Going Global Globalisation 1. What is globalisation?

Using the diagram above define the term globalisation:

2. Globalisation, population change and migration Demographic (population) changes are an important aspect of globalisation. Economic growth usually triggers from the amount of people living in a region. Define the demographic terms below. Birth rate Death rate Economic migrant Internal migration Intervening obstacle Intervening opportunity Natural increase

Using examples explain the role intervening obstacles and intervening opportunities influence migration. Intervening opportunities Intervening obstacles

Push and pull factors are usually identified to explain migration flows. These factors are reasons why people are repelled by (push), or attracted to (pull), different places. Provide examples of push and pull factors below. Push      Pull     

The Demographic Transition Model describes key global demographic changes:   how fertility (birth rate) and mortality (death rate) are the drivers places where population pressure is still building and places where it is not

Complete the table below describing each stage of the DTM (one has been done for you). Stage 1 High Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5

Birth rate

Death rate

High

Natural increase Example countries

Stable

Few remote groups

3. Evolution of globalisation A number of factors have been responsible for the lengthening and deepening of the interconnections between places that define globalisation. Using examples annotate the table below explaining how these factors have accelerated globalisation

Global Groupings Define the following terms: Development gap

Gross domestic product Human development index Poverty

Talk of ‗MEDCs and LEDCs‘ has become an inadequate way of desc ribing the modern world. Therefore countries can be grouped in a more complex manner, recognising their incomplete /changing nature.

1. Economic groupings Nations can be grouped according to their overall levels of wealth and power that brings. Annotate the diagram below describing the characteristics of each group using named example.

2. Political groupings (trade blocs) The world can also be broken up into political groupings. Trade blocs are voluntary organisations that exist for trade and security. Membership of such groupings has been growing over time.

Using the diagram above list the trade blocs shown:     

Define the following terms: Spatial division of labour Comparative advantage Economies of scale

Using the example of the European Union (EU) explain the benefits of countries belonging to trade blocs. Benefits of countries belonging to trade blocs?

3. Transnational corporations Trans-national corporations (TNCs) are agents of global change. They link together groups of countries through the production of goods (large assembly industries use parts sourced from many different countries, all of which contribute to the finished product, e.g. cars and computers). TNCs also forge connections between people in different countries by shaping common patterns of consumption (e.g. global entertainment brands such as Disney or food retailers such as McDonald‘s and KFC). TNCs are sophisticated and complex entities. Explain the significance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), acquisitions, mergers and the role that sub-contractors play in the production chain (e.g. Nike products are not always made in premises owned by Nike). Many household names are now owned in turn by other big names (e.g. the drinks conglomerate Diageo owns Smirnoff and Guinness). TNCs are both helped and hindered by the existence of trade blocs. Consider how firms have responded. For instance, why does Nissan manufacture cars in Sunderland? How does the existence of the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA), and a lack of restrictions on US–Mexican trade, help American TNCs increase their profits?

Define the following terms: Assembly industries Transnational corporation Branch plant Consumption Glocalisation Parent

company Tertiary sector

4. TNC Case study: Tesco

Complete the table below to create a case study of Tesco. What is meant by a spatial division of labour and how does it work? How does tesco link together the work of different groups of people in different countries?

Are there inequalities of pay within a typical division of labour? What are the figures?

What happens to the Tesco‘s profits from its overseas operation(s)?

Does Tesco produce exactly the same product for all different markets, thereby creating a shared consumer culture for groupings of countries?

Or does it change its products and services for different places in the global market place? Does Tesco acknowledge cultural differences or are its products exactly the same in all of the markets they group together?

Classify the views below for and against TNCs for the host and source country. Profits go to the HQ country Dirty industries and pollution are ‗exported‘ Creates connections with the rest of the world Health and safety may be ignored Derelict land due to factory closures Job creation Loss of jobs due to global shift Environmental impacts may be large Workers are paid low wages and may be exploited The costs of regeneration Supplier companies and linked industries may grow TNCs may generate greater profits and pay more taxes

Global Networks The world has become a more interconnected place but there are still extremes of wealth and poverty. These interconnected places are in one big global network linked by flows of money, trade, aid, information and people.

Define the following terms: Core Switched on places Wilderness

1. Technology builds global networks The term shrinking world conveys a sense that technology has changed our perception of distances between places. You will need to provide practical examples of this. The early cables across the Atlantic are a particularly vivid example of the beginning of the information age.

Case study Low cost Airline: easyjet

How has low cost travel helped to create global networks? (case study easyjet)

More wealth is then created via a multiplier effect in the places with the technology to develop into global hubs.

2. What happens in global hubs? Global hubs and other major network nodes are switched on places possessing qualities that make other places want to connect with them. Generally, it is the presence of either natural or human resources that drives the process. Global hubs are often ‗world cities‘. List the ways natural and human resources help global hubs develop: Natural resources Human resources

Define the following terms: Cluster

Cumulative causation Export processing zone Global hub

Human resources Multiplier effect

Natural resources Technopole

Trickle-down

Globalisation allows comparative advantages to be exploited, creating a multiplier effect. Both physical and human resources often fi gure in success stories — include examples of both. For instance, oil has helped many places to gain vast amounts of petrodollar wealth (e.g. Saudi Arabia or the city of Dubai). The recent success of some Asian economies, including China, can be viewed as the result of a combination of physical factors (e.g. its coastal Pacifi c Rim location) and human factors (e.g. large, cheap, but relatively skilled labour force).

3. Switched off places Physical challenges, poor governance and political isolation are problems that figure frequently in the study of places that are poorly integrated into the world economy. Land-locked African countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe face many difficulties and would be useful examples for students to research. North Korea is similarly worth investigating. It is important that explanation does not become overly deterministic and students should be aware of at least one example of a region whose physical endowments do not appear to correspond with their level of global success. For example, Las Vegas functions extremely well as a global hub, despite being in the Nevadan desert. Conversely, Sierra Leone‘s ‗blood diamonds‘ can be viewed as a resource curse.

Using examples explain why some places remain relatively switched off.

Human or Physical Factor

Example

Explanation

Roots 1. Analysing population change Local populations in the UK changed in many ways during the 20th century. Data sources can be national (census), local or personal. Analyse changes to the UK population, using the questions below as a guide. Size — How did individual family sizes change? How did local settlement population sizes grow as a result of natural increase trends? Structure — What is the age –sex structure of a typical family now? How old are its oldest members? Has life expectancy changed since the days of greatgrandparents? Migration and ethnicity — Were older members of local families born overseas or in the UK? How has the ethnic mix of people changed over time? Is it still changing? Employment — How have jobs and employment structures changed locally?

Social status — Have working-class communities become more middleclass over time?

Define the key terms below: Genealogy Greying population Age-selective migration Extended family Social mobility

Research your own family background and compare with the national trends. Describe your findings below: The website on p.123 provide sources of information for you research. Source of information Findings

2. Explaining the pattern of population change Explain how the following factors have had an impact on UK population and migration. Changes in family size and population structure

Changes in employment, migration, ethnicity and social status

Define the following terms: Baby boom Secularisation Consumption Consumerism

3. The grey challenge A major issue facing the UK and many other developed countries is the challenge of a ‗greying population‘. Over the next few decades, the dependency ratio (the ratio of over 65s and under 16s to the working age population) in the UK will gradually rise (see next slide). The ‗baby boom‘ generation born between 1945 and 1965 will virtually all be retired by 2030. The much smaller ‗generation x‘ population born after 1965 will be economically active, and will have to support the elderly.

Classify the challenges and opportunities of a greying population. Furthermore distinguish these into two groups:   Economic costs Responsibility and care Greying voters may become a powerful political force Depopulation and dereliction in some areas Costs of providing long-term care Increasing NHS costs Pressure to raise the state pension retirement age An older society may be a more law abiding one Housing shortages as the elderly live at home longer

Helping the 65+ group to keep working to maximise tax revenue Many older people do not want to retire at 65 Skilled labour shortages General taxation may need to rise New sites for care homes and retirement homes needed A desire to ‗do good‘ and ‗stay active‘ may lead to a rise in voluntary work by older people The ‗grey pound‘ may become a significant source of economic growth Older people have valuable experience

The key to the ‗grey‘ future is planning now to meet the future challenges. This might involve:    raising the retirement age and using the tax system to encourage private pension provision using immigration, selectively, to help raise fertility and avoid severe population decline and skills shortages promoting change in attitudes so that older people are seen as assets rather than costs

On the move Migrants are people who move their ‗permanent‘ residence from one country to another. There are many types of migrant (see below):

For people to move, they need to be ‗pushed‘ from their country of origin and ‗pulled‘ to a another country. The majority of migrants are voluntary movers, doing so for largely economic reasons.

1. Welcome to Europe? Migration has often taken place into the countries that now make up the EU. Many Western European nations received fl ows of migrants from their former colonies after the Second World War. These past movements can be explored in relation to the specific challenges that existed in former times (e.g. the NHS‘s drive to recruit Indian doctors, prompted by a shortage of UK -trained medical personnel in the 1950s).

Today, the EU is a highly desirable destination for many non-European economic migrants, as well as refugees and asylum-seekers. All-too-frequent cases of mass drowning of African migrants in the Mediterranean are a reminder of the risk that the world‘s poorest people are now prepared to expose themselves to in order to try and gain entry to Fortress Europe. The presence of Chinese workers in the UK came under the media spotlight in 2003, when a large group of recent Chinese migrants were drowned while working at night in Morecambe Bay. Immigrant/group Chinese When did they migrate to the UK? Why did they migrate?

Black Caribbean

Black African

Indian

Pakistani

Bangladeshi

Illegal immigration into Europe is focused on the ‗porous southern border‘ (see map below). The Canaries, Malta, Ceuta and Melilla are key illegal entry points. Much of the migration from Africa is ‗pushed‘ by conflict and poverty and ‗pulled‘ by Europe‘s wealth.

Why might some people think twice about migrating to Europe?    

2. Movement within Europe The background to recent eastern European migration begins with the EU Schengen Agreement of 1985. The agreement enshrined the principle that all people living within the EU are its citizens and should be allowed to move freely within it. As a consequence, it abolished border controls between all those countries which signed the agreement (the UK did not).

Eastern European Migration (economic flow) The vast majority of the 800,000 to 1 million migrants who have come to the UK since 2004 are from Poland. There are also significant numbers from Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia. These migrants represent 4–5% of the labour force of their source countries (2007). Classify the costs and benefits for the host (UK) and source (Poland) country. Temporary immigrants send about 25% of their earnings home as remittances. Fills skills gaps (e.g. factory workers). In some places, such gaps were threatening whole industries (e.g fish processing in Scotland). Total population is projected to fall from 38 million today to 32–33 million by 2050. Additional strain on services, especially health and education, is an issue. For Poland, this income amounted to around €6.4 billion in 2006, or 2.5% of Polish gross national income (GNI).

Unemployment in Poland has fallen, from 18% in 2004, to 14% in 2006 and 10% in 2007.

For some A8 countries, the loss of its more able workforce is significant.

By 2050 it is likely that the 65+ age group in Poland will increase from 11% to 27% while the 19– 44 years working age percentage will fall from 38% to 27%. However, in some instances growing tensions have been reported. There is also a growing problem with worker exploitation as unscrupulous gangs prey on A8 workers.

However, ageing and population decline are real threats if migrants do not return home. A significant brain drain is also occurring.

Despite EU immigration, unemployment in the UK has remained low at around 5%. Downward pressure on wages for the lowest paid is another issue.

Immigrants who plan to settle in the UK send only about 8% home.

Overcrowding and housing shortages may become problems.

Average earnings in the UK for the Poles are only about £6 per hour.

Define the term net migration: Net migration

Immigration to the UK, particularly of economic migrants, has risen since the early 1990s. Since 1993 the migration balance has been positive. Net immigration is now in the order of 200,000 per annum. This is a high level by historic standards. For much of the twentieth century, the UK was a country of net emigration. Emigration has also risen, but has been overtaken by the volume of immigration. Asylum-seeker numbers have fallen sharply since 2002.

The Costa living (retirement flow) Most immigrants to the UK are relatively young. Emigrants from the UK tend to be older; 60% are over 45. There are now significant permanent British populations in several other EU countries. Why should Spain be by far the most popular destination? Many emigrants to Spain choose to live in ‗urbanisacions.‘ These are purpose-built villa developments. Construction of the Urbanisacion La Marina, near Alicante, began in 1985. It has the largest proportion of non-Spanish residents of any municipality in Spain. Around 8,000 of the 10,000 residents are foreign, and about half of them are from the UK. Classify the costs and benefits for the host (Spain) and source (UK) country. Family breakup, as grandparents move away Immigrant ‗ghettos‘ are created, with little social and cultural integration In part, emigration balances increased immigration, reducing net migration rates Healthcare costs are borne by the host country Physical infrastructure systems may be strained

Areas that were largely unproductive scrubland become valuable building sites Loss of a highly experienced workforce, especially if they retire early Job creation in construction, retail and other services

Fewer older people to take care of; some health and care problems are effectively exported House prices become too high for local people

The ‗grey pound‘ is spent overseas

Increased spending in the local economy; some retirees are highly affluent Loss of potential childminders

Relieves pressure to build new homes, and therefore to build on greenfield sites

Resentment as immigrants seek to enter local politics

3. The consequences of migration Using the costs and benefits from both case studies categorise the impacts under the following heading: Economic Social Environmental Political

Managing migration Managing migration can be difficult. There may be a need for immigrants, but they also bring costs. It is very hard to prevent emigration. The UK is replacing the present system of more than 80 different types of work permits with a simpler, five-tier points system based on the Australian model (see below). It is hoped this will balance the need for skilled workers with the costs of providing additional services. Since 2002 the UK has taken a tougher line with asylum seekers in order to reduce public concerns. The UK five-tier points system: Tier 1: Highly skilled This tier includes entrepreneurs, top scientists and business people. No job offer will be required. Tier 2: Skilled with job offer People with qualifications/work-related experience; job offer in a ‗shortage area‘ such as nursing. Tier 3: Low skilled Workers from the expanded European Union, who do not need prior permission to arrive. Tier 4: Students Those paying for tuition in the UK. Tier 5: Temporary workers, youth mobility World cities By 2030, the urban population will have risen to 5 billion or 60% of the global population. 50% of the urban population today is aged under 25. Asia‘s urban population is set to rise from 1.4 billion now to 2.6 billion in 2030 (equivalent to the world‘s total population in 1955). Africa‘s urban population will rise from 300 to 750 million and that of Latin America and the Caribbean from 400 to 600 million. 1. Rural-urban migration Rural–urban migration is the most significant type of population movement bar none. Estimates suggest that as many as 300 million ex-rural migrants may now be living in Chinese cities. The percentage of the world‘s people living in cities now exceeds 50% and is growing daily. Annotate the diagram below explaining how these factors cause rural-urban migration and the outcomes.

2. Contrasting megacities Megacities are very diverse. Some are at the early or immature stage in the cycle of urbanisation, whereas in others the rate of growth is slowing (consolidating). Developed world megacities (mature) tend to have very slow growth rates and are dominated by suburban sprawl. They are increasingly feeling the effects of counter-urbanisation. Identify the different types of megacities in the table below: Mature, slow growing Europe and North America Population 70%+ urban No slums Consolidating, growing South America and southeast Asia Population 40–50% urban Under 20% slums Immature, rapidly growing South/southeast Asia and Africa Population under 30% urban 20%+ slums

Define the following terms: Slum

Urban growth

Urban sprawl

Suburbanisation

Counterurbanisation Reurbanisation

Two well-chosen case studies can illustrate the contrasts that exist between different large urban environments, according to a range of criteria, including: • recent population movement and change, including gentrification • economies and urban functions. Use you class notes to add information to the two case studies below:

The economies and populations of London and Mumbai are also interlinked via global networks, with fl ows of migration and investment between the two cities. For example, Cadbury-Schweppes has its headquarters in London and its subsidiary Cadbury India is based in Mumbai. Classify the problems below that you would associate with the ‗developed‘ and ‗developing‘ world. Sprawling slums Explosive population growth Poverty and prevalence of informal economy Lack of clean water and sanitation Disease epidemics Transport gridlock Urban funding crises Overcrowding Lack of green space Pollution of air and water Gating and segregation Visual and noise pollution Water supply problems Deep eco-footprints Declining centres Sprawling suburbs and exurbs Developed World Developing World

3. Sustainable megacities? ―Sustainable development is a form of development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.‖

Can a settlement ever become sustainable according to the actual defi nition of sustainable development? The true meaning of sustainable development should be foremost in students‘ minds as they critically examine attempts of one urban area to become more sustainable. (A smaller settlement could be looked at, if the schemes are good, e.g. Modbury, where plastic bags are banned.)

Describe and explain how megacities can become more sustainable under the following headings. Support your ideas with examples. Improving slum housing

Improving health and environment

Transport and environment

Ecocities?

Global challenges for the future Global trade can bring immediate national benefi ts to nations as Gross Domestic Product rises in value. The Purchasing Power Parity of individual citizens has been greatly increased in some of the ‗success stories‘ or ‗global winners‘, e.g. South Korea. Define the following terms: Externalities

Global shift

Purchasing power parity Deindustrialisation

Quaternary sector

1. Positive and negative effects of globalisation

Explain what is meant by the term: ‗A two speed India‘.

2. Moral and social consequences of globalisation

Worker exploitation remains a major concern, e.g. in China, where some workers suffer conditions similar to those in the UK‘s factories during the Nineteenth Century. H igh factory accident rates have made new city Yongkang ‗the dismemberment capital of China‘ (Financial Times). Very often, poorly-waged workers are producing products that used to be made in Europe but without the health and safety controls that European workers demand (and which have made European production more expensive, hence the out-sourcing overseas that now takes place!). Has globalisation allowed us to simply send dangerous poorly-paid work overseas? When we enjoy products made in such conditions, should we feel responsibility for the workers that made them? Ought we to pay more for the things we buy so that they can have a fair, safe wage? Create a mind map concerning your both sides view of the subject below:

3. Environmental and social costs Study the environmental costs of global trade below. What do you consider the biggest negative impact and why?

Possible solutions to the challenges of globalisation include actions on a variety of scales. Individuals can help by buying Fair Trade or through charitable giving. Governments can do their bit by signing up for carbon trading or giving tax breaks (e.g. for wind turbines, etc.). Businesses can add food miles labelling to products and use more recycled packaging. Students need to offer balanced assessments of different actions and not just uncritically assert their merit. Local food may have been grown in powered hothouses. Aid can lead to dumping of goods (harming new businesses in poor countries) and dependency. Recycling and carbon trading may not reduce use of energy quickly enough. Organic food may clock up excessive food miles, e.g. South American ‗organic‘ asparagus! There are pros and cons to each scheme. Identify the pros and cons of each scheme below: Pros Cons

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