~ i n each of these 2 n ( n .

. In Fig. We assume that the vertices are relatively stationary and that the dynamics is described by the Q G D theory of the gluons. (1. and edges represent interaction paths for gluons which are emitted or absorbed by the vertices. We begin by representing each particle by a multigraph. We can follow the usual quark convention of assigning charges of + 1/3 and +2/3 to the vertices. the tau has four loops. Moreover. t). (1. 2) . PARTICLE M O D E L S In this section we apply the theory of Q G D to construct models for the internal dynamics of particles. 2)} S~ = {(1. The electron is represented by a multigraph consisting of a single vertex and a loop. Thus. Although we shall not have much need for it here. 1. the muon has two loops.. 4)} St = {(1. the members of a multiplet can be distinguished by labeling the vertices according to their electric charge. 1.Quantum Graphic Dynamics 761 4. 8)} The pion is represented by a multigraph consisting of two vertices and a biedge. 1). 2. (1. (1.. By a "particle" we mean a massive lepton or a hadron. etc. The more massive leptons are formed by adjoining an odd number of loops to the electron multigraph. Using this numbering scheme we can represent their phase spaces as follows: S~= {(1. 1). 2). More massive mesons are formed by adjoining an odd number of loops to one or both of the vertices. (1. These are illustrated in Fig. the various spin states can be distinguished by labeling each vertex with a spin up (1") or a 1 4 8 7 2 3 3' 14 'r Ix Figure 1 . we have denoted the single vertex by a 1 and have numbered the edges. 3). (1. The vertices of the multigraph represent quarktike constitutents of the particle. A few mesons are illustrated in Fig..

the nucleon is represented by a multigraph with three vertices and three biedges. (1. (2. (1. 1). 3 can be represented as follows: 3 3 1 4 1 4 4 1 1 4 1 _ ~ 1 6 . A few baryons are illustrated in Fig. 1). 2 3 Figure 2 spin down (\$). Again. The phase spaces for the multigraphs in Fig.4). t). The phase spaces for the multigraphs in Fig. 3). 4)} S. (2.. 1). (1. 3. (2. 2). (2. 3). = {(1. (1. 1). 2). 2). (2. 1 4 1 ~ t 4 2 N Figure 3 . More massive baryons are formed by adjoining an odd number of loops to one or more of the vertices. 3). = {(1.762 Gadder 2 1 2 1 4 1 2 ] 2 3 zr 3 2 1 K 4 4 1 T I. 1). 2). (2. (2. (2. 2). the members of a multiplet can be distinguished by labeling the vertices with an electric charge and a spin. 2)} S~= {(1. (2. 4)} Finally. (2. 2 can be represented as follows: S. (1.

2). 1). (3.. notation describing the multigraphs giving the number of loops at each the vertices and call this the type of 1. that these are formed by adjoining pairs of vertices to biedges.. etc... (1. 4)} S z = {(1. three to charm. the dynamics is determined by the transition amplitudes or equivalently by the propagator or transition matrix T. 3). 2).. l) /t= (2). five to bottom.. (3. As we shall see. Once the multigraph is given. (1. (1. (2. 6 ... 2). for later investigation. 6)} It wilt be convenient to have a under consideration. (3. 6)} S z = {(1. (2. 1). 4).. (1. e = (1). (1. 4). Notice that in this scheme there is no need to postulate various generations of quarks. The later generations are automatically described by the number of loops. 4n. (2. We do this by vertex in the order of the labels on multigraph. 1) ~ = ( 0 . 4. (2. (1. Although we shall not consider excited states here. 0). 4). Two excited states are illustrated in Fig. (2. re= (0. 1). 1). seven to top. (3. (1. 1). 1).. 3). and 3 have the following types: ~=(4) r/'= (1. Z = (0. 6).. 4).. one loop corresponds to strange. 0). 1). 3). (3. There may be physical reasons for this sequence to terminate. (2. 4. 3).. 1. We shall assume that the transition amplitudes have the simplest nontrivial values. 0. First notice that the vertices of the multigraphs under consideration all have even degree. 2). (2. The multigraphs in Figs. 3). (2. 2. 1) . 4). but there is no mathematical reason.. N = (0. We now describe the gluon dynamics. and for a baryon they are 4. 0.Quantum GraphicDynamics 763 SN= {(1. 3). (4n . (1.. In fact. 2). (2. (3.. We call a vertex basic if it has degree 2 in a lepton or <2> Figure 4 . (2. ~c= (0. 2). we propose. the possible degrees for a lepton or meson are 2. t). 1).. All we need is the first generation consisting of a vertex with charge _+1/3 and a vertex with charge +2/3...2).. 1). (1. (3. (3.

. then after n time steps it will be in the state T"Oo. (v2.. n = l . This is a unitary matrix which describes the evolution of a gluon. e2 are "different" edges of the same loop and A(1.. if a gluon is initially in a state ~0. In fact. it is the unique transition amplitude in which the "forward" amplitudes are equal and have maximal value. In doing this we assume that the elements of the phase space are ordered as we have done previously. It is easy to show that A is indeed a transition amplitude. let el be incident to vl and v2. e2) ) = 0 . If v2 is basic. el) . In all other cases..764 Gudder meson or degree 4 in a baryon. i. 2) = 0 otherwise. m. o 1 ~½ ½ ½ ½ 1 Figure 5 . we define A((vl.n)/n if el = e2 and A(t. In this figure we label the initial edge with a double arrow and label adjacent elements with single arrows together with their transition amplitudes. For brevity. In Fig. (v2. 2 ) = ( 2 . 2 ) = 2/n otherwise. we define A(1. Now suppose v2 is not basic and has degree n. 2 ) = ( 2 . e2) ).. For a lepton. let A(I. 2 . e2 are different edges of the same biedge and A(1. el). 2.n ) / n if el. m. and let e2 be incident to v2. Notice that these values correspond to the limiting case in Eq. For a hadron. We now construct the transition m~itrices for the multigraphs representing leptons and hadrons. j = 1.. is caled the transition matrix. 2) = A((~)I. 2)---612 for a lepton and for a hadron A(1. 2) -. define A (1. i). It will first be convenient to define the 2 x 2 matrices An= Ejn (1-n)/n .. 2 .. Moreover.. (16). If the elements of the phase space are enumerated 1. define A(1. 2 ) = 2in otherwise. v2 be adjacent vertices.. 5 we illustrate the transition amplitudes for various cases. Let v 1.1 if el.. then the matrix T with entries T o = A(j.

. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B..... 3.+l Bm+ I A.. .. B. n = 2....+l B.+I B~+I B..+I . 4. It turns out that T can be represented in terms of these matrices.. 0 ) = 0 4 0 A....+I A. 5 ... B. 5 .. A.. n A. 6.+I B. When a multigraph has type (i..+ 2(n + 2) 0 0 0 0 Bm+l Am+l "" "" Bm+l B. B . .+l Bm+ I 0 0 0 °.+I B. we let I = A 1 and B . + I T(O... . B ..+I B.+ 1 .. 0 B~+1 .. 3 .Quantum Graphic Dynamics 765 Also. The leptons have the following transition matrices: T ( 1 ) = I T(n) = B. 0 0 0 0 Bn+ 1 On+ t Bn + 1 B.+I I 0 0 0 A.+I 0 0 0 0 .. The number of rows (and columns) in a matrix is placed at its right-hand corner and when an A.+i An+l ~(rn+n + 2) m . .+I 0 B..)..~+I Bin+ t "" T(m.. = (1In)I.+ 1 0 B. . Am+ t Bin+ 1 0 A..... + I B ~ + 1 "'" B . 3 . n) = B. A n 2n The mesons have the following transition matrices: T(0.+ I n = 1 . n = 2 ... the number of such matrices in that column or row is always n.... n) = ... we write the corresponding transition matrix as T(i.. 825/18/7-6 . B.). n = 1 . (and hence Bn's) appear.. + I .

.... + + + + © + + ~ + + + 0 • ~ ~ O~ .... .I ~ + P + t~ .'' P II q.- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ + + + + + ++ + i j © + ' ' ' + + + ~ ~ I °.... 4- . i ..I 0 ..~ ~ ~ + ++ 11 + + + + I ! + + + ~ 0 0 0 ~ C~ 0 ~ .. II + + ...

.. Notice that we wish to diagonalize a 2m x 2m matrix T whose entries may be thought of as 2 x 2 matrices which have the special form Our next results show that because of this special form we can reduce our work to diagonalizing two m x m matrices." -. .+2 0 0 0 0 0 '..-.B." .... i. n e N...--. We devote the present section to accomplishing this.BI+2 B~+2""At+~ 0 .." 0 0 0 0 Bn+ 2 0 A~+2 0 Bn+2 B. .5... 0 0 0 0 0 Al+2 BI+ 2 Bl+2 BI+2 0 0 0 0 0 .+2 A.Bm+2 Am+2 Bin+2 0 0 0 0 0 . 3... Essentially the only way this can be done is by diagonalizing T or.. 2. ...Am+ 2 0 Bin+ 2 0 0 0 0 0 An+ 2 0 B~+2 0 Bn+ 2 0 Bn+ 2 0 .+2 0 Bin+ 2 0 Bin+ 2 0 Bin+ 2 0 Am+2.. finding the eigenpairs of T. 0 0 0 0 Bt+2 Bl+2 Bl+2 0 0 0 0 A.. . G L U O N D Y N A M I C S In Section 4 we constructed the transition matrix T for a massive lepton or hadron..~+[+61 l.... ...n=l...-..~+z'. Let A = (Aij).'.. --...+2 B#+2. 5...m.. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bm+2""B.Bm+ 2 0 Bm+2. equivalently.BI+ 2 0 A¢+ 2 0 B~+2... First define the matrices Lemma 5.. To describe the gluon dynamics we need to find T ". 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B~+z'"B. "" .Bn+2 Bn+2"-An+2 2(rn+.+2 0 0 0 0 0 0 ---. "" "" . Then . be a 2 x 2 complex matrix. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BI+z. j = 1.m..Quantum Graphic Dynamics 767 ~l.n)= 0 0 0 0 Bm+2 0 0 0 0 0 Bt+2"'BI+2 AI+2.... ..

. Let h~.. e.... i and define the following Define the vectors ~ = (1...~T 0...m)] k A(m.. it is not hard to verify that M is normal and thus has a complete set of eigenvectors.. L. A(1.= a~-bi~. 0)..... = (0. 0... Moreover. 0. 1). K)... respectively..... ~ 2 = ( 1 .. A 12= Azl... 0.768 Gudder the following statements are equivalent. = diag(L. i= l. respectively. N~be the m x m matrices with entries ~¢0 = ao + b~j.... rn) J A(i.. (~rn: (0. Notice that J¢/and Y are mutually orthogonal subspaces and c 2 m = j / @ J V ".: . (a) A commutes with K. then 2(2') is an eigenvalue of M with corresponding eigenvector ~2 c q ~ ( Z Piq~i). .. and hence the eigenvectors of M lie either in J¢/to ~ .. (b) A commutes with L. 02) Let M be a 2m x 2m matrix of the form M = [ A ( t ... cci~C. I Theorem 7. Let Km.j)= b~ a~jA Then M is normal and its eigenvectors have the form Z e i ~ or Z cqq~. Lemma 6.. 1) where the 2 x 2 matrices A(m.. Let M be a 2m x 2m matrix with the properties given in Lemma 6.. . 0)... Then the eigenvalues of M are precisely the union of the eigenvalues of ... ~m. Moreover. ~1 : (02. M commutes with Km and Lm. .m.. By Lemma 5. 0. ~ and N. j) have the form [aijbij] A(i.. /~m)).. Proof Let J¢/and ~ be the subspaces of C 2m generated by ~1 .~) ((/~l . The result now follows... ... 1).1 ) vectors in C2": = 0 .. L~ be the following 2 m x 2 m matrices: Km = diag(K.. ~ and q~ ..... Proof Straightforward. 0.. L) It is easy to check that the projections onto Jg and ~/" are Kin~2 and Lm/2. if 2(2') is an eigenvalue of 214(N) with corresponding eigenvector (el. (c) AH = A22.

. 4. 0...1. they have physical significance. 0. where 117/=1 t/ F2 n 2 2] I10 2-n 2 2 ~= 0 1 . J i. | We are now ready to evaluate the eigenpairs for the transition matrices constructed in Section 4.. they are linearly independent.1 and we take the corresponding eigenvectors to be (1. We next consider the mesons. . Moreover. Applying Theorem 7. 0 1 Now N has the n-fold degenerate eigenvalue 1. (1.. f / h a s the (n . 2 .... .. 0 .. 0. 0 .1 ) .1.. m Hence c~j(a~ + 10) = 2cq.. the eigenpairs for T(n) are given in Table I. c~m)=2(~ . and as shall later see. 6. . Again. 1. Next M has the nondegenerate eigenvalue 1 with corresponding eigenvector (1.... . the problem reduces to finding the eigenpairs for the n x n matrices M. . (0. 1). 0) . Note that these latter eigenvectors are not mutually orthogonal.Quantum Graphic Dynamics 769 Proof Applying Lemma 6. 0.. (1. j = 1. ..1)-fold degenerate eigenvalue .. 0) are easily computed and are shown in Table II... n = 2..... A(i... 0.. The converse is easily verified... The 2 x 2 matrix T(1) = I has degenerate eigenalue 1 and we take.. If follows from the equation M(52 c~it~)= )~(Z O~i~l i) that ~.. we have not bothered to normalize these eigenvectors since this will not be necessary for our purposes. N.. ... am). the eigenvectors of M have the form 5 2 e ~ i or ~]eiq~i. 02. 0) . by convention.Suppose 5 2 ~ i ~ is an eigenvector of M with corresponding eigenvalue 2. 0).. ... Similar reasoning applies to the eigenvectors of the form 52 ai¢~i.. We take the corresponding eigenvectors to be (1. However. i). m It follows that M(al .n 0 0....... 0 .. applying Theorem 7.. Next consider the 2n x 2n matrices T(n).. its eigenvectors to be 0~.. -. The eigenpairs for the 4 x 4 matrix T(0. J i. j = 1... they have the simplest form. 0 ... j) c~j(kj= 2cqO . 0. Finally. We begin with the mssive leptons.

...1 has eigenvector (1..1... Eigenpairs for T(O. 1.. 1 n+l F o r N.. 0- M= 2 2 2 100. 3... ... i ...-... 0). We then obtain the equations ~2 = )~0~t ( 1 -. + 2 0 t . (0." ~ • _0 0 0 . 0..+2 Table II.0 .+2=(n+ 1) 2c~. N= -0 1 0 . 0." ' " q- 2% + 2 = (n + 1 ) 20~ 2 3 2~1+(t--n)0%+2~4+ . . + 2 = ( n + l ) 2 ~ 2cq +2c%+2c~4 + --. 1..770 Table I... let (el . . 0. 0)... ~. n). 0) Eigenvalue Eigenvector -1 . )V are given by 0 1-n 1 n+l 0 0 0 0 0 2 1-n 2 2 ..--0 0 0 1 --..... 0 2 2 2 1-n .. 0. 0 0 0 0--..f o l d degeerate eigenvalue 1 has eigenvectors (1.. . T o find the eigenpairs for 37/.. 0). Eigenpairs for T(n) Eigenvectors Eigenvector(s) Gudder We n o w come to the 2(n + 2) x 2(n + 2) matrices T(0. +2) be an eigenvectors with corresponding eigenvalue 2.. The (n + 2) x (n + 2) matrices ~/. ... n = 1... 5 . 0. (0.6t-62 ..... the ( n + l ) . 0 ..n) c~1 + 2c% + 20~ 4 -t.. 1) while the nondegenerate eigenvalue .+ ( 1 --n)o:..

n) Eigenvalue 1 Eigenvector(s) -1 1 ('1+('2+ "'" +('~+2 ¢'3-('4. I..1 ..( 1 . 0. 0. ~ ' 3 .... For ~" the (m + n + 1 )-fold degenerate eigenvalue 1 has eigenvectors (1.. 1) where the second 1 in the first vector is at the (m+2)-entry..~ .. m.. 0....1 has eigenvector (1.. 0. It follows from the second two equations that 2 = -1.. In a similar way we obtain e j = (1 + 22)/(1 + 2). (0. 6. n + 2. 0. We shall not display M and N since their construction is similar to those done previously.Quantum Graphic Dynamics 77! Suppose e~ = 1 and hence c~ 2 = 2.1 ) . 0 . then all the equations are satisfied. j = 4 .. j = 5.. 5. 0 . n) in Table III. we obtain ~ 3 = ( 1 + 2 2 ) / ( 1 + 2 ) (notice that 2 ¢ .1 +_ i [ n ( n + 2)] ~/2 (1 + 2 2 ) = ( n + 1)22 1+2 1)=0 n+l Now suppose n > 1... cq = 7 2 = 0 ...... we have the 2 ( m + n + 2 ) × 2 ( m + n + 2 ) matrix T(m.1 is at the (m + 2)-entry.... Eigenpairsfor T(0. 0 . and let ~3= 1.. In a similar way we can let c~5= -1..( n + The roots of this equation are 1 and . and es=0..°+~ ..... 7... 0). 3. n + 2. Table III.I (if n> 1) iiiiiiiiiiiiii i . j = 4. From the second and third equations. Thus 2 = .. 0) where the ..... ( n + 1)23+ ( 1 .1 is an ( n .. ~3-(.1 ) . The nondegenerate eigenvalue .. n = 1. etc.. Finally... . and ~s = 0..n ) 2 .f o l d degenerate eigenvalue. (0. Substituting these values into the second equation gives (1-n)+2n Hence. n + 2..ty)= 1+2~ we list the eigenpairs for T(0.. If we let ~4 = -1. 1. Letting /L+= 1 + I.n ) 2 2 . n). 0) . 0.

3 ....~0~m + 1 (1 -. j = 3 .1 ) ... 0 ~ m + n + 2 ) be an eigenvector with corresponding eigenvalue L We then obtain the equations 2 ~ 2 + ..1 ) 2 1 In a similar way...' Substituting these values into the first equation gives 2 [ ( m + 1)2 + (1 .. m + 1. a j.1)2 -(n+ 1)(m+ 1)=0 The roots of this equation are 1 and + 2tin'") -- ( m n .. e j. m + l F r o m the fourth and fifth equations we have era+3= (m+ 1)22-2m2 + (m + t) (1-m)2+(m+l) In a similar way.. Substituting these values into the fourth equation gives (n + 1)(m + 1 ) 2 3 ...n)cq + 20~m+ 3 q.r a n ) 2 ] (n + 1 )(m + 1 ) m ..~ 2 2C~2+ "'" + (1 -.. F r o m the first two equations we have (assuming 2 ~ . have this same value. +20~m+l+20~m+2=(m+l)~..(3mn +m + n .772 Gudder T o find the eigenpairs for 3~r. let (cq ..( I .n)0~m+ 3 -t" " " q.• '-1. have this same value.m) e..(1 --n)O~m+n+2 = (n-t.~ + 1 + 2 ~ m + Z = ( m --1.1) ~'~m+3 2Cq + 2~m+ 3 q.m ) ] (l-m)2+ ( m + 1) am+2= We then obtain 22 c~J..1 ) 2 2 + (3mn+m + n .(1 .m ) 2 + ( m + 1)' j = 2 .0~m + 2 2~1 + (1 . j = m + 4..1) 2~m+n+ 2 Suppose cq = 1. +2~m+l+(1--m)C~m+2=(m+l)2~q (1--m)C~zq. m + m + 2." " nt" 2 0 ~ m + n + 2 = (n + 1) J.1 ) _ + i [ ( n + 1 ) 2 ( m + 1) z ..2~m+n+ 2 = (/7 q.

. ~2 = ~m+. n) are listed in Table IV. If we define 22~.1)-fold degenerate eigenvalue.1 a n d the other ccs's equal to 0. ¢~-¢o ..+2 = --1.. T h e eigenpairs for the 12 × 12 matrix T(0. 43. ) + (m + i) -m)2~... 0) Eigenvalue Eigenvector(s) -1 ¢.)+(m+ I) + fl(~.n) coL'") = (1 + + -m)2i~. Thus.m)2(.2m2~ . +2 -t N o w let 2 = . We finally consider the baryons.n) Eigenvalue 1 -1 1 Eigenvector(s) + +7(m.) = 26..~. and the other ~j's equal to 0. Then all the equations are satisfied if we let ~ 2 = ~ + 3 = .m + ( m + 1) then the eigenpairs for T(rn.. +2 = 1. In a similar way we can ~et ~2 = ~m+4 = --1. 0. Eigenpairs for 773 T(m. . we can let ~3 = ~m+3 = --1 .m ) ] ( 1 .1 and ~1 = ~. ....)[(m + 1 ) 26~.. Finally...n)¢m+3 + "'" "~"7(rn..)] 2 + .. n ) ~I .Quantum Graphic Dynamics Table IV. Eigenpairs for T(0.. .1 is an (m + n . 0) are shown in Table V...~) + (m + 1) + (m + 1 ) [ 2 & . ¢~-¢~. ) + (1 -. Table V.-¢. . ~m+l = ~m+3 = --1 and the other ~j's equal to 0.

n)..774 Table Gudder VI. & .. As usual.. Except for some special cases.m. it appears that it can only be solved numerically..... We call the roots of (21) (which we have not evaluated) 2~ .~l m + 6 .{ we list the eigenpairs for T(0. 0. the corresponding Table VII. . 0..u...8)25 + (3ran + 2m + 2n + 8)). 6 .. n) IIIIIIIIII I IIIIIIIIIIII Eigenvalue 1 Eigenvector(s) -1 1 21 ~1+ "'" +~ . 5./.... n). n) in Table VI..(2ran .& ...... ). 0.. 6 . m. . . 4 - (4mn - 8)2 3 +(3mn+2m+2n+8)22-(2mn-8)2+(m+2)(n+2)=O (21) We list the eigenpairs for T(0..m. The computation of the eigenpairs is similar to that for 7(0.@7-t- ----l-/~Z@n+ 6 i (I2--~. is much more difficult.. ~13 "}..~l m + n + 6 .i i We next have the 2(n + 6) x 2(n + 6) matrix T(0. 3.--i(t6 . The eigenpair problem for the next transition matrix T(O. n) in Table VII.. n).1 ~ - &.£- @2-{-@3"}-].. However. m.~lm + 7 . 5 . n) Eigenvector(s) Eigenvalue .. n = 1... diagonatizing ?~ is straightforward..... . 3. .. . m. 3 3 -~ ~ m + 6 . Letting /~'~ = 2+ + _ i[n(n -t. six of the eigenvalues of h~r turn out to the roots of the following equation: (m + 2)(n + 2)). 26.. Of course.. Eigenpairsfor T(0..4)] 1/2 n+2 ' fl+ = 1 + (2+)2 1 +2.. n = 1.+i(t.......6 --1 .@S~-t~-~6-'}-/~.~l S .~l S . ~ - ~... Eigenpairs for T(O.

v. .e (1+i) r ~ 1 -. . . where ~1 = 1.~ 7 + (i+ 1)~ 8 .e + . We can solve (21) in the special case m = n = 1..~ (i+3)~ ~. F o r 2~{2~.(1 + i ) w + ~. 1.1)~ 9 .1)~9 i~1--i~2+ (1 --i)q~4 +~5 + (1 + i ) ~ 6 . . the corresponding eigenvector is (el...~7 q. 2 -.(1 + i)~9 --i +~8--( 1+i)~9 it~l -}-i~2 + (1 + i)~4 + ~5 + (1 -. g4 = 2. .Quantum Graphic Dynamics 775 eigenvectors can be constructed once these eigenvalues are evaluated.m ) 2 2 + m)..--.( m -.2)2 + (m + 2) ~3 = ~m + 5 = "~2 22(1 + 2) (m + 2)it 3 + (2 ..7 ..3~4 + ~5 -}.~ . -.~ 7 ..+~-~+~-~+~.m O~m+6 = 2(1 + R) (I + )})~2 0~m+7 = 0(m+8 .~ + 1 ) ~2 = 22(1 + 22) m 2 3 + m~...2 ~ 6 . Eigenvalue 1 --1 Eigenpairs for T( 1.~ (1+3i)~ -5--~8 +(i.~2 -.i)~6 -... -~" 0[rn + n + 6 l+J.i)~8 + ( i . -~+~+~.... -..5 .26}. a n d 1+22 ~5=e6 ..(1 -. 1) Eigenvector(s) 1 --1 2~1 + ~3 + 2~4 + t~6 + 2~7 + t~9 -~.q. . In this case (2t) has the factorization (324 + 2)~: + 3)(322 + 22 + 3) = 0 Table VIII.2m2(22 ... =0~m+4= 1 +2 (m + 2)(J~4 + 1 ) -.-~-~+~...em+~+6).~v.3~8 + 4~9 (I ..

Math. 20. Math. Phys. Das. D. Lorente. Santhanam. Int. the eigenvatue problem for T(l. Gudder. 2219 (1974). J. Phys." J. "A proposed topological formulation of quantum theory.. B 225. Jagannathan and F. A. m.~ ± i2. 11.~ + i2x/~3 As the reader would expect. 1 (1983). I. Gudder and V. 3. 1962). Theor. S. S. For this reason. Rev. Nuel. J. 302-314. 1. 52 (1966). J. n). m. 27. J. pp. 4. 2. Naroditsky. 5. Phys. Bohm. Lee. Good. n) is much more involved then it was for T(0. Printed in Belgium . 661 (1982). Int. 1) and this is given in Table VIII. Friedberg and T. 7. 6. 1782 (1986). Phys.f23' 22= . R." in The Scientist Speculates. 8. 9. D. J. (Basic Books. Theor. D 9. Phys. Int. t2. M. Theor. Found. 619 (1981). we shall only consider the spcial case T(1. 20. Finklestein. ed. Phys. 7. New York. REFERENCES 1. Phys. 755 (1981). D.776 Gudder We then obtain the six eigenvalues given by 2= . Phys. Shale. R. 213 (1974). D. "Discrete quantum mechanics.