Seven Component Regulated LED Lamp

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Specifications Nominal Operating Voltage: 12V DC Operating Current: 40ma . attached to a fluorescent lamp base Seven Component Regulated LED Lamp Updated March. 2003 Introduction This is a minimal parts lamp made with four white LEDs.Circuit board installed in an automotive lamp holder. It features regulated light output from 10V to around 20V and works well as a flashlight.

and back to the battery. The parts were soldered in. Alignment If you have a variable power supply. be sure to observe the correct polarity. T1-3/4 size 30 ohm 1/4 W resistor 0. The low current draw allows it to run for many hours on a battery. but the parts count would go way up.Theory The LM317L and resistor act as a current regulator set to 40ma. The single screw can be used to mount the assembly to an external bracket. Small resistors could be placed in series with each of the four LEDs to improve the balance. If all of the LEDs light up evenly. The capacitor filters out noise on the power supply lines. matched pairs of LEDs must be used. a batch of LEDs from the same manufacturer will be matched close enough for this application. Current flows from the battery through one pair of LEDs.1uF capacitor LM317L adjustable voltage regulator plastic bottle top from a water bottle (1 liter Aqua Fina brand) 4-40 3/8" screw 4-40 nuts . and it is useful for emergency illumination. If unmatched LEDs are used. Use Connect this circuit to a 12V battery or power supply. The bottle cap protects the LEDs and prevents bright light from coming out of the side of the assembly. You can read by this light. and the board was mounted inside of the bottle cap. Construction There is one trick with this circuit. turn off the power and fix the problem. The resulting lamp is quite effective for night reading. It is best to first build the circuit on a plug-in proto board to verify that the LEDs light evenly. The completed circuit board and cap assembly was mounted in an old automobile turn signal. The LEDs should put out a bright white light. Parts 4x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 2x white LEDs (matched). it is best to bring the voltage up slowly the first time power is applied to the circuit. The lamp head was mounted onto the end of an old fluorescent lamp base with a goose neck adjustable arm. The LED pairs must be matched so that the current through them is roughly equivalent. A small circuit board was made using press-n-peel blue film. the board was cut into a circular shape using a nibbling tool. If any of the LEDs don't light. The cap came from a 1 Liter "Aqua Fina" brand water bottle. through the regulator. through the other pair of LEDs. one LED per pair will be bright and the other one will be dim. the circuit should work (for many years) on 12V. and it's not too ugly. Normally.

Parts Sources Jameco 1-800-831-4242 http://www. Stephen Kellert: The Qualitative Study of Unstable Aperiodic Behavior in Deterministic Nonlinear dynamical systems.com/ Digi-Key 1-800-DIGIKEY http://www. rather than seeking numerical predictions about a future state. Chaos We borrow a working definition for chaos theory from Dr. they do not shrug off external influences but are partly navigated by them.jameco. In other words. the circle is slightly less than 1" tall. . What characteristics will all solutions of a system exhibit? How does this system change from exhibiting one behavior to another? Chaotic systems are unstable since they tend not to resist any outside disturbances but instead react in significant ways.digikey.PostScript file for PC board Jpeg file for PC board (10X) The Jpeg version may need scaling down.com/ Back to FC's Solar Circuits page. I should briefly dissect some of these terms to better describe what is and what is not chaotic in nature: Chaos is qualitative in that it seeks to know the general character of a system's long-term behavior.

This unstable aperiodic behavior is highly complex since it never repeats and continues to show the effects of the disturbance(s).The variables describing the state of a system do not demonstrate a regular repetition of values and are therefore aperiodic. a dynamic system is a simplified model for the time-varying behavior of an actual system. simple differential equations. These systems are deterministic because they are made up of few. This is not to be completely equated with the metaphysical or philosophical idea of determinism (that human choices could be predetermined as well). provided that their much . Finally. and make no references to implicit chance mechanisms. Edward Lorenz would stretch the definition of chaos to include phenomena that are slightly random. These systems are described using differential equations specifying the rates of change for each variable.

should be allowed to qualify as chaos. In other words.perhaps the falling leaf or the flapping flag . real-world processes that appear to be behaving randomly . this is referred to as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. he discovered the foundation of mainstream chaos: that simply-formulated systems with few variables could display highly complex behavior that was unpredictable and unforseeable. In Chaos parlance. In real .greater apparent randomness is not a by-product of their slight true randomness. as long as they would continue to appear random even if any true randomness could somehow be eliminated. In Lorenz' meteorological computer modeling. He saw that slight differences in one variable had profound effects on the outcome of the whole system. and the later behavior of the system may soon become completely different. What this means is when we make slight changes to a system at one time.

this could mean the development of a front or pressure-system where there never would have been one in previous models. 1996 . but may be the ones at the beginning of any stretch of time that interests an investigator. Exhibits || Lexicon || Timeline © The Exploratorium. Initial conditions need not be the ones that existed when a system was created.weather situations. In differential plotting this took on a new form called a strange attractor (see figure 1).

Chaos We borrow a working definition for chaos theory from Dr. In other words. I should briefly dissect some of these terms to better describe what is and what is not chaotic in nature: Chaos is qualitative in that it seeks to know the general character of a system's long-term behavior. What characteristics will all solutions of a system exhibit? How does this system change from exhibiting one behavior to another? Chaotic systems are unstable since they tend not to resist any outside disturbances but instead react in significant ways. rather than seeking numerical predictions about a future state. Stephen Kellert: The Qualitative Study of Unstable Aperiodic Behavior in Deterministic Nonlinear dynamical systems. . they do not shrug off external influences but are partly navigated by them.

This unstable aperiodic behavior is highly complex since it never repeats and continues to show the effects of the disturbance(s). Finally. These systems are deterministic because they are made up of few. and make no references to implicit chance mechanisms. Edward Lorenz would stretch the definition of chaos to include phenomena that are slightly random. This is not to be completely equated with the metaphysical or philosophical idea of determinism (that human choices could be predetermined as well). a dynamic system is a simplified model for the time-varying behavior of an actual system. provided that their much .The variables describing the state of a system do not demonstrate a regular repetition of values and are therefore aperiodic. simple differential equations. These systems are described using differential equations specifying the rates of change for each variable.

He saw that slight differences in one variable had profound effects on the outcome of the whole system. he discovered the foundation of mainstream chaos: that simply-formulated systems with few variables could display highly complex behavior that was unpredictable and unforseeable. as long as they would continue to appear random even if any true randomness could somehow be eliminated. In other words. and the later behavior of the system may soon become completely different.perhaps the falling leaf or the flapping flag .should be allowed to qualify as chaos. this is referred to as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. In Lorenz' meteorological computer modeling. What this means is when we make slight changes to a system at one time. In real . In Chaos parlance.greater apparent randomness is not a by-product of their slight true randomness. real-world processes that appear to be behaving randomly .

1996 . In differential plotting this took on a new form called a strange attractor (see figure 1). Exhibits || Lexicon || Timeline © The Exploratorium. Initial conditions need not be the ones that existed when a system was created. but may be the ones at the beginning of any stretch of time that interests an investigator. this could mean the development of a front or pressure-system where there never would have been one in previous models.weather situations.

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