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Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

Contents Overview Lesson: The Desktop Support Technician Lesson: The Windows Desktop Operating Systems Lesson: Tools for Troubleshooting Windows Desktop Operating Systems 1 2 8 16

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Instructor Notes
Presentation: 80 minutes This module enables students to use troubleshooting guidelines and tools to support end users. After completing this module, students will be able to:
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Describe the job role of the desktop support technician Explain the importance of the operating system version and computer environment in troubleshooting Use the Knowledge Base, Safe Mode, Computer Management console, and other tools for troubleshooting

Required materials

To teach this module, you need the following materials:


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Microsoft PowerPoint file 2261A_01.ppt 2261_01_01_break.vbs 2261_01__01_fix.vbs

Preparation tasks

To prepare for this module:


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Read all of the materials for this module. Complete the practices.

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Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

How to Teach This Module


This section contains information that will help you to teach this module. For some topics in this module, references to additional information appear in notes at the end of the topics. Read the additional information to prepare to teach the module. During class, make sure that students are aware of the additional information.

Lesson: The Desktop Support Technician


This section describes the instructional methods for teaching this lesson. What Is a Desktop Support Technician? In this topic, emphasize the important place the desktop support technician (DST) has in the company. Explain the various roles that DSTs play in their contacts with customers and the value of interpersonal skills in the troubleshooting process. Point out that successful DSTs use nontechnical, interpersonal skills to build rapport with the customer to better troubleshoot and resolve the customers problem. In this topic, discuss the several skills that are necessary to be a successful DST. Emphasize that the DST is not expected to be the ultimate expert, but is expected to be resourceful. In this topic, identify several questions a DST can use to elicit meaningful and pertinent information from the customer. Emphasize the importance of not sounding accusatory either by voice tone or by word usage and of not assuming anything. In this topic, go through the several key terms with which a DST should be familiar. Be sure the students clearly understand the purpose and importance of the Service Level Agreement, because it defines the type and scope of support that the DST is obligated by contract to provide the customer.

Desktop Support Technician Skills How to Obtain Information from the User Key Terms and Definitions for Desktop Support

Lesson: The Windows Desktop Operating Systems


This section describes the instructional methods for teaching this lesson. Common Features and Functionality In this topic, introduce the students to the three Microsoft Windows NT kernel-based desktop operating systems that they are expected to troubleshoot. This topic should assure them that, in many aspects, the operation of the computer and the knowledge needed to troubleshoot are very similar among the three operating systems. This topic addresses only the highest-level differences between the three desktop operating systems. Specific and detailed differences are mentioned in context throughout the course. In this topic, explain how to identify the operating system running on a computer, including the version and service pack, and how to distinguish 32-bit from 64-bit systems. No practice is included in this lesson, but you can direct the students to access About Windows on their classroom computers during this topic.

Differences Between Desktop Operating Systems How to Identify the Windows Desktop Operating System

Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

The Active Directory Environment The Workgroup Environment

In this topic, introduce the concepts of domain and the Microsoft Active Directory directory service. Emphasize the importance of understanding this environment from a support standpoint. In this topic, introduce the concept and characteristics of a workgroup environment. Explain how students can determine the customers environment, and direct the students to identify the environment of their own classroom computers.

Lesson: Tools for Troubleshooting Windows Desktop Operating Systems


This section describes the instructional methods for teaching this lesson. Windows Architecture and Troubleshooting Guidelines for Troubleshooting In this topic, present a high-level introduction to ring architecture and its significance in troubleshooting operating system and application issues. In this topic, explain the guidelines for troubleshooting all supports calls, including the two most frequent types. Briefly point out the troubleshooting sections of the Resource Kits for Microsoft Windows XP Professional and Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional. In this topic, introduce students to the four types of resources they can use in providing user support. Emphasize that they should check the Help and Support feature of the operating system as a first step, and then the Knowledge Base (KB). Explain to students that the practice gives them the opportunity to become familiar with the Knowledge Base. In this practice, students will search the KB to find information to solve a problem encountered in an operating system upgrade. In this topic, introduce students to the Computer Management console for help in accessing information related to system tools, storage, and services and applications. In this topic, explain the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and snap-ins, and demonstrate the steps to create a custom MMC.

How to Find Troubleshooting Information Practice: Using the Knowledge Base for Troubleshooting How to Use Computer Management for Troubleshooting How to Create a Custom Microsoft Management Console How to Install the Recovery Console Tools to Use in Safe Mode How to Use Safe Mode for Troubleshooting Practice: Starting the Computer in Safe Mode

In this topic, explain the Recovery Console and how to install and access it. Lead the students through a brief practice of accessing and using the Recovery Consoles on their classroom computers. In this topic, explain the purpose and critical value of two tools available in Safe ModeMsconfig and Msinfo32. In this topic, explain the reason to use Safe Mode, how to start in Safe Mode, and how to troubleshoot in Safe Mode. In this practice, students will run a faulty logon script that prevents them from logging on. To fix the problem, they will start the computer in Safe Mode to perform a repair. Important Confirm that all the students run the fix script before proceeding to the next topic.

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How to Use Remote Desktop How to Use Remote Assistance

In this topic, explain the function of Remote Desktop, configuration and permission issues associated with it, and how to connect to a remote computer over an intranet and over the Internet. In this topic, explain the function of Remote Assistance, how it differs from Remote Desktop, and the issues involved in using Remote Assistance in the context of a Network Address Translation (NAT) connection. Direct the students to work in pairs and establish a Remote Assistance session with each other. If time permits, have the students reverse their roles in a new session. In this practice, students will send and accept Remote Assistance invitations. Students will then perform support tasks on their partners computer. Direct the students to work in pairs to complete this practice. It is important that the students read the directions and wait for their partner when directed to do so.

Practice: Using Remote Assistance

Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

Overview

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction Objectives The purpose of this course is to enable you to use troubleshooting guidelines and tools to support end users. After completing this module, you will be able to:
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Describe the job role of the desktop support technician (DST) Explain the importance of the operating system version and computer environment in troubleshooting Use the Knowledge Base, Safe Mode, Computer Management console, and other tools for troubleshooting

Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

Lesson: The Desktop Support Technician

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction You receive a call from a customer who says, I was working on my book when the power went out, and when I restarted my computer, it was freezing up. My friend who works at a local computer store did something to the computer, but now I just get a black screen with a little flashing line on it. I dont know what to do. How would you respond? Lesson objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
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Describe the general duties of a desktop support technician Describe the skills needed to perform the duties of a desktop support technician Identify common questions to ask the user to identify support issues Match terms commonly used in desktop support to the correct definition

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Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

What Is a Desktop Support Technician?

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** As a desktop support technician (DST), you are a vital point of contact between your company and its customers. Your success in this position begins with a clear understanding of the company and how the customers view you. Your role as a desktop support technician helps fill the following needs:
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Customers expect reliability, availability, and security of information. Knowledge workers cannot do their work without services such as e-mail and access to online resources. The business relies on support to meet the needs of customers and knowledge workers.

At various times, you will fill the following roles:


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A public face for the company, in most cases the only human point of contact A knowledgeable resource, familiar with the product and able to perform hardware and software installation tasks, as well as system monitoring and maintenance A source of information, because even if you do not know the answer, you know where to go to get the answers or redirect the end user A psychologist, because customers are not calling to be sociablemany of them are distressed or upset, and you will need to manage the interaction effectively A good troubleshooter, able to quickly isolate an issue by performing a few simple tasks

Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

Desktop Support Technician Skills

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** As a successful DST, you need to possess the following skills:
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Ability to maintain a positive demeanor under all circumstances. Ability to obtain information from the customer efficiently. Many times, customers are reluctant or unable to describe their situations accurately. Ability to operate mentally within the abstract, since you cannot always see what the end user sees. Extensive familiarity with all aspects of the product. You need not necessarily have in-depth knowledge, just a basic understanding of the concepts involved with each piece of the software, how they work together, and common issues. Resourcefulness, above all. The primary skill of a DST is the ability to quickly determine whether you have the answer for the customer and, if not, where to go to get the answer. This includes determining whether you should research the issue using all resources available to you or escalate the issue to someone who does know the answer.

Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

How to Obtain Information from the User

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** In many instances the customer is reluctant or unable to provide a detailed description of the problem at hand. The following general questions are helpful in quickly gaining information regarding nearly any troubleshooting issue. Note that some questions might not seem to be information gathering in nature, but the troubleshooting areas they address can speak volumes regarding a potential issue. 1. When did the problem first start to occur? 2. If the customer can isolate approximately when the problem began, Can you think of anything that took place concerning the computer at about this time? For example, were there thunderstorms? Did children use the computer? Did the user recently install a piece of software or open an e-mail attachment? With this question, it is important not to seem accusatory in any waysome users feel that they may have done something wrong and may be reluctant to tell you everything. 3. Has the computer ever worked properly? Ask this question in the context of the current issue. 4. Have you restarted the computer? If not, have the user do this and see whether the problem can be re-created. Many times, a user has not restarted the computer and doing so will resolve the problem. 5. Is your computer a member of a network? If so, what kind of network? For example, does the computer belong to a workgroup or a domain? Is it a Novell network? Record the information that you gather on the form that your organization uses for service requests. If you can successfully establish rapport with the customer in the first five minutes of the call, you should be able to generate an accurate, one-line title for the incident. This is a sure sign that you are on the right track.

Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

Key Terms and Definitions for Desktop Support

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** The mission of desktop support is the timely resolution of incidents, problems, errors, and inquiries as specified in Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Understanding the following key terms and their definitions will enhance your ability to perform well as a DST:
Key Term Call Definition A call is any type of contact that a customer makes with desktop support such as by telephone, voice mail, e-mail, or online support. The Microsoft Windows operating system command line is where many of the tools and utilities available to the DST can directly be invoked, without relying on the rest of the Windows user interface (UI). To access the command line, click Start, and then click Run. In the Open dialog box, type cmd and then click OK. Escalation When an issue cannot be resolved by a first-level DST, it must be referred to someone who has more time or knowledge to address the problem. This referral is an escalation. An incident is any occurrence that is not part of normal hardware or software performance and that diminishes or stops that performance. A knowledge base is a database of past incidents and solutions that is created and added to by gathering information from service requests. Microsoft maintains a database of support articles at http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=fh;ENUS;KBHOWTO. The Microsoft Knowledge Base should be one of the first places a DST goes to find an answer to an issue involving a Microsoft product. It reflects the accumulated experience and wisdom of many generations of Microsoft support professionals from around the world.

Command line

Incident

Knowledge Base (KB)

Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users (continued) Key Term Known error Definition A known error is a hardware or software problem with a known cause and a temporary resolution. The problem remains a known error until a permanent fix is released. A major incident is an incident that has a high or potentially high impact upon a large number of customers and requires significantly more resources to resolve than a normal incident. A problem is an unknown cause of an incident. The SLA is the document that identifies the type of support the customer has purchased from your company, as well as the support functions your company is obligated to perform. From a desktop support standpoint, it is very important that you understand a customers SLA. If the issue is not covered in the SLA, it is not the DSTs responsibility to fix. This does not mean that the issue can be rejected; instead, it means that you have a clear set of limits as to how far you can go to support the customer. Service request (SR) A service request is a customer contact (see Call) that has been logged in a companys help desk system.

Major incident

Problem Service Level Agreement (SLA)

When you provide a customer with assistance, you may be resolving the incident by enabling the customer to perform the desired task without resolving the problem, which is the underlying cause of the incident. When you record the issue and resolution in the service request, that data may be used by other technicians and by software developers for problem management.

Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

Lesson: The Windows Desktop Operating Systems

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction You receive a call from a customer who says, I am trying to access a folder on my coworkers computer. When I go into My Network Places, I cant see his computer, but everyone else can. Somebody told me I need to join a domain, or something like that. Can you help? What should you do? Lesson objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
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Describe the common functionality and the differences between Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, Microsoft Windows XP Professional, and Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition Identify the operating system running on a computer Compare the workgroup and domain environments as considerations for troubleshooting

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Module 1: Introduction to Supporting Users

Common Features and Functionality

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Overview of Windows operating systems covered in this course In this course, you will become familiar with the following operating systems:
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Windows 2000 Professional (Microsoft Windows NT kernel, version 5.0) Windows 2000 Professional is the Windows 2000 operating system for business desktop and portable systems. Windows 2000 Professional is not as advanced as Windows XP, especially in the areas of desktop management, user efficiency, and networking; however, it contains similar system architecture and UI features as Windows XP.

Windows XP Home Edition (Windows NT kernel, version 5.1) This is the edition of Windows XP designed for the home environment. Windows XP includes a number of improvements on Windows 2000 Professional that promote better scalability and overall performance. The core functionality of Windows XP Home Edition is essentially identical to that of Windows XP Professional; however, some of the features available in Windows XP Professional are not available in Windows XP Home Edition.

Windows XP Professional (Windows NT kernel, version 5.1) This is the Windows XP client operating system that is generally deployed within the corporate environment, although it is commonly used in home environments as well. Windows XP Professional includes all the features and new visual design of Windows XP Home Edition, plus extra features for business and advanced home computing.

Note Windows XP and Windows 2000 Professional have far more in common with each other than with the earlier versions of Microsoft Windows NT or Windows 95, Windows 98, and Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition.

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Common features of Windows 2000 Professional and Windows XP

Both Windows 2000 Professional and Windows XP are built on the proven code bases of Windows NT and Windows 2000, which feature a 32-bit computing architecture and a fully protected memory model. They are similar in many respects, including much of the underlying core functionality and the user interface. Features that are common to both Windows 2000 Professional and Windows XP include the following:
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Standard Windows features, such as Windows Explorer, Control Panel, accessories, the Start menu, registry, and file system. Dependability and security features, such as device driver verification, Windows file protection, Windows Installer, Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), and Kerberos support. Management and deployment features, such as Setup Manager, Microsoft Management Console (MMC), multilingual support, Recovery Console, and Safe Mode startup options. Mobile and remote user functionality, such as offline viewing, improved power management, hot docking, Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) support, Internet Connection Sharing (ICS), and easier remote access configuration by using wizards.

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Differences Between Desktop Operating Systems

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Differences between Windows XP Professional and Windows 2000 Professional The biggest differences between Windows XP Professional and Windows 2000 Professional relate to the user interface, desktop management, and minor system architecture changes. Windows XP Professional differs from Windows 2000 Professional in these features:
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Standard Windows features, such as different file locations and different profile locations. For more information, see Knowledge Base articles 228445 and 269378. Dependability and security features, such as system restore, device driver rollback, Internet connection firewall, and smart card support. For more information, see Knowledge Base articles 283657 and 283673. Management and deployment features, such as increased application compatibility, dynamic updates, Internet Explorer 6 administration kit, remote assistance, resultant set of policy (RSoP), improved help and support services, Windows update improvements, adaptive user environment, improved handling of file associations, context-sensitive task menus, and integrated compact disc (CD) burning. Mobile and remote user functionality, such as Microsoft ClearType, enhanced online conferencing, improved power management, wireless networking, network location awareness, Network Setup network setup wizard, network bridge, and peer-to-peer networking support.

Differences between Windows XP Professional and Windows XP Home Edition

A few functional differences exist between Windows XP Professional and Windows XP Home Edition, mostly in terms of networking capabilities, security, and administration. Features and functionality that are available in Windows XP Professional only include Remote Desktop, Windows domain support and advanced networking, Encrypting File System (EFS), advanced system restore options, Internet Information Server (IIS), support for multipleprocessor systems, and support for multiple languages.

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How to Identify the Windows Desktop Operating System

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction When a customer contacts you with a problem, you must know which operating system is installed on the customers computer, as well as the version of the operating system and whether a service pack is installed. Occasionally, you must explain to the customer how to locate this information. The About Windows dialog box displays the version of the operating system. To view About Windows, click Start, click Run, type winver and then click OK. About Windows indicates the version of the operating system and any currently installed service pack and build numbers. If the operating system is Windows XP 64-bit, About Windows will include that fact as well.

Opening About Windows

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The Active Directory Environment

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction Windows-based networks that use servers running Windows 2000 Server or Microsoft Windows Server 2003 can use the Microsoft Active Directory directory service. In a network running Active Directory, a domain is a collection of computers and users that share a common directory database, set of security policies, and set of security relationships with other domains. This means that the rights and permissions to access network resources are controlled from Active Directory. The purpose of this logical structure is to implement a centralized security infrastructure on the network and to centralize the management of network users, their resources, and the policies applied to those users. Because all domain resources use Active Directory, the advantage to the user is that one logon will supply access to all necessary network resources. From a support standpoint, the implementation of a domain structure significantly changes the options available to the support technician. Be sure to take into account the following considerations when working with a customer who logs on to a domain:
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What is a domain?

Troubleshooting questions

The customer may not have the necessary access rights on the local computer to perform basic installation or computer management tasks. Often, the DST is not the customers network administrator; in these cases, the DST should direct the customer to contact the network administrator to resolve the problem. The network administrator will have to log on to complete these tasks. Although a user may be able to log on to the computer with a local account instead of the domain account, the profile settings and the system environment will not be the same as when the user logs in to the domain. When the user logs in to a domain, the user is authenticated by a computer that uses an account over which the user will most likely have no control.

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Domains can run startup scripts that may initialize additional software or environmental settings on the users local computer. Such additional features might have an impact on your ability to make assumptions about how the operating system should behave under certain conditions, and you will most likely be unable to isolate the users computer in a nondomain state to perform troubleshooting effectively. Ascertain the degree to which the user interacts with and uses domain resources. Shared folders, applications, printers, and other resources located elsewhere on the network may exist over which the DST and the user have no control and which neither can affect during the troubleshooting process because these resources are protected.

Note Windows clients running within a non-Microsoft network, such as a Novell network, are not covered within this course.

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The Workgroup Environment

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** What is a workgroup? In many cases, most commonly in the home environment, the users computer will be on a Windows-based network that is not an Active Directory domain. This type of network is known as peer-to-peer network or a Windows workgroup. In this arrangement, users log on to their local computers, just as if they were not connected to any network. These types of networks are intended for small groups of users that want to share their own local resources with each other without the need for a centralized server and the security and user account management tools and overhead associated with the domain model. Sharing workgroup resources Users can still share resources and access shared resources on other computers. However, because computers are not sharing a common user accounts database, each user must have a user account on each computer that contains resources that the user must access. The logon rights granted to a specific resource are managed at that resources accounts database. Generally, working with a computer in a workgroup is similar to working with a stand-alone computer. Networking issues generally occur only with connectivity, user accounts, and file sharing, and most can be solved by working with the user directly. Identifying the environment To determine whether a computer is a member of a domain or a workgroup, open Control Panel, click System, and then click the Computer Name tab. If the computer is running Windows 2000 Professional, click the Network Identification tab. This dialog box displays the computers name and the workgroup or domain name, as applicable.

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Lesson: Tools for Troubleshooting Windows Desktop Operating Systems

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction You receive a call from a customer who says, After I installed an application on my computer and tried to run it, I got an error message, and I couldnt get back to the desktop, so I rebooted. Now, I just get to a blank desktop and I cant see any of my icons or the task bar. How do you respond? Lesson objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
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Describe the relationship between Windows architecture and troubleshooting Explain basic guidelines for troubleshooting Use Online Help and Support and the Knowledge Base to locate information on problems and solutions Relate the functions in the Computer Management console to troubleshooting Create a custom Microsoft Management Console Install the Recovery Console Describe how to use Msconfig and Msinfo32 in Safe Mode for troubleshooting Start a computer in Safe Mode Connect to a remote computer by using Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance

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Windows Architecture and Troubleshooting

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Ring architecture The basic function of the processor is to process instructions, which are commands that make up the machine language that the processor understands. The processor has privilege levels, also called rings, which are implemented to protect the processor. Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC)-based central processing units (CPUs) support two rings of execution; Intel CPUs support four rings. To remain compatible with both kinds of CPUs, Windows NTbased operating systems implement a two-ring architecture, using rings 0 and 3. In this model, ring 0 is the most privileged and protected and is the ring in which the operating system and its services are loaded and run. Applications run in ring 3, which prevents applications from interfering with the core operating system services, known collectively as the executive. This protected layer is referred to as kernel mode. This dual-ring design is what makes Windows NTbased operating systems so stable. Applications running within ring 3 must pass messages to the operating system and services running within ring 0 and must never directly access these components. If an application ceases to function properly, it is unable to shut down the operating system in the process. However, this design also slows down performance, since each message passed between rings requires context switches that burn additional CPU cycles. Troubleshooting From a troubleshooting standpoint, operating system issues are generally different from application issues, since each runs within a different CPU ring. If an application is a suspected cause of an issue, it has little to no ability to interfere directly with the operating system and its services. This concept is useful in helping a DST know where to look and which steps to take to troubleshoot a specific issue.

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Guidelines for Troubleshooting

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction When customers call in for support, most frequently they are going to have one of two types of issues: 1. I have a problem Or 2. I dont know how to The latter is usually a simple matter of explaining to the customer how to perform a specific task or configure a feature within the operating system. The troubleshooting process However, when the end user has a problem, it may be necessary to troubleshoot the problem to determine its cause. This process must be logical to be successful. It is essentially the art of elimination. A good DST is able to eliminate in rapid order the possibilities that are not the issue. The pattern generally applied to the troubleshooting process is as follows: 1. Determine what has changed. 2. Eliminate possible causes to determine probable causes. Use your general knowledge of the operating system and the information in the Knowledge Base to determine what is a potential cause, and compile a short list of potential solutions. 3. Identify a solution. 4. Test the solution. Does the solution work? If not, repeat steps 3 and 4.

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Additional reading

The tools and techniques available to the DST are far too numerous to discuss in detail in this course. For more information about troubleshooting tools and techniques, refer to the following online resources:
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Windows XP Professional Resource Kit, Chapter 26: http://www.microsoft.com/technet/treeview/default.asp?url=/technet/ prodtechnol/winxppro/reskit/prma_trb_ersf.asp Windows 2000 Professional Resource Kit, Chapters 31, 32, and 33: http://www.microsoft.com/technet/treeview/default.asp?url=/technet/ prodtechnol/windows2000pro/reskit/wprorkit.asp

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How to Find Troubleshooting Information

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction No human being can possibly know everything there is to know about computers. Therefore, a DST must know where and how to look for pertinent information when attempting to resolve an issue. There are three main sources that can assist you in providing a solution to the customer:
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Help and Support The Microsoft Knowledge Base (KB) Other online resources

Help and Support

An excellent resource, often overlooked, is the Help system packaged with the operating system. This resource can be accessed from the Start menu by clicking Help and Support. In Help and Support, you can accomplish the following:
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Connect to another users computer by using Remote Assistance Coordinate the download and installation of the latest patches by using Windows Update Research which hardware and software are compatible with the customers Windows operating system Direct the customer to get help online from a support professional by using Microsoft Online Assisted Access System Restore Use tools such as System Information to manage and maintain the computer Gain access to a wide range of system Help files, public Knowledge Base articles, and other useful information

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The Microsoft Knowledge Base

The Microsoft Knowledge Base (KB) contains thousands of articles detailing resolutions to issues for nearly every Microsoft product. The KB is the single most useful source for retrieving information pertinent to an issue. It should be the DSTs primary source of information. Chances are that if there is not something in the KB regarding a specific issue, it is either a new issue or the DSTs perceived notion of what the problem is not the actual problem and the DST may need to reevaluate the situation. The KB, with all the latest articles, can be accessed at http://support.microsoft.com. A link to the Knowledge Base is located under Internet Links on the Web page on the Student Materials compact disc.

Other online resources

Another useful resource is the Internet. Many public search engines can be used to search for other online resources, such as driver sites and newsgroups discussing information specific to a case.

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Practice: Using the Knowledge Base for Troubleshooting

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Objective Scenario In this exercise, you will locate the appropriate article within the Knowledge Base. A network administrator calls and states that while upgrading the operating system of a networked computer from Windows 2000 Professional to Windows XP Professional, he received the following error message: Error Reading CD-ROM in Drive D: Please Insert CD-ROM WXHFPP_EN With Serial Number 6A84-0E41 in Drive D: If the CD-ROM is still in the drive, it may require cleaning. Press ENTER for OK or ESC to Cancel: OK The customer says he has cleaned the disc and repeated the installation process only to receive the same error message. To resolve this issue, you decide to search for information relevant to this topic in the Microsoft Knowledge Base.

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Practice

To access the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 1. Log on to the domain as ComputerNameUser with a password of P@ssw0rd. 2. Click Start, and then click Run. 3. Type http://support.microsoft.com and then click OK. 4. Click Search the Knowledge Base. To search the Knowledge Base, enter relevant keywords in the Search for field, and then click Go. You can improve your search results by limiting the search to a specific product in the Select a Microsoft Product menu. _______________________________________________________________ The article that you should find is 316404, "Error Reading CD-ROM Error Message When You Upgrade to Windows XP.

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How to Use Computer Management for Troubleshooting

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** What is Computer Management? The Computer Management console provides access to many of the subsystems within the operating system. To access Computer Management:
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Click Start, click Control Panel, click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.

You can also open Computer Management from the Run dialog box by typing compmgmt.msc Available information in Computer Management Computer Management provides access to the following options:
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System Tools Event Viewer. This is a tool for viewing logs that track events within the operating system. It includes subsections for tracking system, security, and application events. Each event indicates the source of the event and when it occurred. The Event Viewer is a very useful tool for seeing what has transpired within the operating system. When something fails in the operating system, use the Event Viewer to see whether an error has been logged. Shared Folders. This is a list of all shared files and folders on the system, including lists of all sessions currently active and which shared files are currently being accessed. Local Users and Groups. This is the interface for managing local users and groups on the computer.

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Performance Logs and Alerts. This is a tool for tracking performance data on the local computer, and it can be very useful for diagnosing performance issues. This is not enabled by default. Device Manager. This provides access to a list of hardware devices installed on the computer, including the drivers that are used to communicate with that hardware. When troubleshooting a hardware issue, this is the best place to start.
!

Storage Removable Storage. This is a list of all removable storage devices on the local computer, including information concerning what media are currently loaded into those devices. Disk Defragmenter. This is a tool used to defragment local drives. Disk Management. This is the main interface for managing local, nonremovable disks. From here, drives can be repartitioned and formatted, drive letter assignments can be changed, and so forth. From within the operating system, this is the preferred interface for performing these activities.

Services and Applications Services. This is a list of all services currently installed on the local computer, including their configuration and current status. This is extremely valuable for troubleshooting the operating system, because you can enable and disable services from this location. WMI Control. The Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Control is a tool that enables you to configure WMI settings on a remote computer or local computer. This is not configured by default. Indexing Service. This is used to create an index catalog for use by the Windows Search function.

Note Additional items can be displayed within Computer Management, depending on which optional components are installed in the operating system.

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How to Create a Custom Microsoft Management Console

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** What is MMC? Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is an application that hosts administrative tools. By itself, MMC performs no administrative services. Instead, it acts as a host for one or more modules called snap-ins, which actually provide functionality; the MMC simply provides a consistent UI for accessing these snap-ins. You can add one or more snap-ins to an MMC console to create a custom management console. To create a customized MMC console: 1. Click Start, click Run, type mmc and then click OK. 2. In the console, on the File menu, click Add/Remove Snap-in. 3. In the Add/Remove Snap-in dialog box, click Add. 4. In the Add Standalone Snap-in dialog box, double-click the item that you want to add. 5. If a wizard appears, follow the instructions in the wizard. 6. To add another item to the console, repeat step 4. 7. In the Add Standalone Snap-in dialog box, click Close. 8. In Add/Remove Snap-in, click OK. 9. On the File menu, click Save. You can add additional components to a console, such as Microsoft ActiveX controls and Internet links. Also, you can organize snap-ins into folders within the console by choosing Folder in the Add Standalone Snap-in dialog box.

Creating a customized MMC

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Suggestions for a DST MMC

As a DST, you might want to create a customized MMC with the following snap-ins:
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Device Manager Disk Management Event Viewer Group Policy Local Users and Groups Performance Logs and Alerts Services System Information

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How to Install the Recovery Console

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** What is the Recovery Console? The Recovery Console is a command-line tool that can be used to access the Windows file system without actually loading the Windows operating system. It is intended for use when a catastrophic failure of the operating system has occurred. You can run the Recovery Console from the Windows XP compact disc or install it on the computer so that it is available when Windows XP is unable to start. Installing the Recovery Console enables you to choose it as an option on the operating system selection menu. Note For more information on installing and using the Recovery Console in Windows XP, see Knowledge Base article 307654. Windows 2000 Professional does not support the Recovery Console. Installing the Recovery Console as a startup option If you want to install the Recovery Console as a startup option, you must do so while Windows XP is functioning properly. To install the Recovery Console as a startup option: 1. With Windows XP running, insert the Windows XP compact disc into your CD-ROM drive. 2. Click Start, click Run, and then type cmd 3. In the command prompt window, type D:\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons where D is the drive letter of your CD-ROM, and then press ENTER. 4. Click Yes to install the Recovery Console, and then follow the directions on the screen.

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Running the Recovery Console from the CD

If you have not installed the Recovery Console as a startup option and your installation of Windows XP ceases to function, start the Recovery Console from the CD-ROM: 1. Insert the Windows XP compact disc into your CD-ROM drive, and then restart the computer. 2. When the Press any key to boot from CD message appears, press ENTER. 3. Allow all of the files to load. 4. On the Welcome to Setup screen, type r for recovery. 5. Select an installation to repair, and then type the password for the Administrator account. Tip Windows XP Help contains information about each Recovery Console command. You can read and print the function and full syntax for each command. Examine this information thoroughly before using the Recovery Console.

Tasks accomplished by using the Recovery Console

You can accomplish the following tasks by using the Recovery Console:
! !

Start and stop services Reconfigure services that are preventing the computer from starting properly Format drives on a hard disk Read and write data on a local drive formatted with the file allocation table (FAT) or NTFS file systems Repair the system by copying a file from a floppy disk or compact disc (CD) Perform other administrative tasks

! !

Practice: Installing Recovery Console

To install the Recovery Console on your computer: 1. Log on to the domain as ComputerNameAdmin with a password of P@ssw0rd Note You must log on as ComputerNameAdmin to have the permissions that you need to complete this activity. It is not a best practice to log on as an administrator unless you must perform an action that requires administrator rights. 2. With Windows XP running, insert the Windows XP compact disc into your CD-ROM drive. 3. Click Start, click Run, and then type cmd 4. Type D:\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons where D is the drive letter of your CD-ROM, and then press ENTER. 5. In the Windows Setup dialog box, click Yes to install the Recovery Console. 6. In the Microsoft Windows XP Setup dialog box, click OK to finish, and then close all windows.

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Tools to Use in Safe Mode

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction One of the first options to explore when diagnosing a boot issue or a problem inside the operating system is to start the computer in Safe Mode. In Safe Mode, there are two tools that you can use to diagnose and troubleshoot issues: Msconfig and Msinfo32. Msconfig The Msconfig command opens the System Configuration utility. You can use the System Configuration utility to eliminate potential sources of conflict within the operating system by disabling components that are launched during startup. If everything listed in Msconfig is disabled, the computer will start in normal mode. Therefore, if a computer can successfully start in Safe Mode, or if the issue goes away in Safe Mode, you can use the System Configuration utility to systematically enable components in a logical order and reboot in normal mode. By using this approach to troubleshoot startup, you can isolate the cause of an issue relatively quickly. You can access the System Configuration utility from the command line by typing msconfig Msinfo32 Another excellent tool is the System Information tool. The Msinfo32 command opens the System Information tool. This tool queries the operating system to retrieve all sorts of detailed information, such as the following:
! ! ! !

System summary Hardware resources Hardware components Software environment

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This information can be very useful for troubleshooting driver and hardware issues, service issues, and more. There are two ways to access the System Information tool.
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Type msinfo32 at the command line. Or Click Start, click Programs or All Programs, click Accessories, click System Tools, and then click System Information.

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How to Use Safe Mode for Troubleshooting

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** When to use Safe Mode Starting a computer in Safe Mode is a good idea under the following circumstances:
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When there is a startup or shutdown issue. Safe Mode will eliminate all but the most basic components needed to start the operating system. Note that these same components can affect the shutdown process as well. When the computer experiences errors, poor performance, or any other negative behavior during normal operations. The minimal configuration of Safe Mode may remove processes that are causing the problem in normal mode.

The importance of Safe Mode troubleshooting is that if the system is successfully bootable or the nonboot issue goes away, the cause can be identified effectively and quickly. How to start a computer in Safe Mode Use the following method to start a computer running Windows XP or Windows 2000 Professional in Safe Mode:
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Press F8 immediately following the basic input/output system (BIOS) post and before the Windows logo screen appears.

Troubleshooting in Safe Mode

If the computer starts in Safe Mode successfully, use Msconfig to disable all startup options, and then restart the computer in normal mode. After a successful restart, use Msconfig to activate the various startup options in groups, restarting after each modification. At the point when the issue returns, return to Safe Mode and identify the specific component within the group last activated to determine the cause of the problem.

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Practice: Starting the Computer in Safe Mode

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Objective In this practice, you will:


! ! !

Run a faulty logon script that prevents you from logging on Start the computer in Safe Mode and perform a repair Remove the faulty logon script

Practice

! Run a logon script:


1. Log on to the domain as ComputerNameAdmin with a password of P@ssw0rd. Note You must log on as ComputerNameAdmin to have the permissions that you need to complete this activity. It is not a best practice to log on as an administrator unless you must perform an action that requires administrator rights. 2. Click Start, and then click Run. 3. Type C:\Program Files\Microsoft Learning\2261\Practices\Mod01 and then click OK. 4. Double-click 2261_01_01_break.vbs. 5. In the You are about to execute a VB script designed to break this computer message box, click OK. 6. After your computer logs you off, attempt to logon as ComputerNameAdmin with a password of P@ssw0rd.

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You will be logged off as a result of the script.

! Start the computer in Safe Mode and perform a repair


1. Restart your computer, and press F8 immediately following the BIOS post and before the Windows logo screen appears. 2. On the Windows Advanced Options menu, verify that Safe Mode is selected, and then press ENTER. 3. Press Enter to select Microsoft Windows XP Professional as the OS to start. 4. In the logon screen, log as Administrator with a password P@ssw0rd. 5. In the Desktop dialog box, click Yes. 6. Click Start, and then click Run. 7. Type msconfig and then click OK. 8. In the System Configuration Utility dialog box, click the Startup tab. 9. In the Startup Item column, clear the check box next to Logoff, and then click OK. 10. Click Restart.

! Remove the faulty logon script


1. In the logon screen, log on to the domain as ComputerNameAdmin with a password of P@ssw0rd. Notice that the logoff script did not execute as a result of the Msconfig configuration implemented in the previous step. 2. In the System Configuration Utility dialog box, click OK. 3. In the System Configuration Utility dialog box, on the General tab, click Normal Startupload all device drivers and services, and then click OK to close. 4. In the System Configuration Utility dialog box, click Exit Without Restart. 5. Click Start, and then click Run. 6. Type C:\Program Files\Microsoft Learning\2261\Practices\Mod01 and then click OK. 7. Double-click 2261_01_01_fix.vbs. 8. In the Success dialog box, click OK. 9. Close all windows and Log off.

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How to Use Remote Desktop

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Introduction Remote Desktop allows a computer to control another computer remotely over the Internet or on a local intranet. For example, you can use Remote Desktop to access files on your work computer from your home computer. A user might need your assistance in configuring a Remote Desktop connection. You might connect to a remote computer by using Remote Desktop for troubleshooting. The computer establishing the connection is called the client computer, and the computer to which the client computer connects is called the remote computer. By using a Remote Desktop connection, you can perform tasks on the remote computer directly. The requirements for Remote Desktop are as follows:
! ! !

Requirements for Remote Desktop

The remote computer must be running Windows XP Professional. The remote computer must have Remote Desktop connections enabled. The client computer must be running Windows 95 or a more recent version of Windows and it must have the Remote Desktop Connection client software installed. Only one connection (local or remote) is possible.

Note You can install the Remote Desktop Connection Client software on computers running Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Me, Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000. For more information, see http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/pro/using/howto/gomobile/ remotedesktop/remoteclient.asp.

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Configuring the remote computer

To connect to a remote computer running Windows XP Professional by using the Remote Desktop utility, the remote computer must have Remote Desktop enabled. To enable Remote Desktop: 1. Open Control Panel, and then click System. 2. On the Remote tab, select the Allow users to connect remotely to this computer check box.

What are permissions?

When you connect to a remote computer by using Remote Desktop, you log on with a user name and password. The permissions granted to the user name control the actions that you can take on the remote computer. Permissions define the type of access granted to a user, group, or computer for an object. For example, you can allow one user to read the contents of a file, allow another user to make changes to the file, and prevent all other users from accessing the file. By default, the users that can connect to the remote computer are these:
! ! !

The account currently logged on to the remote computer All members of the local Administrators group All members of the local Remote Desktop Users group

You can modify the default account permissions by clicking Select Remote Users on the Remote tab and adding or removing accounts. Connecting over an intranet Within a local network, a client computer can connect to any Remote Desktop enabled computer running Windows XP Professional. To connect to a remote computer: 1. Click Start, click All Programs, click Accessories, click Communications, and then click Remote Desktop Connection. 2. Type the local NetBIOS name of the remote computer or its Internet Protocol) IP address, and then click OK. The client computer will attempt to connect to the remote computer. Connecting over the Internet Connecting to a remote computer over the Internet requires a few more considerations:
!

If the remote computer uses a modem to connect to the Internet, the modem must be installed and functioning properly. If the remote computer is located behind a firewall, such as Microsoft Windows Internet Connection Firewall, the Remote Desktop port must be opened. The port number for Remote Desktop connection is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port number 3389. If the remote computer is on another intranet and not directly connected to the Internet, you must create a virtual private network (VPN) to the other intranet to connect to the computer. If the remote computer is assigned a dynamic IP address for connectivity, you must first determine that IP address to make a connection to the remote computer. Use the remote computers Ipconfig utility to determine its current IP address.

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How to Use Remote Assistance

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Comparing Remote Assistance to Remote Desktop Remote Assistance is another remote access tool available to the DST. Remote Assistance is very similar to Remote Desktop and also uses TCP port number 3389, but Remote Assistance differs in two important ways:
!

Both users must be present at their computers and must agree to the establishment of a Remote Assistance connection. Remote Assistance can be used to connect to a computer running Windows XP Home Edition.

The two parties involved in a Remote Assistance session are referred to as the novice and the expert. The process for initializing a Remote Assistance session is as follows: 1. The novice sends a Remote Assistance request, using either Windows Messenger or e-mail. This can also be initiated by clicking Start, clicking All Programs, and then clicking Remote Assistance. 2. The expert accepts the invitation, which opens a terminal window that displays the desktop of the novices computer. The expert can view the desktop in a read-only window and can exchange messages with the novice by using voice or chat. The expert can request to take control of the novices computer by clicking the Take Control button in the Expert console. This sends a message to the novices computer. The novice must allow the expert to take control of the computer before the expert can work with objects on the novices computer. Note On computers that are in the same domain, the expert can offer Remote Assistance to the novice, thereby bypassing the need for the novice to send the invitation to the expert.

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Remote Assistance issues with NAT

Using Remote Assistance is fairly simple in a local home network, intranet, or on the Internet if both computers have direct connections to the Internet utilizing public IP addresses. However, in many cases, one or both of the computers involved in the interaction may be using a Network Address Translation (NAT) connection. NAT essentially maps multiple computers to one or more IP addresses to maximize the number of Internet connections available using a minimum of IP addresses. How NAT performs its task determines the success or failure of Remote Assistance, since problems might occur if one or both computers are behind a NAT connection.
!

Internet Connection Sharing listens for Remote Assistance data on port 5001 and forwards it to port 3389. If either computer is using a public IP address or ICS to connect to the Internet, Remote Assistance should work fine. Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)-compatible routers/gateways allow computers behind them to establish Remote Assistance connections. Non-UPnP-compatible routers/gateways do not allow computers behind them to establish Remote Assistance connections. However, a computer that is not located behind a non-UPnP-compatible router may establish a connection to one that is, if the novice initiates a connection by using Windows Messenger on a random port and the expert uses this port to initiate a connection back. Non-UPnP-compatible routers/gateways without Windows Messenger require some advanced work in manipulating the Remote Assistance ticket file, which is an Extensible Markup (XML) file created for the connection.

Additional reading

For more information on configuring and troubleshooting Remote Assistance, refer to Knowledge Base articles 300692 and 306298.

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Practice: Using Remote Assistance

*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Objective In this practice, you will work with a partner to create and save a Remote Assistance invitation. Your instructor will assign partners. With your partner, take turns responding to one anothers invitations and establishing Remote Assistance sessions.

Practice

! Create and save a Remote Assistance invitation


These steps are to be performed by both partners acting in the novice role. 1. Log on to the domain as ComputerNameAdmin with a password of P@ssw0rd. 2. Click Start, click All Programs, and then click Remote Assistance. 3. On the Help and Support Center page, click Invite someone to help you. 4. Scroll down, and then click Save invitation as a file (Advanced). 5. Accept the default name and default expiration time of 1 hour, and then click Continue. 6. Type P@ssw0rd in both the Password field and Confirm Password field, and then click Save Invitation. 7. In the Save As dialog box, in the file name box, type \\london\RAHelp\CompterNameRAHelp and then click Save. 8. Wait for your partner to respond to your invitation.

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! Respond to a Remote Assistance invitation


Now either you or your partner should assume the expert role and complete these steps. 1. Click Start, and then click Run. 2. Type \\london\RAHelp and then click OK. 3. Double-click the invitation file called ComputerNameRAHelp (where ComputerName is your partners computers name). 4. Type P@ssw0rd in the Password field, and then click Yes.

! Establish a Remote Assistance session


The partner acting in the novice role should now perform these steps: 1. Click Yes to allow your partner to view your screen and chat with you. 2. To test the connection, type a message in the chat box, and click Send. The partner acting in the expert role should perform these steps: 1. Respond to the message sent from your partner. 2. Click Take Control. The partner acting in the novice role should perform these steps: 1. Read the information in the dialog box. 2. Click Yes to let your partner share control of your computer. The partner acting in the expert role should perform these steps: 1. Click OK, and then move the Remote Assistance window on your partners desktop. 2. Press Esc to stop control, and then click OK. The partner acting in the novice role should perform these steps: 1. Click OK, and then click Disconnect. 2. Close the Remote Assistance window. The partner acting in the expert role should perform this step: Click OK, and then close the Remote Assistance window. If time permits, reverse roles with your partner and repeat the previous two procedures. Close all windows and log off both computers.