You are on page 1of 9



GROUP 1: 1. INDAH KINGKIN A. B. P. 2. INDRIYANA SAPUTRI 3. KHUMAIRA (K2210037) (K2210040) (K2210045)


A. DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading, or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a prerequisite to attempting to manage others. Management is an individual or a group of individuals that accept responsibilities to run an organization. They plan, organize, direct, and control all the essential activities of the organization. Management does not do the work themselves. They motivate others to do the work and coordinate (i.e. bring together) all the work for achieving the objectives of the organization.

B. STYLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT It will be obvious that there is likely to be a relationship between the structure of an organization, the kind of decision-or policy-making processes which are followed, the style of management exhibited by those who occupy management roles and the culture of an organization. Formal models of organizations emphasize control, while democratic ones stress participation. Likewise, managers adopt different theories or views of management according to the beliefs which they bring to their management role-beliefs which, incidentally, will be strongly influenced by their own national cultural background as well as their previous experience as employees. Contrasting two very different belief systems about the nature of work-and consequently of management Mc Gregor (1960) termed them Theory x and Theory Y. Managers adopting Theory X believe that (Everard and Morris 1985:29): 1. Work is inherently distasteful to most people. 2. Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed. 3. Most people have little capacity for creativity in solving problems. 4. Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels. 5. Most people must be closely controlled and often corced to achieve organizational objectives.

By contrast, Theory Y managers believe that: 1. Work is as natural as play, if conditions are favorable. 2. Control of ones own work activities is often indispensable in achieving organizational gains. 3. The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is widely distributed in the population. 4. Motivation occurs at the social, ego and self-actualization levels as well as at the physiological and security levels. 5. People can be self-directed and creative at work if properly led. It takes only a moments thought to relate this dichotomy to view on teaching as well as to beliefs about management. As managers of people and resources in the classroom, teachers may approach their task with a Theory X or Theory Y set of beliefs and related set of practices. Yet ironically, the Theory X teacher may resent being treated in the same way by a Theory X manager, such as a Principal or Academic Director. In fact, what goes on in the larger organization of the school will probably be reflected in what goes on in the smaller setting of the classroom. Thus, management style will set a tone from which the classroom will not be immune. In other words, the organizational culture will tend to influence all parts of the school. Where management and tutorial styles are in harmony, the one will reinforce the other, where they are not, teachers can experience conflict and difficulty which cannot help but influence the work and relationships with their students. It is in recognition of this relationship that the British Council Recognition Scheme for language schools in the United Kingdom includes among its criteria for inspection both management and administration as well as academic management. Whatever the style of management, there are certain functions which management will carry out, even though the essential nature of managerial work is not easy to describe (Mullins 11985:123). Mullins, like many writers on the subject, draws a distinction between Those whose main occupation is the carrying out of discrete tasks and the actual doing of work themselves; and those who spend proportionally more of their time in determining the work of other people, the planning and organizing of their work, issuing them with instructions and giving advice, and checking on their performance.

By making such a distinction between managing and doing (which paralles the distinction commonly made between management and operations), Mullins suggests that management can be seen as: The planning of work, organizing the distribution of activities and tasks to other people, direction of subordinate staff and controlling the performance of other peoples work. This leads to a generalized definition of the common activities of management as: Clarification of objectives Planning Organizing Directing Controlling

In addition to these functions, Everard and Morris (1985:10) believe that the managers mission should be: 1. To utilize and integrate resources economically in the definition and pursuit of organizational goals; 2. To facilitate beneficial change 3. To maintain and develop resources

C. WHY DOES SCHOOLS NEED A MANAGEMENT? Schools are simultaneously two things: institution and organization. The school as institution will have a legal status, with governors or shareholders (depending on whether it is state or privately owned), a board of management staff and students. As an institution, the school will have a conform to whatever legal requirements are laid down for such institutions, and it will normally be registered with the appropriate authority as an employer and tax payer. As an institution with a legal entity, the school assumes legally defined responsibilities, and it will be the school as institution which can be hold accountable for fulfilling these obligations. The Schools are also organizations, which is to say, they consist of a network of relationships among the individuals who regard themselves as belonging to that organization. These relationships will be variously directed towards the achievement of the goals of the organizations, towards maintaining the organization as a social unit, and towards fulfilling the personal needs of the individuals. Organizations have no existence other than through the people who make them up, even if, as we shall see, it is possible to describe the relationships among their members in terms of

structures and functions. Without people, there is no organizations-just as, without students, a school has no existence as a living and functioning organization, even if it may still have a legal existence as an institution. A school exists to provide an educational service to its clients (ex. the students) and other stake holders (i.e. people having an interest in the school, such as parents, members of the community, employers, governors, shareholders). There is some ambiguity as to the status of the clients within any educational organizations: are they raw materials in the process of being converted to finish products; are they co-partic pants with teachers in a process of discovery and growth; are they consumers of a service provided by the school; or are they something else? Different schools may give different answers to these questions, depending on their own goals and culture. Management schools are a must in a country as it pays more heed to students by honing their skills and making them competitive globally. They generally motivate critical thinking, making a student strong and capable of self employment.

D. THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT TO A SCHOOL Effective school management requires managers who succeed in carrying out the organizational goals of their schools, utilizing the following leadership skills: planning (deciding how to accomplish the organization's goals); organizing (doing the necessary preparation); staffing (filling positions with the right people); directing (motivating staff so that goals are achieved); controlling (guiding the organization in the proper direction); and decision making (which underlies everything the manager accomplishes). The competent principal chooses a time frame that fits the planning agenda, and develops strategies to monitor progress. Meetings should be well-planned, and time management strategies should be applied in order to achieve appropriate delegation of tasks. Leadership is a basic part of management, and loyalty and respect are gained through merit. Four attributes of a successful school principal are intelligence, expression and image, leadership and management ability, and "guts." (MD)

1. Effective management to school deals with : a) Human Resources 1) Teachers Recruitment, Training, Motivation, Maintaining interest of students 2) Right Person influences effective teaching and learning. 3) Structures must be in place to deal with existence of vacancies to appointment followed by induction, mentoring and appraising. b) Curriculum 1) Broad and balanced 2) Careful selection of subjects 3) Appropriately Timed 4) Teaching styles 5) Student assessment 6) Teacher placement. 7) Classroom Management 8) Relevant to Student Needs c) Communication 1) Sharing of information written, spoken, electronic. 2) Long, medium and short term. 3) Extensive in all schools 4) Two way process - must be sent, received and acted upon. 5) Barriers to Communication d) Resources and Finance: 1) Deployment of Limited Resources 2) Restriction Government, parents contribution 3) Budgeting Appropriate distribution 4) Contributions 5) Fund Raising Care, if excessive, detriment to teaching. 6) Financial Management Decision making, management, and accountability. e) Discipline: 1) Good Discipline advances learning. 2) Poor discipline crippling to learning. 3) Importance of Rules

4) Types of Rules 5) Effect of Society 6) Every Staff Member should be a disciplinarian leading by example. 7) Chain of command in dealing with discipline. f) Record Keeping: Administrative 1) Teachers Records 2) Students Records 3) Personal Information 4) Registration 5) Finance and Resources Teachers 1) Student Achievement homework/ classwork/ tests/ exams. 2) Storage manual/ electronic 3) Must be valid, reliable, confidentiality maintained. 4) Moving to electronic saves time, more accurate, allows teachers more time for planning, teaching and assessing. g) Guidance: 1) Career Guidance impartional, personalized and systematic. 2) Helps in selection of subjects and choice of future careers. 3) Psychological Guidance aids good discipline.

2. Characteristics of an effective school a) Good leadership offering breadth of vision and the ability to motivate others b) Appropriate delegation with involvement in policy-making by staff other than the head c) Clearly established and purposeful staffing structures d) Well-qualified staff with the appropriate blend of experience and expertise e) Clear aims and associated objectives applied with care and consistency f) Effective communications and clear systems of record-keeping and assessment

g) The means to identify and develop pupils particular strengths, promoting high expectations by both teachers and pupils.

h) A coherent curriculum which considers pupils experience as a whole and demonstrates concern for their development within society i) j) A positive ethos: an orderly yet relaxed working atmosphere A suitable working environment

k) Skills of deploying and managing material resources l) Good relationships with parents, the local community and sources of external support

m) The capacity to manage change, solve problems and to develop organically

E. CONCLUSION School management is concerned wuth practical results in the context of the school. Management is, above all else, concerned with people, who are themselves so diverse and varied that no two combinations of individuals will ever be the same schools are highly complex organization, containing as they do two sets of people- staf and students who interact in diverse ways. The school is, therefore, subject to internal and external forces which greatly complicate the managers job. All managers have a responsibility to be as well-informed as possible and to provide adequate resources and facilities for carrying out agreed aims.


White, Ron. 1991. Management in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press