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4, Human Rights (Fall, 1983), pp. 81-92 Published by: The MIT Press on behalf of American Academy of Arts & Sciences Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20024886 . Accessed: 02/04/2013 06:22
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and human on theGerman text principally to rhyme with the preceding line (auf das Letzte but This is an oddity not only in the history Gefecht).135 on Tue. to its theoretical ifwe reduce the problem the many core?dismissing peripheral extent that variants their of Marxism and setting aside the intricate ques tions that relate to what may be included as human rights and the conditions?we When that we 81 we on implementation depends contingent some progress. was adopted to be sure. as the offi cial hymn of the Third International. may be able to make historical say that we accept human accept human rights as valid. a difficult task. that exist and the contro given the enormous variety of definitions no set of definitions will versies they generate. expression.192. The in other movement. rien. which was supposed to be the only political embodiment of Marxist doctrine. While satisfy everyone. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . we find that this was neither in the French original appears seems to of the song. translations Alas.Leszek Kolakowski Marxism and Human Rights In the German version of the "International. The song. itmay be useful to define both terms.143. we are saying in effect But what does that mean? It This content downloaded from 158. soyons ideology. From this itmight seem that the idea of human rights was part of the ideology of the communist not nor so. as well. have been inserted into closer of the hymn. which view. rights. Nous ne sommes in the history of Marxism a more accurate tout! is certainly rendering of Marxist In inquiring into the relationships between Marxism rights theory." the refrain ends with thewords Internationale erk?mpft das Menschenrecht while wins (the "International" written without Marxist human right). inspiration.
and in any case irrelevant to what most people believe to be true about human these rights would be valid even if no rights?that positive law included them.82 does Leszek Kolakowski not mean that those rights make up. explicitly or implicitly. or to certain human whether erties of acts. ent from?indeed. given the irreversibility of sinful. rights because claim they then. for rightness or wrongness example. Pufendorf argued. in Cartesian nominalism of late medieval (and metaphysics which free have from God's been differ verdict." The basis a except theological of which than sim ply saying that "we (I)decide that everybody ought to be given these to declaring that "it is the case that everybody has no in idea of human other has firm words. or or transcendentalist Kantian Husserlian) (say. does or past present. To assert the a sheer act of commitment validity of human rights is not Itmeans more the justification lies in its very performance. rights. for one. Grotius. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . arguing that while was in the nature of things and law inherent decree alone. might they resulted was. included his inherent dig This content downloaded from 158. has since been inherently and immutably law. Such a statement would be false. Nor do those who is an arbitrary accept norm which the concept they accept that it like it. or have always and every a where made up. In the tradition qualities may or may not depend as well). legislation. God decided it actually to?what opposite that it was wrong God's to kill one's father.143. which may. law theory does indeed imply that it is the case that steal Natural are inherent prop iswrong.2 or evil by the force of his own The very idea of homo.192." but rather these rights. if all legal systems in theworld guaranteed them. could not be changed. justification. this by itselfwould not be not sufficient depend grounds positively for accepting or negatively them. natural even by the Creator himself. rights. Their on actual of human simply validity. and that it achieves validity by the force of their decree. Those immanent moral the rational conflict with on divine decrees. Conversely. instead of making free decision.135 on Tue. according they conform nature of man. imma God is that orders what Leibniz took this position. patricide law doctrines Seventeenth century natural rejected the "decretalist" a distinction made between natural law and and instead theology positive the latter resulted from God's law.1 argued divine nently good and forbids what acts and things good is immanently evil. ing. part of all legal systems. in terms of natural in turn. have law theory.
without fear contradiction. he may. human however. it was clearly unacceptable adherents of empiricism and of all varieties of historicism. including Marxism. together not On this order and is immutably valid wherever human live beings interact with one another. and rights.3 While making the moral order of things independent of our knowledge moral of God. illicit.Marxism and Human Rights 83 nity. which stated that the order of nature displayed immutable and that itwas not only an order of causes and characteristics. an empiricist may ise. The hu im among others." An empiricist nihilism. for example. reacting to is noble. professions. To the extent that the idea of human rights was logically depen to the dent on the belief in natural law. as it is not a of an "objective" "validity"?insofar to the validity established by specific legislation?might might still. in social entities. rather than being established by decree or by positive law. that. groups. He human actions improper.143. logically human actions unsound. not believe that God or nature made certain or but he could admit that there is nothing wrong right. these however third. man rights would be much stronger not cist. He may believe. these rights are valid because of the and they make up part of the natu ral order. accepting dismissing and the idea of of the notion their permanent commit himself case against hu than the one made by an empiri of values the three premises." "this is to preach moral bound iswrong and that in our that torture we ought to support and fight for a society inwhich all people enjoy guarantees against being tortured. cannot be defended since his position in terms of "validity.135 on Tue. values of but effects. rights. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or empirically forbidden is "this "this saying. wrong. classes. are rights vested in all individuals and only in individuals. includes three characteristics. In a limited sense. by qua empiricist good. first. that aMarxist's the first of order nations. it appears these assumptions. or other specified. The while latter. without being inconsistent. as well. man A distinction rights concept for this discussion: portant inherent dignity of being on this point is necessary. To be sure. natural law theory was based on a metaphysical principle." he is and must concede helpless before the challenge of an adversary." is not idea of human rights. even accept the second prem state that though no univer sal validity may be spoken of in a particular case. second. This content downloaded from 158.192. races. he himself is ready to stand up for human rights in all imaginable conditions.
prevent admitting and that he is not being in a particular culture. he knows that it is on their ahistorical. not him from that as a participant does however. and conflicts ticular civilization inwhich they happen to arise. he is ideologically committed to reject the very the idea of human rights. all the beliefs in ever order or lasting moral must positively oppose idea.192. and human doctrine between Marxist rights theory than the idea that all values and rights. rights. which are the specific expressions of a Revolution.135 on Tue. that is writings. are nothing products but the that of opinions particular nothing production. if he "believes" inconsistent also be of their historical relativity. aspirations. natu a society in which is the interests of each person implies plains. A Marxist's framework. opposed inevitably rally The domi incurably torn asunder by the clash of private aspirations. both the concept of liberty and shape. wholly question" as a to be egoistic?not because of the charac conflict-laden. validity. For to the Marxist. Barred from committing himself intellec or to of is the doctrine human he neverthe theoretically rights. tually to it. on Marx's the verge of collapse. no worse position those who deny the idea of human rights are in a than he. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in immutable the concept he rights. ideological The conflict consists torically relative form. This.143. even in its of human his rights dismissing all the claims of natural law theory. are of all dismissive onward. he shares its norms. commitment less free to abide by his practical A historicist may find himself in a somewhat analogous position. aware though he may in those norms. relationships to give them an illusory their vested classes use to express interests. a society to interests of the and others. is far more radical. of the par While moral. as defined by Enlightenment thinkers and ideologists of the French society bourgeois from the "Jewish to the lasting validity of "bourgeois freedom" and unre claims made ex Marx individual's the idea of The human movable rights. Within his conceptual position to take the historicist's he is not only bound standpoint. in in something more but the temporary of particular Marxist terms. but. All is inevitably rights and liberties in bourgeois society simply assert and codify the This content downloaded from 158. let alone eternal. pointless believing that all values and standards. both cognitive and "express" to dwell specific needs. nant motivations ter of in this society are bound of human nature?but result of the corruption the economic system.84 Leszek Kolakowski in cognitive terms. to be consistent.
that no imaginable true. and are limited by.192.Marxism and Human Rights 85 simple fact that each individual's aspirations and interests inevitably conflict with. not by community as a the Romantics would have it. and hostile between done civil society "real away with. During to ally themselves with were the democratic tyrants. unified society they have become rights. he never argued.135 on Tue. out roots of the social the conflict. but by movement savages. the interests and aspirations of oth ers. the 1848-49 revolution and thereafter. tactics. each and spontaneously identifies himself with the values and the perfect unity of the social the "whole. of individ rights?rights one another?useless. the individual and society. law. republicans was not a matter parties to fight against to Marx. serving to perpetuate Communism ends the clash between person naturally and aspirations of it. as whether those rights were a despotic between and a cal progress.143. in the new. that it did not matter valid in bourgeois liberal order within portant one he urged workers' bourgeoisie society. resulting expropriation the bourgeoisie and the centralization of all economic levers in the against royalists. where vide an illusory strictions on hostilities. Ideo to the system by various contract social is given logical legitimacy in its promise of abolishing classes and class theories. the state steps in to pro real community re to set limits to the conflicts by imposing unity. liberties. is and human life" and spontaneous community. and the state. freedom" "negative bourgeois uals isolated from. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . according a a socialist mean in could have political changes capitalist society could be obliterat economy ing. having ab of the government sorbed the state. This. While it was however. privileges. kept bourgeois siveness intact. the distinction between the two. Human the capitalist system. and other instruments that its with and oppres society. has no need of such supports. and that the iron laws of the market ed only by a revolutionary in the of upheaval. to be supported of principle but of This content downloaded from 158. makes thereby cutting struggle. upward on an "ascending restores to that human spiral" meaning technologi are simply the facade of rights. utterly Marx Although despised "bourgeois" the anarchists did. exploitations. The difference was an im the "capitalist mode of production" to Marx. society These necessarily restrictions appear in the form of civil take on a purely negative character. Since the civil no war." a return to the primitive of the body is recreated. in other words. Communism. which is a place of incessant and all-pervasive is possible. irrelevant. The division to.
There was. or that the revolutionary the moralistic He abandoned approach justice. political final for the battle them against capitalism. improve democracy. if the bourgeois order. he tried consistently atti that the convince his readers and followers proper (and himself) not in denouncing failures the moral tude to social changes consisted that would the "natural" tendencies but in analyzing of capitalism. the labor force itself an to in selling himself usually does it conform worker. they (As usually do all three. he society. force alone would to a large extent. are hidden in all his Normative of course a self-deception. employer. exploitation capitalist was a commodity. however.4 This standpoint so long as Marxists as cynical. therefore. according capitalists social them. all would to the fullest. according the new cratic sessed conflictless. rules of democracy. asserting their individuality not. early because German struggle to social problems sition to the so-called in oppo to true socialism. on unified simply rejected cused of violating cannot the "formal" it could not be ac hand. the justice or injustice. against the to its general progress. was of the moralistic Marx's dismissal approach. regimes and according and rights to Marxist society. new In this cause to about the and it society. immediately socialism.86 hands Leszek Kolakowski to participate in the fight for needed of the state.) Marx himself did not pretend that capitalist society deserved to be condemned was about it was unjust. it could be rightly blamed. no promise to guarantee turns it out. who fight for in nonsocialist human regimes do not pre despotic rights guarantees nor that their moral of principle tend that it is a matter indignation even be viewed has these been and furthermore aroused. workers.5 decide between right. The conflict between to of the exchange. they fight for civil consistently nonsocialist liberties and human regimes.143.192. once they are themselves rights make in power. moment he defined himself the and from on. equivalent principle ably was one of right against to and Marx. premises This content downloaded from 158. preparing behave when Marxists. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . upon seizing power.135 on Tue. the workers it the of would condition their struggle. them. but in contributing terms in no reason to of condemn believed. are clearly irrelevant to stated clearly that demo should since the be as latter Trotsky of the proletariat the dictatorship to their own respective principles. the other did not abide by its rules. and then rights in despotic those liberties destroy Such rights. bring collapse inevitably to develop their potentialities have an opportunity society.
entirely keeping with the notion of man as a social animal in its specifically Marxist In a market variant. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Communism. of the empirical and that conformity Plato's than this was no less value-laden knowledge acquaintance the world have with men of ideas. or in alliance with from "real men" as a consequence can con others. separately process the trol. a to and social order where contribute civil encourage.135 on Tue. a number This content downloaded from 158. even the conditions did not imagine the contrary. to be sure. is by restoring genuine community. however. by turning over the re control of social processes. He failed to explain what motivations in the for for would he communism. particularly restore the would of value. appeal are liberties and human is in This rights abrogated.Marxism basic and Human Rights 87 in his idea of alienation and in his theory concepts. would producers" of real individual his new Yet. of the society in that their lives are prey to a contingent historical communism neutral that no one. struggle taking part might that they fight for communism have resisted the proposition for no to win by the force of historical better reason than that it is bound laws. predicting likely out come of current social conflicts. for. development. The incompatibility between theMarxist and human comes doctrine rights concept through ism as both a disguised moralism?which an to be. knew how human character the achieve truly man with the idea of humanitas. To for political it explicitly wanted action. but it would not actively oppose that doctrine. it is to affirm positively. doctrine either. Rather. which appeal state that civil liberties and human are rights principles simply an and institutional of the market that economy expression ideological intends to abolish is not merely clearly when we see Marx it refused to admit?and to press forward with a the most "sociological" description. Marx argued. lost. society itself is alienated anonymous laws. are victims individuals economy. as well as in his belief that communism to human He of life. and is governed by of its isolation.192. distilling the normative We for this ambigu the concept of content from the hybridlike doctrine thatmelts determinist prejudice with Utopian into one were a IfMarxism whole.143. while making allowances cannot. to is fundamental Marx's work?reinsert ity?which human fantasies historical rights rights into his theory. indistinguishable purely not and it would include the human description prediction. to "associated create Marx camp?quite individuality. society as a sort of concentration of penetrating critics.
is Furthermore. cultural and that of the the abolition of the division of power. accepting?not party. he showed his fidel the "fables about ethics" and asserting By denouncing ity to Marx. making implemented. as sheer. By just in fact. with its elections. by suggesting reading. It is belonged ing are only two of many who this kind of selective that however. ings.192." Leszek Kolakowski lifetime. of private property. be. interpreting and society. a state. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . democracy relationships. of the omnipotent Com ery human being helpless property a was to to munism in which Marx. supposed according society the "negative freedom" guarantees?are fies himself with principally had been or "bourgeois human freedom"?the rights because identi everyone willingly pointless precisely since communism the community. noticed without that itwould for the achievements waiting if the Marxist social program of "real ever came social to be a ev produce highly despotic regime. by comparison. especially themselves in the period full-fledged not believe that socialism would destroy the rights embodied in the democratic institutions of "bourgeois socialism. clearly. he followed Marx completely. Lenin. Karl Kautsky and Rudolf Hilferd to this company. and all the rest." into economic predicted tific analysis of capitalist society. both the spirit and the letter of the canonical these men betrayed was a much more faithful disciple scriptures. subordinated announcing to political promise activity terror entirely would be directly inscribed into the legal system. They enlarge.88 in his ism. in Marx's writ of the philosophical took little account generalities a as a moral as not but scien doctrine his appeal. neither would stating freedom be freedom of speech.135 on Tue. considered who International. obeying no laws and of parliamentary the institutions of principle?all democracy?. by sneering that ethics at bourgeois between inventions such as the distinction aggressive that one should keep internation and defensive wars or the principle This content downloaded from 158. by extending the scope of human would rights. By defining a matter no rules. human the institutions protecting rights in a bourgeois be needed. but in theory?the that the Soviet unambiguously nor democracy. rather than abolish. di of the proletariat the dictatorship of Marx.143. It is true that many theorists. once neither the bourgeoisie the liberties nor society would of the Second Marxists did that the abolition successfully expropriated. arguable. an was to be instrument of the class struggle. disdaining?as rect violence. and proclaiming dictatorship state would that tasks.
human beings are to be considered of the new society. Nevertheless. without there may be many are committed to human rights principles. of individual and society. too. Marxists its sense. unimaginable. and of the future identity theory of class consciousness. though accepting that no normative ideas can be inferred from Marxist doctrine. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . that moral questions nonsense to attribute tactics. The Marxian free critique of "negative a dom" and individual is conclusion from this necessary rights theory. Steven strategy and to a distinction are ques life' ".143. did Trotsky when. ians. which is hidden in the of alienation.Marxism al agreements. found no logical difficulty in enriching itwith the Kantian of practical reason. that all is the form par excellence that violence as a reservoir of the labor force.135 on Tue. and vegetarian-Quaker with the Kantian-priestly concerned prattle about the 'sacredness of human tions of political any significance Lukes regimes. that it is between democratic and fascist the validity abandoned who consistently admit argues that the only Marxists are or "revisionists who of human have discarded rights tenets are of the Marxist canon" in those central that sense can those who do with such a belief. the idea itself. has a number the Marxian contradicting this is because themselves.192. Marxism. The neo-Kantian tried to supplement the allegedly Kantian of with ethics. Marx Marxists oriented and the neo-Kantians tistically ism is no longer itself once we cut it down to its purely "descriptive" content and discard its normative background.71 believe that both the scien philosophy were wrong.6 But in what compatible or consider to be such? While still be seen as Marxists themselves socialists who. incom some true variant. there is no commonly accepted definition of socialism. Lenin did not depart fromMarxist prin clarity. by insisting and Human Rights limits 89 in po that there are no permissible litical struggle?in all these. Unlike the value-free Marxist society theory a was to mixture whom such the neo-Kant orthodox. rify doing so. it is that of to pu oriented Marxists mentioned above wanted in its normative the doctrine of distorted elements. So. with praiseworthy of socialist power. and. This content downloaded from 158. he stated ciples. labor is a permanent that compulsory principle on moral to be discarded if they can that no means grounds ought never serve the cause of communist communists "were that power. older than patible with the scientistically some of them obviously of varieties.
cannot be lightly dismissed. question. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to feel useful to other people is an undeniable aspea of human dignity. Even ifwe do not consider ness. The right to a as to in the nineteenth the helpless response century emerged and exploitation of workers. they invariably right right and that this has been granted under the Soviet system only. which part of its legacy.9o Both Leszek Kolakowski variants to be of this half-Marxism abor proved historically current of old. altering political Soviet leader that might limit the state despotism?indicates the ing any barriers was a Yet it force of the human in idea. virtually explanatory was Marxism ing device dismissing of values. without being essentially distorted. Thus the supreme right of man and his supreme freedom arematerialized in the form of slavery. by launching the vision of a new mankind. movements proved tradition. tive. by proclaiming the irrelevance The der of "bourgeois freedom" and human rights. prophetic monopolized died off with in later revisionist its attempts pretensions. corpus with all and prognostic guidelines. such judgments judgments ever quoted in the Soviet press. Neo-Kantian Marxism to revive some of As its tenets a doctrinal to be short-lived.Nor do they dwell on the fact that this same and work fascism. No dare to repeat Lenin's clear and precise today would nor are about democracy and freedom. misery. stress to that chief human is the the work. What they fail to add is that this has been achieved by a system of compul at the very beginning in principle of sory labor that was established Sovietism. rights adopted only strongly version: when Soviet qualified speak of human ideologists rights. not by empire. People who. it a human right. apart from its contribution to the to exist. as a result of social processes beyond This content downloaded from 158. has become the legitimiz the totalitarian them It solved moral issues. That some Western was phraseology or of the realities build course. This freedom has been achieved under National Socialism to be sure. it is only a symptom of their ideological disarray. adopted?without. a was soon inherited to lose contact ment. Yet.135 on Tue. and the social-democratic Leninist ceased move variant. ideolo by the Leninist-Stalinist gy and. The orthodox with theMarxist proponents.143. this hardly suggests that they have embraced human rights theory. which would achieve its final liberation by making everything the property of the state. in favor of a value-neutral but analysis. into their jargon?reluctantly have assimilated from the West?some of the phraseology pressure Soviets and un of human rights.192.
is no substantial There difference between "the right to proclaiming and that this is enough life" and stating that natural law forbids killing. It is often stressed that the idea of human to dismiss its claims efficacious. course.192. When tolerable only so long as the unemployment a large class of are nomic fluctuations instead produce who people doomed permanently such a class continues the charity of the state. of to the Judaic sources of European and Christian culture.135 on Tue. vented goes back to the Christian belief in the autonomous sta value of the human personality. of political orders condition and guarantee that result fluctuations tionalize human in a certain gress. feel redundant condition that matter. but in their dignity as well. though able that it is a modern version of the natural law theory. liberal advice?to abandon these function If democratic for the security of em There are no reasons to state interventions they are left to live on of the increase many feel ready people The dilemma ployment. frustrations. It is possible that absolutely full employ ment?the For compatible both with the market economy and with technical pro labor.Much as the concept may have been elaborated in the philosophy of the Enlightenment in its conflict with Christianity. they are likely to encourage totalitarian into jeopardy the very institution trends. believe that traditional affairs in economic alone?will of since best when societies prove prove incapable coping with mass unemployment. slave it could it is incompatible. are injured not only in their welfare. but because to renounce freedom is real and pressing. argu certainly new.143. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to timeless validity. nobody ever looks for a job?is in from state. not only because in suffering. society is in danger. whose origins we can trace back at least to the Stoic philosophers and. the notion of the immutable rights of individuals tus and Yet. in which and Human Rights 91 or unemployable in great numbers. with a slave in be implemented only is a necessary.8 irreplaceable it was not the metaphysical character of the theory that pre it from being incorporated into Marxist doctrine. thereby putting al framework which the observance of human upon rights depends. that are able although to institu and civil rights. freedom too. Inevitable economic are amount of unemployment eco is temporary. and useless. perhaps tells us that the market economy Experience not sufficient. and criminality. In its the doctrine is it is contemporary form.Marxism their who are unemployed control. and when to grow. rights is of recent origin. And itwas This content downloaded from 158.
"AModern View of Our Origin: The Christian Beginnings of Modern Individualism. Still. Writings I. II. X-XV. and vol. the belief that progress can to control the conditions. 5Capital. to ual's value is not related to his personal but his life. that made it incompatible it was Marxism's funda mentally holistic approach to human life. This content downloaded from 158. Rather. My bet. p. on Austromarxists and on Kautsky. ENDNOTES 1De iure belli ac pads. the chapters Lukacs. especially vol. only by the ability of mankind an individ both natural and social. 336. being a com On of the collective "whole.192. chapter 6Can aMarxist Believe inHuman Rights? Praxis 1 (4) (January 1982). of their status the regimes that base their legitimacy on Marxist they are incapable cies. 4Trotsky.143.135 on Tue. for is there for this work of aiming to perfectly at the extinction of units rightswould ultimate indeed demolish their very foundation. 1. 1932. it is possible choose success would but in the result not only in the ruin of civilization. 8. is that itwill not prove successful." Reli gion 12 (1982)." the that is violence ponent assumption be measured the midwife mate liberation one should naturally of progress. 2. Louis Dumont. and that. processes? to say that its to leave aside in this essay. not as a result of temporary in principle. i. ^Discours 3De Of?cio. 2 Apr 2013 06:22:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of accepting ideology try to do. This is what in fact all of individuals to inert tools of the state. I. consequently." cf. of its life. ruin of humanity as we know it. 3. thereby robbing them of their personality. i. 7. I. de m?taphysique. to resist enough that the human totalitarian spirit will turn out to be refractory pressure. however. that the ulti expect in the coercive consist of humanity would reduction as active subjects. the chapter on 8On the Christian origin of modern "individualism. reducing beings exchangeable personal one that I That is a separate of productive question. What chance of human success life. deficien to the idea of human accept human rights.92 not with Leszek Kolakowski the antimetaphysical the human rights spirit of Marxism principle. 7Idiscuss these questions inmore detail inmy Main Currents ofMarxism.
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