International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 39, No.

8, 2000

Raising and Lowering Operators for a TwoDimensional Hydrogen Atom by an Ansatz Method
Jing-Ling Chen,1 Hong-Biao Zhang,2 Xue-Hong Wang,3 Hui Jing,2 and Xian-Geng Zhao1
Received March 18, 2000 Raising and lowering operators of a two-dimensional hydrogen atom are derived by an Ansatz method.

1. INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL DEFINITION OF RAISING AND LOWERING OPERATORS Raising and lowering operators are important in quantum mechanics [1–6]. For a physical system described by an observable H, the eigenproblem HȊE ͘ ϭ EȊE ͘ can be solved exactly via its raising and lowering operators without dealing with the Schro ¨ dinger equation. In quantum mechanics, the factorization of H into raising and lowering operators for the discrete spectrum is a property of Hilbert space and is not restricted to any particular representation [7]. If H has a discrete spectrum, then it can be written as Hϭ EnȊ␺n͗͘␺nȊ ͚ n (1)

where the Ȋ␺n͘ are the complete and orthonormal basis states of H. Thus oneway factorization

Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009 (26), Beijing 100088, China; e-mail: 2 Theoretical Physics Division, Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. 3 Department of Mathematics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, China. 2043
0020-7748/00/0800-2043$18.00/0 ᭧ 2000 Plenum Publishing Corporation

. and Zhao ˆ +ᏸ ˆ Ϫ ϭ H Ϫ E0 ᏸ is provided by operators which have the following spectral decompositions: ˆ+ ϭ ᏸ ˆϪ ϭ ᏸ (Enϩ1 Ϫ E0)1/2Ȋ␺nϩ1͗͘␺nȊ ͚ n (Enϩ1 Ϫ E0)1/2Ȋ␺n͗͘␺nϩ1Ȋ ͚ n (2) These mutually adjoint operators perform the raising and lowering operations ˆ +Ȋ␺n͘ ϭ (Enϩ1 Ϫ E0)1/2Ȋ␺nϩ1͘ ᏸ ˆ ϪȊ␺n͘ ϭ (En Ϫ E0)1/2Ȋ␺nϪ1͘ ᏸ From (1) and (2). FϮ ϭ f Ϯ(H ). Note ˆ Ϯ for a specific that the explicit forms of the raising and lowering operators ᏸ Hamiltonian system need not be mutually adjoint [1].e. and make some comments. Raising and lowering operators for a two-dimensional hydrogen atom (especially for the radial part of the wave function) have been discussed by a factorization method [1. 8.. Since a 2D hydrogen atom can be connected to a 2D harmonic oscillator by the Kustaanheimo–Stiefel (KS) transformation [10–19] and the raising and lowering operators of a harmonic oscillator are already well known.2044 Chen. in Section 2 we briefly review the physical background that we need. (4) becomes ˆ Ϯ] ϭ ᏸ ˆ Ϯf Ϯ(H ) [H. Jing. The plan of the paper is as follows. (4) corresponds to the usual one in a harmonic oscillator. Wang. since FϮȊ␺n͘ ϭ (EnϮ1 Ϫ En)Ȋ␺n͘. ˆ Ϯ in (4) to allow it to operate [Here we have place FϮ to the right of ᏸ directly on the eigenfunction Ȋ␺n͘. When FϮ is a function of H. we establish the raising and lowering operators for a 2D hydrogen atom by an Ansatz method. this will simplify the calculations]. In particular. In Section 3. 9]. The purpose of this paper is to derive them by an Ansatz method based on the general definition of raising and lowering operators [see equation (4)]. when FϮ ϭ Ϯប␻. i. Zhang. ᏸ (6) which is the case shown in ref. one has ˆ Ϯ] ϭ ᏸ ˆ ϮF Ϯ [H. ᏸ where FϮ ϭ (EnϮ1 Ϫ En)Ȋ␺n͗͘␺nȊ ͚ n (5) (4) (3) is an adjacent energy interval operator. The energy levels and wave functions of a two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom are well known. Equation (4) or (6) is the general definition of raising and lowering operators expressed by a commutation relation. 1.

␬ ϭ e2. KS TRANSFORMATION AND DILATATION OPERATOR We start with the time-independent Schro ¨ dinger equation for a 2D hydrogen atom. p2 ϭ 2 2 2 Ϫប2 ͚2 iϭ1 (Ѩ /Ѩxi ). we find ͫ Ϫ 1 8␮ iϭ1 ͚ 2 Ѩ2 Ϫ Eu2 ␺ ϭ ␬␺ Ѩu 2 i ͬ (12) This may be cast into the form of a Schro ¨ dinger equation for a 2D harmonic oscillator after first stipulating that E Ͻ 0 (for bound motions). H␺ ϭ E␺. and r ϭ (x1 ϩ 2 1/2 x2) . and xi and ui are usually realized by x1 ϭ r cos ␾. We now transform the problem into a 2D harmonic oscillator via the KS transformation. x 2 ϭ 2u 1u 2 (8) 2 Under the transformation we have r ϭ u2 ϭ u2 1 ϩ u2. 2 x2 ϭ r sin ␾ ␾ 2 (9) u2 ϭ Ίr sin (10) The Schro ¨ dinger equation (7) becomes ͫ Ϫ 1 1 8␮ u2 ͚ 2Ϫr iϭ1 Ѩui 2 Ѩ2 ␬ ͬ ␺ ϭ E␺ (11) After multiplying by r and taking r ϭ u2 into account. and u1 ϭ Ίr cos ␾ . 2 ⑀ϭ␬ (13) ΂ or Ᏼ0␺ ϭ ⑀␺. the xi being the Cartesian coordinates. and making the definitions m ϭ 4␮. With the variables u1 and u2 this transformation can be written 2 x1 ϭ u2 1 Ϫ u2. Hϭ p2 ␬ Ϫ 2␮ r (7) where ␮ is the reduced mass of the hydrogen atom. We obtain ␻ ϭ (ϪE/2␮)1/2.Raising and Lowering Operators for 2D H Atom 2045 2. with Ϫ 1 2m ϩ m␻2u2΃␺ ϭ ⑀␺ ͚ 2 Ѩ u 2 iϭ1 i Ѩ2 1 (14) .

. . can one obtain some hints to establish those of a 2D hydrogen atom? The answer is yes. b† j ] ϭ ប␻bj (17) ΂ ͚ b b ϩ 1΃ 2 jϭ1 † j j (18) Now writing Ȋ␺͘ in the occupation number representation as Ȋ␺n͘ ϭ Ȋn1n2͘ n1 † n2 ϭ Ȋn1͘Ȋn2͘. .). and Zhao Ᏼ0 ϭ Ϫ 1 2m ͚ 2 ϩ 2 m ␻ 2u 2 iϭ1 Ѩui Ѩ2 1 (15) Ᏼ0 and ⑀ are the pseudo-Hamiltonian of a 2D harmonic oscillator and the pseudo-energy eigenvalue. In the usual way. Ίm 2ប 2m ␻ Ѩu j j (16) ( j ϭ 1. ␻ becomes . Essentially. we immediately obtain from (14) ⑀ ϭ ␬ ϭ (n1 ϩ n2 ϩ 1)ប␻ ␬ 1 1 2 2a (n Ϫ – 2) (n1. the b† j and bj are raising and lowering operators [see (17)]. Let us focus on (16).2046 2 Chen. . bj] ϭ Ϫប␻bj . b† j ] ϭ ␦ij. and note that there is an operator ␻ ϭ (ϪE/2␮)1/2 in the b† j and bj . bj ϭ b† j ϭ ␻ ប Ѩ u ϩΊ . respectively. and [Ᏼ0. and they transform Ȋ␺n͘ into Ȋ␺nϩ1͘ and Ȋ␺nϪ1͘. Zhang. . we obtain the energy levels of a 2D hydrogen atom E ϵ En ϭ Ϫ (n ϭ 1. all other commutators being zero. respectively. 2) ␻ ប Ѩ u ϪΊ Ίm 2ប 2m ␻ Ѩu j j where [bi . . Jing. From the point of view of a 2D harmonic oscillator. where ⌽(␾) ϭ eil␾ (l ϭ 0. Now a question arises naturally: With the known raising and lowering operators of a 2D harmonic oscillator.) (20) where a ϭ ប2/␮␬ is the Bohr radius. Wang. which can be obtained by (b† 1) (bj ) Ȋ0͘. ␺nl(u) is also the wave function of a 2D hydrogen atom under the KS transformation shown in (8). 1. n2 ϭ 0. Ϯ1 Ϯ 2. 2. Thus (15) becomes Ᏼ0 ϭ ប␻ † [Ᏼ0. we now introduce a set of two lowering and raising operators for the 2D harmonic oscillator. and Rnl(u) is related to the confluent hypergeometric function.) (19) Recalling ␻ ϭ (ϪE/2␮)1/2. The wave function Ȋ␺n͘ ϭ Ȋn1n2͘ can be expressed easily in polar coordinates as ␺nl(u) ϭ ͗uȊn1n2͘ ϭ Rnl(u)⌽l(␾). 2. . After acting on Ȋ␺n͘. . .

Hence. r ˆ Ϯ ϭ (x1 Ϯ ix2)/r.Raising and Lowering Operators for 2D H Atom 2047 ␻n ϭ ␬ Ί 4a ␮ 1 nϪ 1 2 In this sense. we derive raising and lowering operators of a 2D hydrogen atom by an Ansatz method using the dilatation operator. ប ΃ ͬ ␳Ϯ ϭ n Ϫ 1/2 n Ϯ 1 Ϫ 1/2 ( j ϭ 1. one notes that b† j(nϩ1) (which will act on Ȋ␺nϩ1͘) can be obtained from b† j(n) through replacing ␻n by ␻nϩ1. the raising operators of a 2D hydrogen atom must contain a kind of operator which can transform r into ␳r. from (4) we know that r ˆ Ϯ are raising and ˆ Ϯ. 2) m␻n uj Ϫ 2ប ប Ѩ 2m ␻ n Ѩu j (21) so when referring to b† j(n) and bj(n). Combining (21) with (10). 3. 2) (22) Ϯ DϮ n f (xj) ϭ f (␳ xj). DERIVATION USING AN ANSATZ METHOD We now write (7) in polar coordinates as ͫ Ϫ ប 2 Ѩ2 1 Ѩ 1 L2 ␬ 3 ϩ ϩ Ϫ R(r)⌽(␾) ϭ ER(r)⌽(␾) 2␮ Ѩr 2 r Ѩr 2␮ r 2 r ΂ ΃ ͬ (23) where the angular part of the wave function ⌽(␾) is the eigenfunction of the ˆ Ϯ] angular momentum along the third direction L3 ϭ ϪiបѨ/Ѩ␾. where r ϭ Ϯបr lowering operators of L3 and they shift ⌽l(␾) ϭ eil␾ to ⌽lϮ1(␾). respectively. the b† j and bj are n-dependent operators as follows: bj(n) ϭ b† j(n) ϭ Ίm2␻ ប Ί n uj ϩ Ί2mប␻ Ί n Ѩ . and Dn is not defined for n ϭ 1. as we know from the literature [1]. or equivalently. In the next section. this kind of operator is just the dilatation operator as follows (for 2D): DϮ n ϭ exp ͫ΂ i r ؒ p ϩ 1 ln ␳Ϯ . Ϯ DϮ n f ( pj) ϭ f ( pj /␳ ) † Ϫ Ϫ Note that (Dϩ n ) ϭ Dn . through replacing r by ␳r with ␳ ϭ (n Ϫ 1/2)/(n ϩ 1/2). In the following we establish those of the radial part of the wave functions based on the definition (4). Hence the raising and lowering operators for the angular part of the wave function of a 2D hydrogen atom are clear. Since [L3. they always act on Ȋ␺n͘. . Ѩu j ( j ϭ 1.

r ؒ p] ϭ Ϫ2iបp2 DϮ n r r ϭ DϮ n. and Zhao Denote by Qϩ n the raising operator of a 2D hydrogen atom. r ؒ p] ϭ 0 we make the Ansatz ϩ ϩ Qϩ n ϭ T n Dn . Due to 1 2ប2 i [p2. it should commute with L3. (24) Tϩ n ϭ i r r ؒ p Ϫ ␣ n ϩ ␤n ប a (25) where ␣n and ␤n are some unknown n-dependent coefficients that need to be determined later. Zhang. ␾) ϭ R(r)⌽(␾). r] ϭ [L3. n Ϫ 1/2 n Ϯ 1 Ϫ 1/2 2 2 2 2 Ϯ DϮ n (n Ϫ 1/2) p ϭ (n Ϯ 1 Ϫ 1/2) p Dn we obtain ϩ HT ϩ n ϭ T n H ϩ 2H ϩ 1 ␬ ␬ i ϩ ␣n rؒpϩ r r ប 2 ϩ HDϩ n ϭ Dn n ϩ 1/2 ␬ (n Ϫ 1/2)2 2 H ϩ 1 Ϫ (n ϩ 1/2) n Ϫ 1/2 r ͫ ΂ ΃ ΂ ΃ ͬ (27) thus ϩ ϩ ϩ [H.2048 Chen. 1 1 ϭ iប . Wang. r ប 2 r ؒ p. DϮ n ] ϭ [L3. T ϩ n Dn ] ϭ T n Dn ͫ (n Ϫ 1/2)2 Ϫ1 H (n ϩ 1/2)2 ͬ ϩ Dϩ n ϩ Dϩ n 1 n Ϫ 1/2 ␬ i ␣n Ϫ rؒp n ϩ 1/2 n ϩ 1/2 r ប ␤ ϩ1 ␬ ␣ n Ϫ 1/2 1ϩ nϪ n n ϩ 1/2 2 n ϩ 1/2 r ΂ ͫ ΃ ϩ 2Dϩ n 1 ␬ (n Ϫ 1/2)2 (n ϩ 1/2)␣n 2 H ϩ (n ϩ 1/2) 2a (n Ϫ 1/2)2 ͫ ͬ ͬ (28) When (28) acts on Ȋ␺n͘. r r ͫ ͬ ΂ ΃ r ؒ p Ϫ p ؒ r ϭ 2iប (26) [p2. otherwise it will change the angular part of the wave function when it acts on ␺(r. Guided by the observation [L3. r] ϭ Ϫ rؒpϩ . we set . Jing.

l(r) ϭ Ϫ Rnϩ1. ͫ F+ ϭ ΂ (n Ϫ 1/2)2 Ϫ 1 H Ȋ␺n͘ ϭ (Enϩ1 Ϫ En)Ȋ␺n͘ (n ϩ 1/2)2 (30) ΃ ͬ is the sought raising operator. based on hints from the raising and lowering operators of a 2D harmonic oscillator.Raising and Lowering Operators for 2D H Atom 2049 ␣n Ϫ ͫ 1 ϭ 0. The dilatation which can be written in terms of n as ᏺ operator can be expressed as .e. Ansatz method. 1 ϭ T1 ϭ Ϫ r ؒ p Ϫ ប a Ϫ Ϫ QϪ n ϭ T n Dn Qϩ n (n Ն 2) (31) r 1 i TϪ ϩnϪ1 n ϭ Ϫ r ؒ p Ϫ ប a (n Ϫ 1) Ϫ 1/2 Ϫ ϩ From r ؒ p ϭ Ϫiបr Ѩ/Ѩr. The n-dependent operators QϮ n can be expressed in a unified formula as (for n Ն 2): Ϯ Ϯ QϮ n ϭ T n Dn ϭ Ϯ ΂ប r ؒ p ϩ 2΃D i 1 Ϯ n Ϫ r Ϯ 1 1 Dn ϩ DϮ n n Ϫ a (n Ϯ 1) Ϫ 1/2 2 ΂ ΃ (32) If we introduce the operator ˆ ϭ ᏺ then ˆ Ȋ␺n͘ ϭ ᏺ 1 ΊϪ2␬a H (33) ΊϪ2␬a E1 Ȋ␺ ͘ n n (34) ˆ Ȋ␺n͘ ϭ (n Ϫ 1/2)Ȋ␺n͘. n ϩ 1/2 1ϩ ␣n ␤ ϩ1 Ϫ n ϭ0 2 n ϩ 1/2 1 ␬ Hϩ (n ϩ 1/2)␣n Ȋ␺n͘ ϭ 0 2a (n Ϫ 1/2)2 ͬ (29) i. Qϩ n ] ϭ Qn F . l(r) ϭ RnϪ1. ␣n ϭ 1/(n ϩ 1/2). En ϭ Ϫ(␬/2a)/(n Ϫ 1/2)2.. ␤n ϭ n. Qn Rn. In conclusion. (28) becomes ϩ + [H. we can obtain all the radial parts of the wave functions Rn. l(r). l(r). Qn Rn. By the same Based on the definition (4). and Qn Rn. nϪ1(r) ϭ 0. l(r). They are 2r i Ϫ QϪ . the lowering operators can also be determined. we have established QϮ n for a 2D hydrogen atom by an Ansatz method. therefore. T Ϫ 1 R10(r) ϭ 0.

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