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七叶树科 qi ye shu ke Xia Nianhe (夏念和)1; Nicholas J. Turland2, Paul A. Gadek3 Trees or shrubs, usually deciduous [evergreen in Billia Peyritsch]. Bark gray to brown, smooth or rough. Branchlets brown, green, or purplish, terete, glabrous, or puberulent to densely villous when young, covered with white to yellow lenticels. Winter buds terminal or axillary, with imbricate scales [without scales in Billia]. Leaves opposite, long petiolate, exstipulate; leaf blade palmately 5–11-foliolate [3-foliolate in Billia]; leaflets sessile or petiolulate; leaflet blades often unequal (middle ones larger), lanceolate to oblanceolate or oblong, abaxially glabrous or hairy, adaxially glabrous, base cuneate to cordate, margin crenate to serrate or compoundly so, or entire, apex acute to caudate. Inflorescence a terminal thyrse, usually erect, cylindric to conic; branches simple or compound; bracts subulate, small, absent in Aesculus. Flowers often rather large and showy, somewhat zygomorphic, bisexual or many of them (especially upper ones) functionally male. Sepals 4 or 5, nearly free or connate to form a tubular to campanulate calyx tube. Petals 4 or 5, free, imbricate, ± equal to unequal. Nectary disk small, annular, often unilateral, slightly divided or not. Stamens 5–8, hypogynous, inserted on inner side of disk, free, unequal, exceeding petals, inner whorl of 5, complete, outer whorl incomplete; filament arcuate distally; anther dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary superior, (2 or)3(or 4)-loculed; ovules 2 per locule, placentation axile; style 1, terminal, long and slender or short; stigma entire to 3-lobed. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, depressed globose to pyriform, with a long gynophore in Handeliodendron, often functionally 1-valved and 1-seeded by abortion, apex often mucronate; pericarp leathery, sometimes thickly so, usually smooth, often dotted, rarely verrucose or prickly. Seeds depressed globose to pyriform, often large; testa brown or glossy black, hard leathery; hilum large, pale, or an arillode in Handeliodendron; embryo large, curved, often starchy; endosperm absent.
Three genera and 15 species: Asia (Himalayas to Japan), SE Europe, North America, also Central and South America (Billia); two genera (one endemic) and five species (two endemic, two introduced) in China. The Hippocastanaceae, together with the Aceraceae, have recently been treated within the Sapindaceae by some authors, e.g., Stevens, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (2001 onward). Fang Wen-pei. 1981. Hippocastanaceae. In: Fang Wen-pei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 46: 274–289; Lo Hsien-shui & Chen Te-chao. 1985. Handeliodendron. In: Law Yuh-wu & Lo Hsien-shui, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 47(1): 61–62.
1a. Capsule with a long (1–1.5 cm) gynophore; seeds 0.8–1.1 cm, with a 2-layered arillode occupying ca. 1/2 of seed; leaflet blades with sparsely scattered, conspicuous, brown or dark red glands, margin entire; thyrse branches compound; sepals connate only at base ................................................................................................ 1. Handeliodendron 1b. Capsule without a gynophore; seeds 2–7 cm, with a large, pale hilum occupying 1/3–1/2 of seed; leaflet blades without scattered, conspicuous glands, margin crenate to serrate or compoundly so; thyrse branches simple; sepals connate to form a tubular to campanulate calyx tube ............................................................................................. 2. Aesculus
1. HANDELIODENDRON Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 16: 65. 1935.
掌叶木属 zhang ye mu shu Xia Nianhe (夏念和); Nicholas J. Turland, Paul A. Gadek Trees or shrubs, deciduous. Leaf blade 5-foliolate; leaflet blades on both surfaces with sparsely scattered, conspicuous, brown or dark red glands, margin entire. Thyrse shortly cylindric-conic; branches compound; bracts subulate, small. Flowers rather small. Sepals connate only at base. Petals ± equal, narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, not clawed, reflexed from middle, with 2 small scales at base adaxially. Ovary fusiform with a long gynophore; style short; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule pyriform, abruptly tapering at base into a long (1–1.5 cm) gynophore, 1–5-seeded; pericarp smooth. Seeds subovoid or ± ellipsoid, relatively small (0.8–1.1 cm); testa glossy black; hilum a 2-layered arillode occupying ca. 1/2 of seed.
● One species: China. Handeliodendron was reluctantly placed in the Sapindaceae by Rehder (loc. cit.), and has been retained there by subsequent authors, even though it is an anomaly in that family. It shares many morphological characters with Aesculus and Billia and is better placed in the Hippocastanaceae. Such a placement is supported by rbcL and matK molecular data published by Harrington et al. (Syst. Bot. 30: 365–381. 2005), who gave it as the sister taxon of Aesculus and Billia, with that clade the sister taxon of the Aceraceae.
1. Handeliodendron bodinieri (H. Léveillé) Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 16: 66. 1935. 掌叶木 zhang ye mu
Sideroxylon bodinieri H. Léveillé, Fl. Kouy-Tchéou, 384. 1914–1915. Trees or shrubs to 15 m tall, glabrous throughout except
1 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Longdong, Shahe, Guangzhou 510650, People’s Republic of China. 2 Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, Saint Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A. 3 Department of Tropical Plant Sciences and Agriculture, James Cook University, Cairns Campus, P.O. Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia.
. Nepal. AESCULUS Linnaeus. Kashmir. Petals often unequal. Some populations in Guangxi and Guizhou are almost on the Yunnan border. 2.... 8–25(–30) × 3–8. Myanmar.. base broadly cuneate.. Pl..5(–12) cm.....5) cm. A..... and “Aesculus kwangsiensis” as Schefflera octophylla (Loureiro) Harms. caves. or more than one type was indicated..5 m d.... .. or ± uniformly grayish tomentose or villous.. pedicels 2–5 mm. 5–10 mm. glabrous. India.. (7–)12–35(–42) cm . apex mucronate.. Enum.. flowers... former Yugoslavia). Mag..... leaflets usually petiolulate... 1.. often 1-seeded.. p.5(–10. China Bor.. 2a.5 cm)... 0. bracts absent.... 500–1200 m.... branches 1–3 cm. Petiole 7–15 cm..... Laos.. 1962) published a revision of the Hippocastanaceae in China. Aesculus chinensis Bunge... Inde 4(Bot..5(–3) cm. filament proximally crispate villous... owing to excessive collecting of seeds for extraction of oil and poor natural regeneration.. petiolules 0.. conspicuous glands..1–1.. x = 20. occupying 1/3–1/2 of seed. apex subobtuse... densely covered with whitish. testa brown.. Capsule prickly or verrucose. oblong-oblanceolate.. 2. leaflet blades without scattered..5 cm..... Capsule subglobose... China Pl. grayish puberulent or glabrous...... 1 mm.5–3 mm... ● Forests. prickly... Nicholas J.. pericarp usually smooth. grayish tomentose on veins (sometimes only when young).. petiolules 0. Thyrse cylindric or conic. to C Nepal..7 mm.. or oblong-obovate..5–2 mm.. Jul–Aug(–Oct)..... limb obovate. petiolules 0. oblong. The leaves... leaflet blades elliptic to oblanceolate.. verrucose. rocky gullies.. without a long gynophore.. lateral veins in 13–25 pairs. scales abaxially glabrous or sparsely puberulent..5–2. viscid resinous or not.. Ovary ca.. Inflorescence puberulent or glabrous. Petals white with yellow spots.. Japan..... Pl.5 mm. Bangladesh. large (2–7 cm).. stigma depressed globose. and N India..e. turbinata 3b..... 2 spatulate to oblong and 2 oblong-obovate or obovate... margin densely ciliate.. Szechuan. leaflet blades oblong-lanceolate.. mottled. style long.. through N Pakistan. 1841) is distributed from NE Afghanistan. Kashmir. one species in SE Europe (Albania. no type was indicated... to 2. Capsule dotted but smooth... Fang (Acta Sci......... A. Univ. Peduncle 3–4 cm... compound thyrse 5–7. apex acuminate to caudate. subequal. abaxially crispate villous.. hippocastanum 1.5 cm. leaflet blades adaxially glossy dark green. 1859. or spatulate.. 5–9 × 1..2 HIPPOCASTANACEAE flowers.. unequal. 85: t... glades... assamica 1b.. Bulgaria. from “Tou-chan” in the “Yunnan-sen district” (i.. 2.. 10.. 七叶树 qi ye shu Trees to 25 m tall. petiolules nearly absent to 1. apex abruptly acuminate. globose papillae. oblanceolate.. may represent either a range extension into Yunnan or a labeling error. 1753..... 2. leaflet blades adaxially matt mid-green. Bhutan.... fr.. 3a. 3–12 × 1. Trees or shrubs.. deciduous.p.5–1..5–6.... Pakistan...5–2... 13–22 × 3–7 mm.... abaxially covered with whitish. margin serrulate or crenulate-serrulate. including 12 new species... chinensis 2b.... The specimen J.. Capsule depressed globose to pyriform. oblong. Fang later (in FRPS) identified three of these entities as species of Araliaceae: “Aesculus chingsiensis” as Acanthopanax evodiifolius Franchet.5(–3) cm.... leaflets abaxially slightly glaucous... NW Guangxi.. forest margins.... 1833. Flowers often large and showy.. 4. S Guizhou. 1a. Sepals connate to form a tubular to campanulate calyx tube.... The W Himalayan Aesculus indica (Wallich ex Cambessèdes) Hooker (Bot... Ovary without a gynophore. 3.. Capsule broadly obovoid or pyriform...... Vietnam). Cavalerie 7945 (K). oblong-obovate to oblong-oblanceolate. and large seeds contain the poisonous compound aesculin.. Baja California in Mexico) and Asia from the Himalayas to Japan (Afghanistan. and might yet be found in adjacent parts of Xizang in China........ This species was given as rare by Lan (in Fu & Jin.. Capsule orange-brown.. 1992). thyrse cylindric... margin crenate to serrate or compoundly so... 七叶树属 qi ye shu shu Xia Nianhe (夏念和)... Petiole 4–11 cm.... leaflets abaxially green.. The seeds are rich in oil and therefore a favorite food of wild animals... branches simple. Twelve species: mainly in North America (United States.. anthers 1–1.... Stamens 7 or 8..5 × 0. abaxially glabrous..): 31.2–3.. rarely verrucose or prickly..... base cuneate to broadly so. 5117. for which six of the names were not validly published. Greece.... anthers 1. entire or obscurely lobed. 1960(3): 77–125. hilum large. leaf blade 5–7(–9)-foliolate. often dotted..... or slightly cordate. Mar–May....... Nat.8 cm (including gynophore 1–1. either because no Latin description was provided..b.h.. Pavia indica Wallich ex Cambessèdes in Jacquemont. Red Data Book 1: 590–591. anther ca. margin densely ciliate... pale.... slender.. Winter buds large. Branchlets glabrous or puberulent to densely villous when young... leaflets sessile or subsessile. 15–45 cm... four species (one endemic... 8–25(–30) cm .... rounded.. and rock crevices in karstic limestone mountain areas. China.... margin serrate with teeth serrulate . oblong-elliptic or subovate... so such a range extension is not unlikely. 8–14 × 3–5 mm........ grayish puberulent or glabrous. Turland Actinotinus Oliver... Hippocastanum Miller. yellow to white.. Petals 4 or 5.5 mm (including gynophore). Sp. “Aesculus chinpingensis” as Brassaiopsis glomerulata (Blume) Regel....5(–3) cm... Voy... Thailand...... Sepals 2–3 × ca..... lateral veins in 9–12 pairs. globose papillae... two introduced) in China. 1: 344. often long. adaxially glabrous... A.. Leaf blade 5–11-foliolate. 15–30(–45) cm......... Fl. margin crenate with crenations crenulate ... Seeds depressed globose to pyriform.. thyrse conic or cylindric-conic. A. with several pairs of imbricate scales. Petals white or pale yellow with purple or brown spots....... Kunming in Yunnan). base clawed..... Pavia Miller..5 cm. petiolules to 2.
occupying ca. also cultivated. or puberulent or pilose on veins when young. S Shaanxi. Actinotinus sinensis Oliver.. subglobose. wilsonii.. to 0... filament glabrous. chinensis existing in the Qin Ling mountain range (S Shaanxi) was possibly based on a comment by Rehder (in Sargent. and is not known with certainty in a wild state. Aesculus chinensis var. A. chinensis var.. below 800 m. namely a thinner pericarp and a smaller hilum. filament glabrous. with yellow spots.. with purple or brown spots. 1740. mountain and hill slopes. P. Calyx 3–7 mm.. 1888)... 1b. W Hubei. dotted but smooth. S Shanxi. brown. hilum white. N Zhejiang. or grayish tomentose on veins (sometimes only when young). globose. Capsule yellowish brown.. superfl. 15–35 cm. Hooker’s Icon. base broadly cuneate to rounded or slightly cordate. subglabrous. W..h.. or depressed globose. Hunan. fr. chinensis 七叶树(原变种) qi ye shu (yuan bian zhong) Aesculus chekiangensis Hu & W.. base broadly cuneate to rounded or slightly cordate .. occupying less than 1/3 to ca. especially in temple grounds and by houses. 4. leaflet blades oblong-lanceolate to oblong-oblanceolate.. chinensis 1b. NE Yunnan. Pl.. Fang. Fang) W. Fang. . Asiat. branches 2–4(–6) cm. ● Broad-leaved forests.6 m d. Cultivated plants from S Jiangsu and N Zhejiang were described as A. A. 4: 540. p.. or puberulent. A. 1960). Native in Chongqing. var. chinensis in the above features and in having leaves abaxially pubescent (vs. Wilson. 长柄七叶树 chang bing qi ye shu Aesculus chuniana Hu & W. 1/2 of seed. lateral veins in 17–30 pairs.5–5 × 3–7. Actinotinus was described with a single species. white or pale yellow. P. subglabrous.. Wilson 1: 500.. N Henan. abaxially gray or pale yellowish gray puberulent or finely gray velutinous. Branchlets glabrous. A. wilsonii 1a.. S Jiangsu. Capsule yellowish brown. subglobose... (Jan–)Feb–May... punduana Wallich ex Hiern. N Guangdong.. N Henan. 1a. P. fr.. woods. anther 1. thickets. W Hubei. nom. described from Beijing. Flowers fragrant. A. Chongqing. Typical Aesculus chinensis.5 cm. or tomentose. and Sichuan. H. ravines. as var. P. thyrse cylindric. 18: t. and N Zhejiang. var.. S Gansu. The comment in FRPS about native plants of A.... abaxially gray puberulent or velutinous. P. ± glabrous) with a more rounded base (vs.5–3 mm. Pl. or sparsely puberulent and dark glandular when young. Fang. subequal. (7–)12–35(–42) × (3–)5–18 cm.. especially in temple grounds and by houses. petiolules 0. thyrse cylindric.. illeg... 1: 498. sinensis (Oliver. abaxially puberulent. ● Cultivated. pericarp 1.. holotype. 5–10-flowered. or grayish tomentose on veins when young. wilsonii.. wilsonii. Henry 4058. Trees to 32 m tall. Leaflet blades abaxially glabrous. roadsides. Style glabrous or villous except at apex. ovoid.. but nevertheless to retain a separate status for the wild plants. Aesculus wilsonii was described from wild plants in Chongqing.” Indeed. Pl. who hypothesized that the latter species might only be a cultivated form of the former. below 2000(–2300) m. We have therefore decided to recognize one variable species. cultivated in Hebei. ovoid to obovoid.. rupicola Hu & W.. 1a. Fang. 2. white. abaxially puberulent or glabrous.. sometimes orange toward base or claw reddish. or pyriform. Jun–Nov.. pericarp 1–6 mm thick after drying. Aesculus chinensis var. branches 2–7 cm. Within the range of A. near streams in tall shady forests. Fl. wilsonii occur numerous intermediates with A. 2–3. A. Aesculus assamica Griffith. 1b. cuneate). polyneura Hu & W.. Leaflet blades abaxially ± uniformly grayish tomentose or villous. A. P. 1854 [“assamicus”]. base cuneate to broadly so ...). W Hubei. It was based on a mixed gathering (Hubei: Badong. apex acuminate to caudate. mountain and hill slopes. as was noted by Hardin (Brittonia 12: 34. 1913.3–1. SW Henan. base cuneate or broadly so or rounded. who noted that the specimens he examined from Shaanxi “represent a form of A. A. 1/2 (rarely ca. Sichuan. ● Broad-leaved forests.. globose or subglobose. anther 1–1. Fang.. densely dotted but smooth.. roadsides. chekiangensis (Hu & W. margin crenulate to serrulate. 2 spatulate to oblong and 2 oblong-obovate or obovate.. or depressed globose. unequal. chinensis. Style glabrous. 1/3) of seed. Apr–Jun.p... globose. N Guangdong.. subglabrous. 3–4. S Shaanxi.. Pl.. wilsonii.... Petiole 8–30 cm. Not. dongchuanensis X. wilsonii.b.. also cultivated. chinensis. pedicels 2– 8 mm. Novon 15: 489. chinensis or A. cit. Calyx 4–8 mm.. Fang. P. or grayish tomentose on veins when young. obovoid. is planted. thickets. Petals 4. Leaflet blades abaxially ± uniformly grayish tomentose or villous. S Shaanxi.5 cm.5 mm. 2. Seeds 1 or 2.. but they are scarcely distinguishable from plants in the Beijing region and in fact have some features that were thought to distinguish A. and NE Yunnan.. Sichuan. 1913). W Jiangxi. 18–30 mm.5–12(–14) cm wide at base. Guizhou. and in its typical form differs from A. S Shaanxi. Yin.HIPPOCASTANACEAE 3 peduncle 5–10 cm. Guizhou.. W Jiangxi. ravines. or grayish tomentose on veins (sometimes only when young). megaphylla Hu & W... (22–)27–45 cm. wilsonii (Rehder) Turland & N.. Xia..5–2 mm thick after drying. 8–14 × 3–5 mm.. chinensis in FRPS). lantsangensis Hu & W... Hunan. peduncle 7–13 cm. 600–2000(–2300) m.. Sep–Oct. S Gansu (Kangxian).5 cm (leaflets rarely subsessile). pedicels 3–7 mm. Stamens 6 or 7. Stamens 5–7. hilum white. S Shanxi. the existence of so many intermediates makes it impossible to delimit species and difficult even to justify infraspecific taxa.. S Jiangsu. leaf blade 5–9-foliolate... abaxially glabrous. Petals 4. base cuneate to broadly so. Y. Fl. 5–14 cm wide at base. or puberulent when young... A. Leaflet blades abaxially glabrous. woods. which was questioned by Hardin (loc. Li & W.. Fang. Hebei..5 cm in diam.. subglabrous. glabrous.. among the intermediates mentioned above are the same gathering seen by Hardin and another from Mianxian in SW Shaanxi. 3–7 cm in diam. chekiangensis (reduced to varietal rank under A.. Inflorescence pale yellow puberulent.. polyneura var. glabrous. K) comprising an inflorescence of a species of Viburnum inserted on the terminal bud of a leafy shoot of Aesculus chinensis var.... 天师栗 tian shi li Aesculus wilsonii Rehder in Sargent. sparsely puberulent. A. rarely lanceolate to oblanceolate or narrowly so. P. SW Henan. 13–22 × 3–7 mm. 3–11-flowered. near streams in tall shady forests... 18–40 mm. While extreme forms can easily be assigned to either A. oblongobovate to oblong-oblanceolate. Flowers fragrant. Seed usually 1. 2005.. brown.
filament villous.h. abaxially glabrous or with sparse whitish hairs. Here belong most of the new species described by Fang (Acta Sci. Petiole 7. Seeds 1–3(–6). wangii. 12–25(–45) cm. leaflets sessile. serrulate) leaflet margin. Greece. Capsule dark brown. margin shallowly crenate with crenations crenulate. thyrse conic or cylindric-conic. 1962). rocks in forests. Aesculus hippocastanum Linnaeus.b. unequal. Shanghai [native to SE Europe (Albania. N Vietnam].5–4 × 2. abaxially glabrous except villous in axils of lateral veins. margin crenate-serrate with teeth crenulate-serrulate. apex acuminate to subcaudate. anther 1–1. rupicola. prickles subulate. occupying ca. Stamens 5–8. May–Jun. oblanceolate. abaxially sparsely whitish tomentose or glabrous. India 3: 95.b. widely introduced elsewhere]. Bull. open forests. May–Jul. 10–25 × 5–12 cm. Fl. lateral veins in 18–26 pairs. namely A. was not validly published because its supposed basionym. thyrse conic or cylindric-conic. Calcutt. 3. “Pavia khassyana” (Voigt. filament sparsely villous. pericarp 3–5 mm thick after drying. 1845). peduncle 2. 10–20 mm. Szechuan. “Aesculus khassyana” (Das & Majumdar. prickly. Style glabrous except at base. S Guizhou (Pingtang). dongchuanensis). SE Xizang. verrucae low. assamica by Fang (in FRPS). Inflorescence glabrous or pubescent. Pl. megaphylla. 1847. Petals 4(or 5). cit. pedicels 3–6 mm. Yunnan. mountain forests. base cuneate. as well as “A. abaxially pubescent. glabrous or pubescent. subtropical hill forests. Sep. Shanghai [native to Japan]. Inflorescence glabrous or matted ferruginous villous and shortly whitish tomentose (whitish hairs mostly on pedicels). W Guangxi. Endo. apex abruptly acuminate. or pubescent and more densely so on veins. oblanceolate.5–5 cm. accepted instead of A. dotted but smooth) capsule. ferruginous tomentose (often densely so) at base and in axils of lateral veins. 2–3 cm. to 2(–5) m d. Branchlets pubescent when young. crenulate (vs. 2.h. abaxially pubescent. and A. Myanmar. 100–200 m. with red spots and a yellow (later brown) claw. cultivated in parks. This species is easily recognized by its prickly capsule. Suburb. Branchlets brown villous when young. 5–10-flowered. Bhutan. to 2 m d. A. 2 oblong and 2 oblong-obovate. Petals 4 or 5. These entities differ from each other in only insignificant details and clearly fall within the range of variation of A. rupicola. 1961). leaf blade 5–7foliolate. Aesculus turbinata is cultivated as an ornamental and for its timber. 2. abaxially slightly glaucous. 97. verrucose. Aesculus assamica is a widespread species in the tropical and subtropical monsoon forest zone from NE India (Sikkim) eastward to S China (Guangxi) and N Vietnam.5–25 cm. Shandong (Qingdao). globose or subglobose. A.5 mm. pedicels 3–4 mm. near apex. cultivated. peduncle 2–4 cm. Thailand. broadly obovoid or pyriform.” also described by Fang (loc. Sp. 1: 842. Sep. 日本七叶树 ri ben qi ye shu Aesculus turbinata f. anther 1–1. ca. Petiole 8–20 cm. assamica by Wu (Index Fl. Laos. 6–11 cm wide at base.” in FRPS.5–6 cm excluding prickles. wangii var. 2n = 40. sparsely so . Style tomentose. semi-evergreen or mixed deciduous/evergreen broad-leaved forests in limestone hills or mountains.) but not validly published because no Latin description was given and no type was indicated. 100–2000 m. white or pale yellow. Rumphia 3: 195. leaflets sessile. Introduced to China. 7–11 × 3–7 mm. unequal. 15–35 × 5–15 cm. Surv.5–5 cm in diam. Fl. Shandong (Qingdao). with red spots and a yellow (later red) claw. branches up to 5 cm. 欧洲七叶树 ou zhou qi ye shu Hippocastanum vulgare Gaertner. Univ. abaxially tomentose..” which were not validly published because in both cases two specimens were indicated as types (consequently “A.5–5 cm. turbinata var. Former Yugoslavia). fr. glossy chestnut brown. white. pubescens (Rehder) Ohwi ex Yas. assamica. 6–10 cm wide at base. “Aesculus coriaceifolia. base cuneate. Capsule brown. occupying 1/3–1/2 of seed. chuniana. is a nomen nudum. to 10 mm. 4. subglobose. 0. Yunnan [Bangladesh. 2–4 cm. It has been confused in China with A. suborbicular. leaf blade 5–7-foliolate. but it differs in several characters. pericarp 3–6 mm thick after drying. slightly curved. Aesculus turbinata Blume.. 10–30 cm. 11 mm. hilum pale brown. A. Trees to 30 m tall. 1753. A. Bot. 1984). glabrous. equal. reddish brown. broad-leaved forests. 1/2 of seed. 1: 344. ± globose. 4–12flowered. 1960(3): 77–125. Bulgaria. Introduced to China. petiolulate) leaflets. lantsangensis. fr. abaxially green.5–2 mm in diam. Calyx 5–6 mm. tsiangii” and “A. hilum pale brown. conic or cylindric-conic (vs. was already referred to A. lateral veins in 18–25 pairs. Hort. Calyx 3–5 mm. Stamens 6–10. and verrucose (vs. cylindric) thyrse. Trees to 30 m tall.4 HIPPOCASTANACEAE Wet forests. Seed usually 1. chinensis. was not validly published either). pubescens Rehder. polyneura (including the more recently described var. NE India. 10–18 mm. including its sessile (vs.3 mm. branches 2. Nat.
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