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CreatingaNewBorehole DatabaseTutorial ForMinexv5.

3 July2008

Table of Contents
Overview ................................................................................................................................ 3 Workflow ............................................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 4 Local Origin ......................................................................................................................................... 4 Collar Data File ...................................................................................................................... 6 Create a new borehole database ......................................................................................... 7 Loading Collar Data ............................................................................................................ 10 Validating Collar Data ......................................................................................................... 14 Saving the Borehole Database ......................................................................................................... 16 Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data ................................................... 17 Borehole Header Data ........................................................................................................ 30 Header Data Template File .............................................................................................................. 30 Preparing the Header Data File ........................................................................................................ 31 Loading Header Data........................................................................................................................ 31 Reporting Header Data ..................................................................................................................... 32 Displaying Boreholes in 3D ............................................................................................... 34 Plotting Boreholes in Plan ................................................................................................. 36 Displaying Collar Data in Plan .......................................................................................................... 36 Summary.............................................................................................................................. 41 Where to Next? ................................................................................................................................. 41 Hints and Tips ................................................................................................................................... 41

Overview

Overview
Minex stores drill hole data in a proprietary database that suits the speed and interpretation needed for modelling of stratified deposits. This document will introduce this borehole database and show you how to: 1. Initialize a new database. 2. Load collar data into the database. 3. Display & report the collar data

Workflow
The workflow in this document is as shown below:

Note: The Workflow shown here is not intended to be exhaustive in scope, but will show the workflow needed to achieve a result.

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Introduction

Introduction
The Minex borehole database is a binary database that provides for the efficient storage, analysis, geological interpretation and manipulation of exploration and mining drillhole sampling data. The database is ultimately used to create gridded seam models which form the basis of deposit evaluation and mine planning The borehole database is fundamentally composed of a set of 5 binary files which are given a file name extension of type .B3n. The value of n varies according to its purpose: Extn
.B31

Description
Database index file based on Collar information. Includes location, depth and orientation of boreholes. Binary

Format

The database itself. Includes all sample information .B32 such as downhole geophysics, lithology, and quality information etc. .B33 Seam interval or pick file. .B34 Header Library. Includes all borehole header information.

Binary

Binary Binary

Seam/Layer Stratigraphic sequence file. Includes a list of seam sequence and default density values for each .B35 Binary/ASCII seam as well as colour, seam priorities, Coal/Waste/Ore categories etc.

Borehole collar data is essential and no other data can be loaded until collar data has been loaded. The collar data provides the borehole identity, easting, northing, collar elevation, the end depth of the hole, the azimuth and dip of the hole, and borehole type. Once imported into Minex this information forms the basis of the .B31 file which is the index to the rest of the borehole database. All other data loaded into a borehole database such as lithology and geophysical data is stored relative to the collar data. Without knowing the position of a borehole and its attitude, information such as rock type and coal quality cannot be validated, displayed, modeled or interpreted.

Requirements
The following files are required for this tutorial: ASHES_COLLARS.csv comma delimited file containing borehole collar data. ASHES_BORE_HEADER_TEMPLATE.DAT template for borehole header data. ASHES_BORE_HEADER_DATA.DAT formatted borehole header data file. ASHES_SURVEY.csv downhole survey data. THEDON.GM3 geometry file containing a plan mount.

Local Origin
Because the XY coordinates are very large it is necessary to use a local origin. To set the local origin: 1. Choose Tools > Options > Application Settings > General > Local Origin

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Introduction

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Collar Data File

Collar Data File


The collar data will be loaded from the CSV. The fields in the collar file can be arranged in any order but (with the exception of TYPE) all must be loaded and must be named as per the naming convention in the table below. This table lists the required collar variables and describes the kind of data in each field. BOREID Borehole identifier or name. This is usually a combination of characters and numbers. X Y Z The easting (or x) coordinate value of the borehole collar in metres or feet The northing (or y) coordinate value of the borehole collar in metres or feet The elevation (or z) coordinate value of the borehole collar in metres or feet

FINALD The final (end of hole) depth of the borehole in metres or feet. The azimuth of the borehole at the collar. This value is in degrees and decimal degrees (not minutes and seconds). North is 0 and angles are positive clockwise The dip at the collar of the borehole. Negative values are given to downholes, where dip angles are depressed from the horizontal plane, e.g. -90 degrees is vertically down. A one to four character code (e.g. DDH) used to represent the type of boreholes e.g. diamond, percussion, reverse circulation, etc, or any other information you need to store/sort by when selecting Boreholes.

AZIMUTH

DIP

TYPE

Collar data can be imported from various sources, and in various formats such as: text delimited fixed width text files, CSV (comma delimited text), Microsoft Access database (mdb file), ODBC compliant data sources such (e.g. SQL Server, Oracle) to drillhole data management systems such as acQuire.

This tutorial uses csv files. Comma delimited text files are often used and are easily created from Microsoft Excel. However, care should be taken with borehole names which have a leading zero eg. 00256, as MS Excel may delete the leading zeros when the file is saved. For this reason it is normal to begin hole names with alpha characters eg. BH00256.

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Create a new borehole database

Create a new borehole database


To create a new borehole database: 1. Open Minex 5. Set up a new project (See tutorial Getting Started with Minex5). 2. Choose File > New from the menu to open the New Wizard.

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Create a new borehole database

3. Choose BoreholeDB.B31 from the Select a Template window.

4. Click Next. 5. Browse to the target location to save the database (by default your project directory). 6. Name your new borehole database ASHES. Minex automatically assigns the extension .B31. 7. Click Next.

The import attributes checkbox can be ticked if you want to import attributes from an existing borehole database (its Properties, Data Types and Variables). For this tutorial you will be creating a completely new borehole database with new attributes, so leave this option un-checked. 8. Click Finish.

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Create a new borehole database

You have now created a new borehole database. The borehole database should now appear in the Minex Explorer Window with a black tick indicating it is open.

Now set the borehole database to read/write status. 9. Highlight the name of the database in the Minex Explorer Project tab. 10. In the Properties window, change the Read Only setting to False.

Editing Borehole Database properties (eg. Percentage of seam to be sampled and seam sampling tolerance) and Adding/Editing Borehole Database Data Types, variables and seam names is not available without setting the Borehole database to Read Only FALSE.

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Loading Collar Data

Loading Collar Data


To load collar data use the following steps: 1. Choose BoreholeDB > Load > Load Collar Data.

This will open up the Load Collar Data dialogue window.

2.

Using the Browse button

choose <ASHES_COLLAR.csv>.

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Loading Collar Data

You now need to map your data file fields to the Gemcom Minex borehole database fields. For example, column 1 in the data file is hole ID so Minex needs to map this as BOREID. This process is called import mapping, and is t used for Collar and Sample data import for all import data formats. Minex uses a Format File or *.sff to describe this information, which can then be recycled to be used for importing other data files that have the same format.

3.

Click Create/Edit button

to begin the process of creating the format file.

You are presented with a new dialogue that will be used to define the format details of the file to be imported, and create the *.sff to load the file. This menu shows the file you selected (collars.csv) and will try and establish the file type. In this case, Minex determines the file is csv and displays a portion of the input file (top) and a formatted portion (Below)

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Loading Collar Data

4.

Click the Variable setup tab to see the variable mapping process.

If the input file has column headings, Minex tries to match them to Minex database variables. This is the case with the Collars.csv file. However, if there are no column headings or your column headings dont match the Minex variable names, click in the Minex Variable column in the Variable Setup table. This will list all the input file columns and allow you to map them to the Minex variables.

5.

Click OK.

Minex will prompt you to save the format file. This file can be reused for future imports of the same raw data file, or others that are formatted in exactly the same way. Minex will automatically name the format file as INPUT_FILE.sff in this case ASHES_COLLAR.sff. You are returned to the Load Collar Data dialogue. The fomat file is now entered into the Format file input area. So far we have selected our input data Collar file, and mapped the input data to the Minex collar variables.

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Loading Collar Data

6.

Click OK.

A report of the process will be shown in the output window recording all the boreholes that have been added to the database.

If there are duplicate holes the report will output updated rather than added. If you loaded the collar data again for instance the Collar Load Report will output updated for all boreholes.

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Validating Collar Data

Validating Collar Data


To validate collar data has loaded correctly, you should report collar information from the borehole database. Before you do this, clear the Output window 1. Choose Context and right-click in the Output window.

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Validating Collar Data

2.

Choose BoreholeDB > Reporting > Report Collars.

Borehole Collar Report is displayed.

Check that all information from the Collars.csv file is included in the report. If not, or if there are some errors, you will have to go back and check the input data, and that the formatting options specified in the Create Format Specification dialogue were correct. Typical errors might be that columns have not been mapped correctly, or that data items in the raw file are misaligned.

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Validating Collar Data

Saving the Borehole Database


You must save the changes (additions or edits) to the borehole database. Every time you load data into the database or edit data within the database, a small disk symbol will appear next to the borehole database icon. This disk indicates that changes have been made to the database and are yet to be saved.

Save your borehole Database. As follows 1. 2. Choose File > Save > Save Borehole database or Right-click the Borehole database icon and choose Save.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data


Some boreholes deviate from their collar azimuth and dip. Downhole survey tracks this deviation and can be loaded into the MINEX borehole database as SURVEY data. An example for hole BNBYC99 is shown below:
BOREID BNBYC99 BNBYC99 BNBYC99 BNBYC99 BNBYC99 BNBYC99 BNBYC99 TOSURVEY 0 15.09 25.23 38.19 51 62.78 73.2 AZIMUTH 0 0.75 2.63 5.82 7.35 6.96 5.45 DIP -90 -89 -88 -85.6 -82.7 -81.7 -78.3

Survey data is a Minex Sample data type, and as such is loaded via the Load the Sample Data. The steps to load this data are:

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

1.

Choose BoreholeDB > Load > Load Sample Data.

2.

Select the File radio button then browse using the ASHES_SURVEY.csv.

button and select the file

As with loading collar data, you need to tell Minex how to handle the input data. For sample data types we need to do 3 things:

Determine the format (fixed width, delimited, etc..) Define the Minex data type we are importing to (survey) Map the input columns to the Minex variables for the selected data type.

This process is carried out by creating a Format File that encapsulates the above items.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

3.

Click the Create/Edit button

to begin the process of creating the format file.

The ASHES_SURVEY.csv file is populated in the dialogue, and Minex determines what kind of file has been loaded. Minex determines the file is csv with column headings in row one. The table at the bottom of the dialogue previews how Minex thinks it should format the raw data shown in the preview above the table.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

4.

Now select the Data Type > SURVEY.

. Now the individual columns of the data file can be mapped to the Minex variables for SURVEY data.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

5.

Click on the tab named Variable setup.

The variable mapping table shows the columns of input data have been mapped to the minex variables. This file has column headings that match the Minex variable names. However, if this is not the case you can select the Minex variable you wish to map to a particular column by selecting a cell in the Minex Variable column of the variable panel. This presents a list of all available variables for the data type (Survey). Once the mapping is complete, 6. 7. Click OK to exit. Choose Save.

Once saved, you are returned to the Load Sample Data dialogue. This dialogue now has the format definition file populated. There are various load options in this dialogue that control how data is loaded into the borehole database. The default setting is adequate for this tutorial. More details are provided at the end of this tutorial.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

8.

Click OK to proceed.

This particular file only contains a single hole, and the report to output window details how many records were loaded into the hole.

The report says 13 records are loaded but the input file only contained 7 records. Minex automatically inserts blank records to fill gaps in the data. We will now report this hole.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

Firstly we select the deviated hole hole BNBYC99. 1. Choose BoreholeDB > Select Boreholes 2. Click the Select Holes button. 3. Choose the borehole BNBYC99. (its the last one on the list) You are then returned to the Select Boreholes dialogue which shows borehole BNBYC99 is selected

4. Click Ok.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

1. Choose BoreholeDB > Reporting > Report Sample Data.

Select data type SURVEY in the drop down list (top right of dialogue).

2. Click the Select Variable button to choose variables.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

To select all of the items from the list. 3. Click on the first item, hold down the SHIFT key. 4. Click on the last item. You will see that all items are selected. 5. Click Ok.

6. Click OK. The Report Sample Data dialogue shows the selected variables. 7. Click OK.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

To plot this hole in 3D 1. Choose Borehole DB > Plot > Borehole Display.

Make sure Borehole Names and Display Barren Holes are selected. You can change the marker and colour options if desired.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

2. Click OK. 3. Go into navigation mode and rotate the view.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

Now select all holes & view all boreholes.

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Deviated Boreholes - Loading Downhole Survey Data

1. Choose Borehole DB > Select Boreholes

2. 3. 4. 5.

Click the Clear List button to remove the selected borehole. Click OK to select All Holes. Reaccess the Plot Holes dialogue. Click OK.

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Borehole Header Data

Borehole Header Data


To track and report information about boreholes that are drilled, information can be loaded as header data. This data typically incorporates the collar coordinates, when the hole was started and completed and which contractor was used to drill the hole. To load borehole header data into MINEX two files are required:

TEMPLATE file Header data file

Header Data Template File


The header template file defines the fields in the header data file, ie Header data is different to other data types and there is no requirement to set up variables in the database. A typical header template file is shown below:
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | COMMENTS : <COMM> DATE COMPLETED : <FINISH> DATE COMMENCED : <START> COMPANY : <GEOCO> GEOPHYSICAL LOGS : <GEOYN> TOTAL DEPTH : <TDEPTH> SURFACE ELEVATION : <SURFELEV> Datum : <DA> NORTHING : <NORTHING> Accuracy : <A> EASTING : <EASTING> Grid Type : <GT> BOREHOLE NUMBER <BID> | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The actual layout of the file also determines the way the header data will be displayed in the English language log report.

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Borehole Header Data

Preparing the Header Data File


The header data file is formatted in much the same way as normal Minex borehole collar and sample data files format headers and data in space delimited column ASCII format. A typical example is shown below:
;BOREID ;BID ;EASTING ;NORTHING ;SURFELEV ;TDEPTH ;GEOYN ;START ;FINISH ;GT ;A ;DA ;GEOCO ;COMM ;; 11 1 1 10 21 32 40 46 56 64 71 82 88 96 111 1 12 8 4 9 10 6 6 10 6 6 3 5 3 19 40 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

;;3456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 BNBY001 263058.27 6181599.3 WATER TABLE AT 5.47M BNBY002 BNBY003 BNBY004 BNBY005 263195.04 262611.21 262678.80 262005.52 6182059.9 6181837.2 6182342.6 6182383.2 682.34 173.09 150297 160297 AMG 0.001 AGD FAST DRILL

672.90 694.70 682.95 684.50

219.66 198.36 247.15 221.80

170297 170297 170297 200297

170297 AMG 170297 AMG 190297 AMG 220297 AMG

0.001 AGD 0.001 AGD 0.001 AGD 0.001 AGD

FAST DRILL FAST DRILL FAST DRILL FAST DRILL

Loading Header Data


1. 2. 3. Choose BoreholeDB > Load > Load Header Data. Select both the Template and Header data files BORE_HEADER_DATA.DAT and BORE_HEADER_TEMPLATE.DAT Click OK to load.

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Borehole Header Data

4.

Click OK to proceed.

The template and header data will be loaded into the database and a report of the process will be sent to the output window. 5. Click Save.

Reporting Header Data


1. Choose BoreholeDB > Reporting > Report Text Logs.

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Borehole Header Data

2. 3.

Tick the Include Hole Headers check box. Click OK.

If lithology data had been loaded at this stage, the lithology codes would have been translated into text and reported as well as the Header data.

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Displaying Boreholes in 3D

Displaying Boreholes in 3D
To check the borehole data visually display the borehole traces in the 3D window: Make sure the 3D drafting window is open 1. Choose BoreholeDB > Plot > Borehole Display.

2.

Click OK.

The boreholes will be displayed in the 3D window.

Experiment with the collar symbols (eg. 2DSYMBOL 10) and then rotate the view to see the trace of each hole in 3D.

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Displaying Boreholes in 3D

Continue to dip and rotate the collars to make sure there are no obvious problems in the data. Things to look out for in this display include extra long holes and holes in the wrong location/direction (indicating a typo error in the X Y or Z coordinates and Final Depth, Dips and Azimuth).

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Plotting Boreholes in Plan

Plotting Boreholes in Plan


All plan plots require a Plan Mount and this tutorial assumes that you have completed the Minex Core tutorial and know how to create new plan mounts. For the purposes of this tutorial we will use an existing Plan Mount. To access this plan mount you will need open the geometry file THEDON.GM3.

Displaying Collar Data in Plan


To display the collar data on the plan mount in the 2D window. On the Menu bar: 1. Choose Mounts > Mounts Control Panel. 2. Highlight the LC_PIT plan. 3. Right-click on this plan. 4. Choose Draft on Mount from the context menu. This will open up the 2D drafting window and display the plan mount in 2D view.

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Plotting Boreholes in Plan

To display your collar data:5. Choose Mounts > Plan > Borehole Locations. The Borehole Plan Locations dialogue window allows you to set up Borehole plotting parameters.

6. Under the Plotting parameters tab tick the Borehole Name checkbox and the Plot Symbols checkbox. Increase the size and change the colour of annotation if required. 7. Under the Seam List tab tick the Single Seam option and Select the variable COLLAR.

8. Click OK. The 2D window will update with borehole locations and IDs.

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Plotting Boreholes in Plan

To plot the coordinate grid also shown on the image above. 9. Choose Mount > Plan > Coordinate grid.

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Plotting Boreholes in Plan

10. Click OK to plot the Coordinate grid.

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Plotting Boreholes in Plan

Your 2D drafting window should look like the image below.

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Summary

Summary
You should now be familiar with the concepts of setting up a borehole database and formatting, loading, validating and displaying basic borehole collar, trace and header data. Please review this chapter or consult the online reference manual if unclear about the definitions used so far.

Where to Next?
To reinforce the concepts learned so far, substitute some raw data of your own and step through the exercise below. You are now equipped to move on to the next Tutorials that will cover loading sample data and seam interval data into the borehole database.

Hints and Tips


Minex is set up to store 16000 holes. This can be increased using Tools > Options. When loading sample data, choosing Validate is recommended. Validate will check for the following errors: Samples above or below defined limits Overlapping from and to intervals.

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