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introduction to signals and systems.

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You are on page 1of 33

-Venkateswaran A.

(2008A3PS248G)

17-08-2011

CONTROL SYSTEM ??

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 2

SSIGNALS

SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR

(PROCESSING)

Signals & Systems

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 3

Signal :

-A set of information or data, having some pattern

-For example, amplitude of sound, rpm of motor,

temperature, intensity of light

-Function of one or more independent quantities- time,

space, etc

System:

-An entity that processes a set of signals (inputs) to yield

another set of signals (outputs)

- Hardware realization

- Software realization

Classification of Signals

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 4

Continuous time & Discrete time

Analog & Digital

Periodic & Aperiodic

Energy & Power

Deterministic & Probabilistic

Any random classification :P

Types of Signals

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 5

Unit Impulse

(t) ; t = 0

= 0 ; elsewhere

Anything happening for a very small interval of time-

Charpy test (MT-2 mechanical remember??)

Explosion lasting for a very short time

( ) 1 t dt o

+

=

}

o

Types of Signals

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 6

Unit Step

u(t) = 1 ; t 0

= 0 ; t < 0

Switching on a constant voltage source at some point of time

Opening a valve which results a uniform flow of liquid in the

pipe

[ ( )]

( )

d u t

t

dt

o =

Types of Signals

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 7

Unit Ramp

r(t) = t u(t)

Accumulator

0

( ) ( )

t

u t dt r t =

}

Types of Signals

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 8

Sinusoids

Types of Signals

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 9

Real Exponential

f(t) = ; k R

If k > 0 , growing (positive) exponential

k < 0 , falling (negative) exponential

k = 0, constant function

Decay of radioactive substance follows falling exponential

pattern

kt

e

Types of Signals

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 10

Complex exponentials -

j = (-1)

= angular frequency

j t

e

e

e

Complex exponentials..

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 11

Decaying complex exponential .

k < 0

j t

e

e kt

e

System Analysis

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 12

Time domain analysis

Frequency domain analysis

0

1

( ) ( )

t

out

Ri t i t dt V

C

+ =

}

Assuming zero initial conditions,

1

( ) ( ) ( )

out

RI s I s V s

Cs

+ =

Integration in time domain becomes division by s in frequency (Laplace)

domain

Life made simple !!

i(t)

Fourier Series Analysis

Beauty of Periodicity

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 13

Any periodic function can be approximated by a (infinite)

series of sinusoids (exponentials of the form )

The contributing sinusoids have frequencies which are

integral multiples of the fundamental frequency, which is

equal to the actual frequency of the periodic signal

The plot of the coefficients against their frequencies is

called frequency spectrum, which gives information about

the contribution of each component sinusoid.

j t

e

e

Fourier Series Analysis-

Beauty of periodicity

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 14

Where,

n = 1, 2, 3, .

Coefficients in

the spectrum

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 15

N = 5

N = 25

Approximating a square wave with Fourier series

time time

Frequency

Frequency

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 16

N = 50

Approximating a square wave with Fourier series

time

Frequency

LTI Systems

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-

Pilani, Goa

17

L stands for Linearity Homogeneity and Superposition

TI stands for Time Invariant - independent of the starting

time of the process (shift invariant)

Most systems dealt in the course are LTI systems

Even if the system is not linear, we model it in such a way

that very close the point of interest, the system is

assumed to be linear.

Fourier Components as Eigen vectors

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-

Pilani, Goa

18

For a LTI system, any sinusoidal signal input gives

exponential signal as output, with a scaling factor

So for LTI systems, the class of sinusoidal signals are eigen

vectors

The coefficients are the eigen values

Motivation behind Fourier analysis

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 19

What are transforms??

- Just another way of looking at problems

Why do we require transforms??

- Makes calculations easier

- Analysis in another domain

Frequently used transforms in signals and systems analysis

FOURIER

TRANSFORM

LAPLACE

TRANSFORM

From Fourier Series to Fourier Transform..

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 20

Fourier Series Periodic Signals

Fourier Transform Aperiodic Signals

Periodic Signals have countably infinitely many frequency

components

Aperiodic Signals have continuous range of frequency

spectrum

Forward Fourier Transform

Inverse Fourier Transform

Note :

Fourier Transform pair example

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 21

Fourier transform is actually the coefficient density of

Fourier series !! (similar to pdf in continuous probability

distributions)

Rectangular (single) pulse in

time domain sinc function in frequency

domain spread over all frequencies

sin( ) e

e

Limitations of Fourier Transform

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 22

Not all functions (signals) are Fourier Transformable

Example: The real exponential function

Laplace Transform comes to the rescue

Make certain class of signals the general complex

exponential - , Fourier Transformableunder certain

constraints

Since most practical signals are included in this bigger

class of signals, Laplace Transform becomes a very

important tool in Control System analysis

st

e

The Laplace Transform

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 23

Formal Definition of

Laplace Transform

Universal Set of Signals

Laplace Transformable

Fourier

Transformable

Some Properties

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 24

Laplace Transform deals with those general complex

exponential signals which may not be Fourier

Transformable

complex frequency imaginary frequency

(oscillatory part)

Laplace Transforms are linear in nature

Convolution

s j o e = +

Real frequency

(non-oscillatory part)

( )

n

n

n

d f

s F s

dt

0

1

( ) ( )

t

f t dt F s

s

}

Assuming zero

initial conditions

Useful Techniques

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 25

Solution of Differential and Integro-Differential Equations

Converted to simple polynomial equations in frequency

domain

System stability analysis finding out poles and zeroes

in the system transfer function

Transfer function manipulation made easy

Both signals and systems can be represented in Laplace

domain

Convolution made easy

Basic Laplace Transform Pairs

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 26

Basic Laplace Transform Pairs

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa

27

Application in Control System Problems

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 28

2

2

( )

0

d y x dy

M f Ky

dt dt

+ + =

2

[ ( ) ( )] ( ) ( ) 0 Ms Y s X s fsY s KY s + + =

2

2

( )

.

( ) ( )

Y s Ms

T F

X s Ms fs K

= =

+ +

Applications contd..

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 29

Why this lecture ?

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 30

To understand how knowledge of certain basic signals,

helps us to decode the system behavior even when the

actual input signal is somewhat non-intuitive

The role Transforms play in understanding this

Which Transform when and why ??

Next time when you see a differentiator in the circuit,

just remember to multiply by s in Laplace domain

Finally, to realize that you are learning these wonderful

concepts to get a physical insight in the Control System

problem

View it differently..

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 31

CONTROL

SYSTEM

PROBLEM

2

2

t

c O

c

dy

dt

( , ) i x y dxdy

}}

I want time

I control time

Mere paas

LAPLACE

hain

References-

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 32

I. J. Nagrath, M.Gopal, Control Systems Engineering , 5

th

Edition, 2007

B.P. Lathi, Signal Processing and Linear Systems , Oxford

University Press, 5

th

Edition, 2008

Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 33

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