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PREPOSITION

Definition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun. They never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to. Some common prepositions are: about above across after against along among around at before behind below beneath beside between beyond but Prepositions typically come before a noun: For example:

by despite down during except for from in inside into like near of off on onto out

outside over past since through throughout till to toward under underneath until up upon with within without.

after class at home before Tuesday in London on fire with pleasure

A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence. For example:

The book is on the table. The book is beside the table. She read the book during class.

In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. Prepositions are classified as simple or compound. Simple prepositions Simple prepositions are single word prepositions. These are all showed above.

For example:

The book is on the table.

Compound prepositions Compound prepositions are more than one word. in between and because of are prepositions made up of two words - in front of, on behalf of are prepositions made up of three words. For example:

The book is in between War and Peace and The Lord of the Rings. The book is in front of the clock.

Examples:

The children climbed the mountain without fear. There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. The spider crawled slowly along the banister.

The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English: Prepositions of Time: English Usage Example

on

days of the week months / seasons time of day year after a certain period of time (when?) for night for weekend a certain point of time (when?) from a certain point of time (past till now) over a certain period of time (past till now) a certain time in the past earlier than a certain point of time telling the time

on Monday in in in in August / in winter the morning 2006 an hour

in

at

at night at the weekend at half past nine

since

since 1980

for

for 2 years

ago before to

2 years ago before 2004 ten to six (5:50)

past to / till / until

telling the time marking the beginning and end of a period of time in the sense of how long something is going to last in the sense of at the latest up to a certain time

ten past six (6:10)

from Monday to/till Friday

till / until

He is on holiday until Friday.

by

I will be back by 6 oclock. By 11 o'clock, I had read five pages.

Prepositions of Place: English Usage Example

in

room, building, street, town, country book, paper etc. car, taxi picture, world meaning next to, by an object for table for events place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work) attached for a place with a river being on a surface for a certain side (left, right) for a floor in a house for public transport for television, radio left or right of somebody or something on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else lower than something else but above ground covered by something else meaning more than getting to the other side (also across)

in in in in

the the the the

kitchen, in London book car, in a taxi picture, in the world

at

at at at at

the door, at the station the table a concert, at the party the cinema, at school, at work

on

the picture on the wall London lies on the Thames. on the table on the left on the first floor on the bus, on a plane on TV, on the radio Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.

by, next to, beside

under

the bag is under the table

below

the fish are below the surface

over

put a jacket over your shirt over 16 years of age walk over the bridge


above

overcoming an obstacle higher than something else, but not directly over it getting to the other side (also over) getting to the other side something with limits on top, bottom and the sides movement to person or building movement to a place or country for bed enter a room / a building movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it) movement to the top of something in the sense of where from

climb over the wall

a path above the lake

across

walk across the bridge swim across the lake

through

drive through the tunnel

to

go to the cinema go to London / Ireland go to bed go into the kitchen / the house

into

towards

go 5 steps towards the house

onto from

jump onto the table a flower from the garden

Noun Pronouns

http://www.englishlanguageguide.com/english/grammar/preposition.asp

Parts of Speech Chapter 7 - Prepositions A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount. In the sentence She went to the store, to is a preposition which shows direction. In the sentence He came by bus, by is a preposition which shows manner. In the sentence They will be here at three o'clock, at is a preposition which shows time and in the sentence It is under the table, under is a preposition which shows place. A preposition always goes with a noun or pronoun which is called the object of the preposition. The preposition is almost always before the noun or pronoun and that is why it is called a preposition. The preposition and the object of the preposition together are called a prepositional phrase. The following chart shows the prepositions, objects of the preposition, and prepositional phrases of the sentences above.

Preposition to by at under

Object of the Preposition the store bus three o'clock the table

Prepositional Phrase to the store by bus at three o'clock under the table

Prepositional phrases are like idioms and are best learned through listening to and reading as much as possible. Below are some common prepositions of time and place and examples of their use. Prepositions of time: at two o'clock on Wednesday in an hour, in January; in 1992 for a day Prepositions of place: at my house in New York, in my hand on the table near the library across the street

under the bed between the books Review this lesson as many times as you want, and when you are ready, take the pop quiz on this chapter. END OF CHAPTER 7

http://eslus.com/LESSONS/GRAMMAR/POS/pos7.htm

http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/adjectve.html

What Is An Adjective?
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dank. Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music. A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots. An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. In the sentence My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. for example, the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective "patterned." Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles. Grammarians also consider articles ("the," "a," "an") to be adjectives.

Possessive Adjectives
A possessive adjective ("my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," "their") is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences: I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "my" modifies "assignment" and the noun phrase "my assignment" functions as an object. Note that the possessive pronoun form "mine" is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase. What is your phone number. Here the possessive adjective "your" is used to modify the noun phrase "phone number"; the entire noun phrase "your phone number" is a subject complement. Note that the possessive pronoun form "yours" is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. The bakery sold his favourite type of bread. In this example, the possessive adjective "his" modifies the noun phrase "favourite type of bread" and the entire noun phrase "his favourite type of bread" is the direct object of the verb "sold." After many years, she returned to her homeland. Here the possessive adjective "her" modifies the noun "homeland" and the noun phrase "her homeland" is the object of the preposition "to." Note also that the form "hers" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. We have lost our way in this wood. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "our" modifies "way" and the noun phrase "our way" is the direct object of the compound verb "have lost". Note that the possessive pronoun form "ours" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents. Here the possessive adjective "their" modifies "parents" and the noun phrase "their parents" is the object of the preposition "by." Note that the possessive pronoun form "theirs" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.

The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "its" modifies "ball" and the noun phrase "its ball" is the object of the verb "chased." Note that "its" is the possessive adjective and "it's" is a contraction for "it is."

Demonstrative Adjectives
The demonstrative adjectives "this," "these," "that," "those," and "what" are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences: When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books. In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective "that" modifies the noun "cord" and the noun phrase "that cord" is the object of the preposition "over." This apartment needs to be fumigated. Here "this" modifies "apartment" and the noun phrase "this apartment" is the subject of the sentence. Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these. In the subordinate clause, "those" modifies "plates" and the noun phrase "those plates" is the object of the verb "preferred." In the independent clause, "these" is the direct object of the verb "bought." Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun.

Interrogative Adjectives
An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what") is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives): Which plants should be watered twice a week? Like other adjectives, "which" can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, "which" modifies "plants" and the noun phrase "which plants" is the subject of the compound verb "should be watered":

What book are you reading? In this sentence, "what" modifies "book" and the noun phrase "what book" is the direct object of the compound verb "are reading."

Indefinite Adjectives
An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences: Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed. The indefinite adjective "many" modifies the noun "people" and the noun phrase "many people" is the subject of the sentence. I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to Sudbury. The indefinite adjective "any" modifies the noun "mail" and the noun phrase "any mail" is the direct object of the compound verb "will send." They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound. In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun "goldfish" and the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb "found": The title of Kelly's favourite game is "All dogs go to heaven." Here the indefinite pronoun "all" modifies "dogs" and the full title is a subject complement.

Written by Heather MacFadyen

http://www.english-zone.com/grammar/pos-adj.html

Parts of Speech: Adjectives

Adjectives are words used to describe nouns. Adjectives give more information about a noun. Use adjectives to make your writing more interesting. "Fast, fun, new, old, red, ugly" are all adjectives. They describe a noun.

READ THESE EXAMPLES: It's a fast car. It's a fun car. It's a new car. It's an old car. It's a red car. It's an ugly car.

Adjectives can come BEFORE the NOUN (adjective + noun)

EXAMPLES: It's an expensive bicycle. It's a racing bicycle. It's a red bicycle.

Adjectives can come AFTER a BE verb. (BE + adjective)

EXAMPLES: The butterfly is pretty. The butterfly is blue. Butterflies are interesting.

Nouns can also work as adjectives. A noun can help describe an object.

EXAMPLES: It's a business meeting. They're having a job interview. It's a school conference.

Present participles (-ing verbs) can also work as adjectives.

EXAMPLES: Baseball is an exciting game. Baseball is interesting. It's an interesting game.

Past participles (verb 3) can also work as adjectives.

EXAMPLES: The man is tired. The exhausted man fell asleep. He was worn out by work today.

Adjectives can be hyphenated.

EXAMPLES: The computer-generated error message made the program freeze. My friend isn't very good at do-it-yourself

projects.

Numbers can be used as adjectives.

EXAMPLES: That's a three-ton truck. The man is a thirty-seven-year-old trucker. In his 20-year career, he's never had an accident.

Adjectives can be used to compare things.

EXAMPLES: Cats are softer than dogs. My cat is the cutest cat I know.

http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/interjections.htm

Interjections
Hi! That's an interjection. :-) Interjection is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written. Interjections like er and um are also known as "hesitation devices". They are extremely common in English. People use them when they don't know what to say, or to indicate that they are thinking about what to say. You should learn to recognize them when you hear them and realize that they have no real meaning. The table below shows some interjections with examples. interjection meaning expressing pleasure expressing realization ah expressing resignation expressing surprise alas dear expressing surprise asking for repetition eh expressing enquiry expressing surprise inviting agreement er hello, hullo expressing surprise "Hello! My car's gone!" expressing hesitation expressing greeting "Dear me! That's a surprise!" "It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today." "What do you think of that, eh?" "Eh! Really?" "Let's go, eh?" "Lima is the capital of...er...Peru." "Hello John. How are you today?" expressing grief or pity expressing pity "Ah well, it can't be heped." "Ah! I've won!" "Alas, she's dead now." "Oh dear! Does it hurt?" example "Ah, that feels good." "Ah, now I understand."

calling attention hey expressing surprise, joy etc hi hmm expressing greeting expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement expressing surprise oh, o expressing pain expressing pleading ouch uh uh-huh um, umm well introducing a remark expressing pain expressing hesitation expressing agreement expressing hesitation expressing surprise

"Hey! look at that!" "Hey! What a good idea!" "Hi! What's new?" "Hmm. I'm not so sure." "Oh! You're here!" "Oh! I've got a toothache." "Oh, please say 'yes'!" "Ouch! That hurts!" "Uh...I don't know the answer to that." "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh." "85 divided by 5 is...um...17." "Well I never!" "Well, what did he say?"

http://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/interjections.htm Interjections
Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion. They are included in a sentence - usually at the start - to express a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement or enthusiasm. Examples: Hey! Get off that floor! Oh, that is a surprise. Good! Now we can move on. Jeepers, that was close.

Yes and No
Introductory expressions such as yes, no, indeed and well are also classed as interjections. Examples: Indeed, this is not the first time the stand has collapsed. Yes, I do intend to cover the bet. I'm sure I don't know half the people who come to my house. Indeed, for all I hear, I shouldn't like to. (Oscar Wilde) Well, it's 1 a.m. Better go home and spend some quality time with the kids. (Homer Simpson)

Phew!
Some interjections are sounds: Examples: Phew! I am not trying that again. Humph! I knew that last week. Mmmm, my compliments to the chef. Ah! Don't say you agree with me. When people agree with me, I always feel that I must be wrong. (Oscar Wilde)