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# Introduction to Signals and Systems

## Control Systems (AAOC C321) Extra Lecture:1

-Venkateswaran A.
(2008A3PS248G)
17-08-2011
CONTROL SYSTEM ??
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 2
SSIGNALS
SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR
(PROCESSING)
Signals & Systems
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 3
Signal :
-A set of information or data, having some pattern
-For example, amplitude of sound, rpm of motor,
temperature, intensity of light
-Function of one or more independent quantities- time,
space, etc
System:
-An entity that processes a set of signals (inputs) to yield
another set of signals (outputs)
- Hardware realization
- Software realization
Classification of Signals
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 4
Continuous time & Discrete time
Analog & Digital
Periodic & Aperiodic
Energy & Power
Deterministic & Probabilistic
Any random classification :P
Types of Signals
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 5
Unit Impulse
(t) ; t = 0
= 0 ; elsewhere
Anything happening for a very small interval of time-
Charpy test (MT-2 mechanical remember??)
Explosion lasting for a very short time
( ) 1 t dt o
+

=
}
o
Types of Signals
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 6
Unit Step
u(t) = 1 ; t 0
= 0 ; t < 0
Switching on a constant voltage source at some point of time
Opening a valve which results a uniform flow of liquid in the
pipe
[ ( )]
( )
d u t
t
dt
o =
Types of Signals
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 7
Unit Ramp
r(t) = t u(t)
Accumulator
0
( ) ( )
t
u t dt r t =
}
Types of Signals
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 8
Sinusoids
Types of Signals
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 9
Real Exponential
f(t) = ; k R
If k > 0 , growing (positive) exponential
k < 0 , falling (negative) exponential
k = 0, constant function
Decay of radioactive substance follows falling exponential
pattern
kt
e
Types of Signals
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 10
Complex exponentials -
j = (-1)
= angular frequency
j t
e
e
e
Complex exponentials..
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 11
Decaying complex exponential .
k < 0
j t
e
e kt
e
System Analysis
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 12
Time domain analysis
Frequency domain analysis
0
1
( ) ( )
t
out
Ri t i t dt V
C
+ =
}
Assuming zero initial conditions,
1
( ) ( ) ( )
out
RI s I s V s
Cs
+ =
Integration in time domain becomes division by s in frequency (Laplace)
domain
i(t)
Fourier Series Analysis
Beauty of Periodicity
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 13
Any periodic function can be approximated by a (infinite)
series of sinusoids (exponentials of the form )
The contributing sinusoids have frequencies which are
integral multiples of the fundamental frequency, which is
equal to the actual frequency of the periodic signal
The plot of the coefficients against their frequencies is
called frequency spectrum, which gives information about
the contribution of each component sinusoid.
j t
e
e
Fourier Series Analysis-
Beauty of periodicity
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 14
Where,
n = 1, 2, 3, .
Coefficients in
the spectrum
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 15
N = 5
N = 25
Approximating a square wave with Fourier series
time time
Frequency
Frequency
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 16
N = 50
Approximating a square wave with Fourier series
time
Frequency
LTI Systems
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-
Pilani, Goa
17
L stands for Linearity Homogeneity and Superposition
TI stands for Time Invariant - independent of the starting
time of the process (shift invariant)
Most systems dealt in the course are LTI systems
Even if the system is not linear, we model it in such a way
that very close the point of interest, the system is
assumed to be linear.
Fourier Components as Eigen vectors
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-
Pilani, Goa
18
For a LTI system, any sinusoidal signal input gives
exponential signal as output, with a scaling factor
So for LTI systems, the class of sinusoidal signals are eigen
vectors
The coefficients are the eigen values
Motivation behind Fourier analysis
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 19
What are transforms??
- Just another way of looking at problems
Why do we require transforms??
- Makes calculations easier
- Analysis in another domain
Frequently used transforms in signals and systems analysis
FOURIER
TRANSFORM
LAPLACE
TRANSFORM
From Fourier Series to Fourier Transform..
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 20
Fourier Series Periodic Signals
Fourier Transform Aperiodic Signals
Periodic Signals have countably infinitely many frequency
components
Aperiodic Signals have continuous range of frequency
spectrum
Forward Fourier Transform
Inverse Fourier Transform
Note :
Fourier Transform pair example
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 21
Fourier transform is actually the coefficient density of
Fourier series !! (similar to pdf in continuous probability
distributions)
Rectangular (single) pulse in
time domain sinc function in frequency
sin( ) e
e
Limitations of Fourier Transform
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 22
Not all functions (signals) are Fourier Transformable
Example: The real exponential function
Laplace Transform comes to the rescue
Make certain class of signals the general complex
exponential - , Fourier Transformableunder certain
constraints
Since most practical signals are included in this bigger
class of signals, Laplace Transform becomes a very
important tool in Control System analysis
st
e
The Laplace Transform
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 23
Formal Definition of
Laplace Transform
Universal Set of Signals
Laplace Transformable
Fourier
Transformable
Some Properties
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 24
Laplace Transform deals with those general complex
exponential signals which may not be Fourier
Transformable
complex frequency imaginary frequency
(oscillatory part)

## Assuming zero initial conditions, both Fourier and

Laplace Transforms are linear in nature
Convolution
s j o e = +
Real frequency
(non-oscillatory part)
( )
n
n
n
d f
s F s
dt

0
1
( ) ( )
t
f t dt F s
s

}
Assuming zero
initial conditions
Useful Techniques
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 25
Solution of Differential and Integro-Differential Equations
Converted to simple polynomial equations in frequency
domain
System stability analysis finding out poles and zeroes
in the system transfer function
Both signals and systems can be represented in Laplace
domain
Basic Laplace Transform Pairs
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Basic Laplace Transform Pairs
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa
27
Application in Control System Problems
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 28
2
2
( )
0
d y x dy
M f Ky
dt dt

+ + =
2
[ ( ) ( )] ( ) ( ) 0 Ms Y s X s fsY s KY s + + =
2
2
( )
.
( ) ( )
Y s Ms
T F
X s Ms fs K
= =
+ +
Applications contd..
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 29
Why this lecture ?
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 30
To understand how knowledge of certain basic signals,
helps us to decode the system behavior even when the
actual input signal is somewhat non-intuitive
The role Transforms play in understanding this
Which Transform when and why ??
Next time when you see a differentiator in the circuit,
just remember to multiply by s in Laplace domain
Finally, to realize that you are learning these wonderful
concepts to get a physical insight in the Control System
problem
View it differently..
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 31
CONTROL
SYSTEM
PROBLEM
2
2
t
c O
c
dy
dt
( , ) i x y dxdy
}}
I want time

I control time

Mere paas
LAPLACE
hain
References-
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 32
I. J. Nagrath, M.Gopal, Control Systems Engineering , 5
th
Edition, 2007
B.P. Lathi, Signal Processing and Linear Systems , Oxford
University Press, 5
th
Edition, 2008
Venkateswaran A. (2008A3PS248G) | BITS-Pilani, Goa 33
Thank You