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# Contents

Conduction Convection Radiation Mass Transfer Convection vs. conduction Phase changes Boiling Condensation Modeling approaches Heat equation Lumped system analysis Applications and techniques Insulation and radiant barriers Critical insulation thickness Heat exchangers Heat dissipation Buildings Thermal energy storage Evaporative cooling

## HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

HEAT TRANSFER is transfer of thermal energy from one physical system to another Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as heat conduction, convection, radiation CONDUCTION (also called diffusion) is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems. CONVECTION is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids. (a) Natural, Convection occurs when the fluid motion is caused by buoyancy forces that result from density variations due to variations of temperature (b) Forced convection is when the fluid is forced to flow over the surface by external means such as fans, stirrers, and pumps RADIATION, energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays

The Rayleigh number (Ra) is a measure determining the result of this competition.

where g is acceleration due to gravity is the density with being the density difference between the lower and upper ends is the dynamic viscosity is the Thermal diffusivity is the volume thermal expansivity (sometimes denoted elsewhere) T is the temperature and is the kinematic viscosity.

Thermal conductivity : Measures the transfer of heat through a material. OR-- Ability of a material to conduct heat. Its unit is (W/K-m) Fourier's law is used in its one-dimensional form. In the x-direction,

Heat exchangers

A heat exchanger is a tool built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are in direct contact. Heat exchangers are widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning, space heating, power generation, and chemical processing. One common example of a heat exchanger is a car's radiator, in which the hotcoolant fluid is cooled by the flow of air over the radiator's surface. Types of heat exchanger flows include parallel flow, counter flow, and cross flow. In parallel flow, both fluids move in the same direction while transferring heat. In counter flow, the fluids move in opposite directions. In cross flow, the fluids move at right angles to each other.

Limitations
A particular case where the LMTD is not applicable are condensers and reboilers, where the latent heat associated to phase change makes the hypothesis invalid

Log Mean Temperature Difference We assume that a generic heat exchanger has two ends (which we call "A" and "B") at which the hot and cold streams enter or exit on either side; then, the LMTD is defined by the logarithmic meanas follows:

where TA is the temperature difference between the two streams at end A, and TB is the temperature difference between the two streams at end B.

Q. Name some good and poor conductors of heat. A. All metals such as iron, copper, steel are good conductors. Poor conductors of heat in metal includes Brass. Also wood is poor conductor of heat because (molecules of wood is far from each other it cant pass heat through its molecules)