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# JPN Pahang Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

CHAPTER 9: ELECTRONICS
9. 1: USES OF THE CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (C.R.O) 9.1.1: Thermionic Emission 1. What is Thermionic Emission? Thermionic Emission is the release of electrons from a heated metal cathode. 2. (a) Label the figure of a vacuum tube:

Figure 9.1

towards the anode by the high electrons emitted are accelerated .. (b) The figure shows potential difference between the cathode and anode. cathode ray (c) A beam of electrons moving at high speed in a vacuum is known as a .. 3. Factors that influence the rate of thermionic emission Effect on the rate of thermionic emission Factor When the temperature the cathode increases, the Temperature of the cathode When the temperature of theof cathode increases, the rate rate of thermionic emission increases. of thermionic emission increases. A larger surface area the cathode increases the Surface area of the cathode A larger surface area of the of cathode increases the rate of rate of thermionic emission. thermionic emission. Theof rate of thermionic emission is unchanged, The rate thermionic emission is unchanged, whenwhen the Potential difference the potential difference increases, but the emitted between the anode and potential difference increases, but the emitted electrons electrons accelerate faster towards the anode. cathode. accelerate faster towards the anode. 9.1.2 Properties of Cathode Rays 1. List the four characteristics of the cathode rays. They are negatively charged particles. (i) .. They travel in straight lines. (ii) . They possess momentum and kinetic energy. (iii) They are deflected by magnetic and electric field. (iv)

Figure 9.2

## By using the principle of conservation of energy, 1 2 mv = eV , 2 2eV Maximum velocity of electron, v = m

v = velocity of electron V = Potential difference between Anode and Cathode e = Charge on 1 electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C m = mass of 1 electron = 9 x 10 -31 kg

1. In a cathode ray tube, an electron with kinetic energy of 1.32 10-14 J is accelerated. Calculate the potential difference, V between the cathode and the accelerating anode. [ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C] Solution: 1 Kinetic energy = mv 2 = eV 2 -14 1.32 10 = 1.6 10 19 V V = 8.25 10 4 V 2. In a vacuum tube, a cathode ray is produced and accelerated through a potential difference of 2.5kV. Calculate (a) The initial electric potential energy of the cathode ray. (b) The maximum velocity of the electron.
[ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C; m= 9 x 10 -31 kg] Solution: (a) Electric potential energy = eV = 1.6 10 19 2.5 10 3 = 4 10 16 J

1 (b) mv 2 = eV = 4 10 16 2

4 10 16 v = 2 9 10 31
2

## v = 8.89 1014 = 2.98 10 7 ms -1

3. If the potential difference between the cathode and the anode in a CRO is 3.5 kV, calculate the maximum speed of the electron which hit the screen of CRO.
[ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C; m= 9 x 10 -31 kg] Solution:

## Focusing Anode Cathode X-plat

Acceleration Anode

Fluorescent screen

Filament

Y-plat

Figure 9.3

2. Fill in the blank all components and its functions. Main part Component Filament Function When a current passes through the filament, the filament becomes hot and heats up the cathode. Emits electrons when it is hot.

Cathode

Electron gun

Control the number of electrons hitting the fluorescent screen. Control the brightness of the spot on the screen. Focusing Anode To focus the electrons onto the screen. Control Grid Accelerating Anode To accelerate the electrons to high speed. To deflect the electron beam vertically. To deflect the electron beam horizontally. To convert the kinetic energy of the electrons to heat and light energy when the electrons hit the screen.

Deflecting system

Y-Plates X-Plates

Fluorescent screen

## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

9.1.4 : The working Principle of the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope. 1. Fill in the blank the structure of CRO.

Brightness Focus
Y-shift Y-Gains

X-shift
Time-base

Figure 9.4

## Y-input 9.1.5 Uses of the CRO.

Earth

X-input

1. The uses of cathode-ray oscilloscope are: measure a D.C or A.C voltage (a) To .. measure a short time intervals (b) To . display the waveform (c) To . To measure a D.C voltage: The unknown voltage, V = (Y-gain) h To measure a A.C voltage: Peak-to-peak voltage, Vpp = (Y-gains) h 1 Peak voltage, Vp = (Y-gains) (h) 2 Effective voltage or root-mean-square voltage, Vr.m.s = Vp 2 Short time intervals, t = no. of divisions between two pulses time-base value. 1

2. If the CRO in figure uses Y-gains of 1.5 Vcm-1, calculate the value of Vpp. Solution: V = 1 .5 2 .0 = 3 .0 V

Figure 9.5 4

## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

3. The figure shows a trace on a CRO set at 5 Volt per division on the vertical axis. (a) What is the maximum voltage (peak voltage) indicated? Solution: 1 Peak voltage, Vp = (Y-gains) (h) 2 1 VP = 5 V/div 4 divs 2 Figure 9.6 VP = 10 V 4. Figure shows a trace on an oscilloscope for an a.c source. If the Y-gain is set to 1.5 Vcm-1 and the time-base is 2 ms cm-1. (a) Calculate the peak voltage,Vp of the a.c source. Solution: 1 VP = 1.5 Vcm -1 4 cm 2 VP = 3.0 V (b) Calculate the frequency, f of the a.c source. Solution: T = 4cm 2 ms cm-1 1 T = 8 ms f = = 125 Hz T (c) Sketch the trace displayed on the screen if the settings are changed to 1 Vcm-1 and 1 ms cm-1.

Figure 9.7

5. The diagram shows the trace on the screen of a CRO when an a.c voltage is connected to the Y-input. The Y-gain control is set at 2 V/div and the time base is off. Calculate the value of : (a) Peak-to-peak voltage, Vpp (b)Peak voltage, Vp. (c)Root-mean-square voltage, Vr.m.s

Figure 9.8 5

## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

Solution: (a) Peak-to-peak voltage, Vpp = (Y-gains) h = 2V/div 6 divs = 12 V (b) Peak voltage, Vp = 6 V 1 1 (c) Vr.m.s = 6 = 4.24 V Vp = 2 2 6. When two claps are made close to a microphone which is connected to the Y-input and earth terminals, both pulses will be displayed on the screen at a short interval apart as shown in figure below. Measure the time lapse between the two claps. Solution: Length between two pulses = 5 divs Time taken, t = 5 divs 10 ms/div = 50 ms Time interval = 0.05 s 7. Figure shows the trace displayed on the screen of a CRO with the time-base is set to 10 ms/div. What is the frequency, f of the wave? Solution: Distance for a complete wave = 2 divs Time taken = 2 divs 10ms/div = 20 ms 1 1 frequency, f = = = 50 Hz T 20 ms 5 divs Figure 9.9

Figure 9.10

8. An ultrasound signal is transmitted vertically down to the sea bed. Transmitted and reflected signals are input into an oscilloscope with a time base setting of 150 ms cm-1. The diagram shows the trace of the two signals on the screen of the oscilloscope. The speed of sound in water is 1200 ms-1. What is the depth of the sea? Solution: Time taken for ultrasonic waves to travel through a distance of 2 d = time between P and Q = 5 cm 150 ms sm -1 = 750 ms = 0.75 s 2d Speed of ultrasonic waves, V = t 1200 0.75 Hance, d = = 450 m 2 6

Figure 9.11

## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

9.2 SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES 9.2.1 Properties of Semiconductors 1. Semiconductor is a group of materials that can conduct better than insulators but not as .. good as metal conductors. . 2. Give the examples of pure semiconductor: Silicon (a) Germanium (b) ... Selenium (c) 9. What is the doping process? Doping is a process of adding a certain amount of other substances called dopants such as Antimony and Boron to a semiconductor, to increase its conductivity. 10. Base on the figure, complete the statement below. (a) n-type semiconductors

Figure 9.12 pentavalent Silicon like Silicon doped with atoms such as antimony or increases the number of free electron. The phosphorus atoms have phosphorus . four being used in the formation of covalent bonds. five valence electrons, with .. The fifth electron is free to move through the silicon. The silicon has negative electrons ... as majority charge-carriers and it thus known as an n-type semiconductor.

## (b) p-type semiconductors

Figure 9.13

trivalent Boron Semiconductor like Silicon doped with .. atoms such as three or indium has more positive holes. The Boron atoms have only . one of the covalent bonds has a missing electron. valence electrons; hence . This missing electron is called a positive hole. The majority charge-carriers in positive holes and this semiconductor is thus known this semiconductor are the . as a p-type semiconductor.

9.2.2 The p-n junction (Semiconductor diode) 1. What is the function of semiconductor diode? The function of semiconductor diode is to allow current to flow through it in one direction only. 2. Label the p-n junction below and draw a symbol of the diode. p-type n-type

## Positive hole p-n junction

Negative electron

Symbol

Figure 9.13

## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

3. (a) Forward-biased positive terminal and the n(i) In forward-bias, the p-type of the diode is connected to . negative terminal of the battery. type is connected to the (ii) Complete the diagram below to show the diode is in forward-bias.

The bulb is light up The bulb does not light up Figure 9.14

(iii)

Draw arrows

## to show the current, electrons and holes flow in the diagram.

(b) Reverse-biased (i) In reverse-bias, the p-type of the diode is connected to . negative terminal , and the npositive terminal of the battery. type is connected to the (ii) Complete the diagram below to show the diode is in reverse-bias.

+
The bulb is light up The bulb does not light up Figure 9.15

4.

Draw arrows

## to show the current, electrons and holes flow in the diagram.

5. What the meaning of rectification? Rectification is a process to convert an alternating current into a direct current by using a diode.

## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

6. The figure shows a half-wave rectifier circuit that is connected to CRO. (i) Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when the timebase is on.

Figure 9.16 (ii) Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when a capacitor is connected in parallel across a resistor, R.

Figure 9.17 7. The figure shows a full-wave rectifier circuit that is connected to CRO. (i) Draw arrows to show the current flow in the first half cycle and to show the current flow in second half cycle in the diagram. (ii) Sketch the waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when the time-base is on.

To CRO

Figure 9.18

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

(iii)

Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when a capacitor is connected in parallel across a resistor, R.

To CRO

Figure 9.19 8. What is the function of the capacitor? Acts as a current regulator or smoother. .... 9.3 TRANSISTOR 9. 3.1 Terminals of a Transistor. 1. What is a transistor? A transistor is a silicon chip which has three terminals labeled as base, collector and emitter. 2. Draw and label the symbol of n-p-n transistor and p-n-p transistor. Collector, C Collector, C Base, B

Base, B

Emitter, E n-p-n transistor 3. State the function for each terminal in a transistor.

## Emitter, E p-n-p transistor

(a) The emitter, E : Acts as a source of charge carriers, providing electrons to the collector. . (b) The base, B : Controls the movement of charge carriers (electrons) from the emitter (E) to the collector (C). (c) The collector, C: Receives the charge carriers from the emitter (E) ...

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## 9.3.2 Transistor circuit 1. (a) Transistor circuit with 2 batteries.

BE CE Ib Ic

Base circuit : . Collector circuit : . Base current : . Collector current : . Limit the base current : ... Limit the collector current : ... Supply energy to the base circuit : ... Supply energy to circuit. : ... Potential divider : ... Potential divider : ...

Ie
Figure 9.20 (b) Transistor circuit with 1 battery.

R1 R2 E1 E2 Rx Ry

## Remember: Ie = Ib + Ic Ie > Ic > Ib Ic >>>>Ib No Ib, No Ic

Ie
Figure 9.21

2. The working circuit of a transistor used as a potential divider can be connected as shown in figure. The voltage across Rx and Ry can be calculated as follows. Rx Vx = R +R y x V Ry VY = R +R y x V

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

(a) Figure shows a transistor circuit. The bulb can be lighted up when potential difference, V across resistor P is 2V and resistance P is 10 k. Calculate the maximum resistance, S so that the bulb is lighted up. Solution: Rp V V = p Bulb R +R p s 10 10 3 2V = 3 R + 10 10 6 V s 3 RS + 10 10 = 30000 RS = 20000 = 20 k

Figure 9.22 9.2.3 Transistor as an Automatic Switch. 1. Complete the statement below.

## RX Battery voltage Base voltage RY Figure 9.23 IB

IC

IE

The switching action is produced by using a potential divider. In a working circuit variable resistor shown in figure, a resistor, RX and a . are being used to form a zero and potential divider. If the variable resistor is set to zero, the base voltage is . off the transistor switches . However, if the resistance of the variable resistor is increases When the base voltage reached a certain increased, the base voltage will. minimum value, the base current, IB switches on the transistor. A large collector current, IC flows to light up the bulb. 2. What type of transistor is used in an automatic switch circuit? Transistor n-p-n

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## R IC 1k IE LDR Figure 9.24 6V

Figure shows a transistor-based circuit that functions as a light controlled switch. light-dependent resistor (LDR) has a very high resistance in the . dark and a low The .. bright light resistor The LDR and R form a potential resistor in ... R is a fixed . divider in the circuit. low resistance compared to R. Therefore, the base In bright light, the LDR has a very . low to switch on the transistor. voltage of the transistor is too .. large and the voltage across the LDR is In darkness, the resistance of the LDR is very high enough to switch on the transistor and thus lights up the bulb. This circuit can be on the bulb at night. used to automatically switch

(ii) Complete the table below. Condition Daylight Darkness RLDR low high VLDR low high R high VR high Transistor (ON or OFF) OFF ON

## low low Remember Ic >>>>Ib

(iii) How can the circuit in figure be modified to switch on the light at daytime? The circuit can be modified by interchanging the positions of the LDR and resistor R. ..

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## (b) A Heat-Controlled Switch (i) Complete the statement below.

Thermistor

Diode RB

Relay

R Figure 9.25

Alarm

Figure shows a transistor-based circuit that function as a heat controlled switch. thermistor high when it is A ..is a special type of resistor. Its resistance becomes very drops rapidly. At room cold. When the thermistor is heated, its resistance high resistance compared to R. Therefore, the base temperature, the thermistor has a . voltage of the transistor is too low to switch on the transistor. resistance drops considerablely compared to R. When the thermistor is heated, its . on the transistor. When the voltage VB is high enough to switch . Therefore, the base ., on transistor is switch on, the relay switch is activated and the relay is switched . The circuit can also be used in a fire alarm system.

(ii) What is the function of a diode is used in the heat-controlled circuit? To protect the transistor from being damaged by the large induced e.m.f in the relay .. coil when the collector current, IC drops to zero. .. (iii) Complete the table below. Temperature RThermistor VThermistor High Low low high low high R high VR high low Transistor (ON or OFF) ON OFF

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## 9.2.4 Transistor as a Current Amplfier 1. Complete the statement below. R2 R1

A mA

IC

IB IE Figure 9.26

A transistor functions as a current amplifier by allowing a small current to control a collector current IC is primarily determined by the larger current. The magnitude of the ., base current big small change in the base current, IB will cause a .. .., IB. A .. change in the collector current, IC. The current amplification can be calculated as follows: Current Amplification = I C I B

2. Name the type of the transistor used. n-p-n transistor 3. What will happened to the readings of the miliammeter, mA and microammeter, A when the resistance of R is reduced? The readings on miliammeter and microammeter increase. 4. A transistor is said to have two states, the ON state and OFF state. (a) Explain the meaning of the ON state of a transistor. When a transistor is in the ON state, currents flow in the base and in the collector circuit. Explain the meaning of the OFF state of a transistor. When a transistor is in the OFF state, there is no current in the base and in the collector circuit. (c) What is the function of the rheostat, R? To change the base current. What is the function of the resistor, S? To control and limit the base current.

(b)

(d)

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

9.4 Logic Gates 9.4.1 Analysing Logic gates 1. What is a logic gate? A switching circuit that is applied in computer and other electronic devices. 2. Complete the table below. Gates Symbol Truth table Input A A AND gate B Y 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 0 0 1

Boolean equation => Y = A * B Input A A OR gate Y B 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Boolean equation => Y = A+B Input A NOT gate A Y 0 1 Output Y 1 0 Output Y 0 1 1 1

Y=A

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## Input A NAND gate B A Y 0 0 1 1 Input A NOR gate A Y B 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 B 0 1 0 1

Output Y 1 1 1 0 Output Y 1 0 0 0

9.4.2 Combinations of logic Gates 1. Find the output Y for each combination of logic gates. A 0011 P 1100 Y B 0101 The truth table: Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 0 0 Output Y 0 1 0 0 Figure 9.27 0100

18

1010

Figure 9.28

3.

0011 A B 0101

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

4. A 0011 P 1110 0111 B 0101 The truth table: Input A 0 0 1 1 5. P Q The truth table: Input A 1 0 1 0 B 0 1 1 0 P 1 0 0 1 Q Figure 9.31 Output Q 1 0 0 1 S 1 0 0 1 R S B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 1 0 Q Figure 9.30 Output Q 0 1 1 1 Y 0 1 1 0 Y 0110

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

6. Figure shows a logic gate system which switches on an air-conditioner automatically. Input J L Air-conditioner Heat detector Keys: The light detector (Input J): In the day, At night, The heat detector (Input K): Hot, Cool logic 1. logic 0. logic 1. logic 0.

Light detector

Input K

Figure 9.32

## (a) Complete the truth table below: Input J 0 0 1 1 K 0 1 0 1 Output L 0 0 0 1 A 0 1 0 1

(b) Based on the truth table in (a), state the conditions in which the air-conditioner conditions in which the air-conditioner will operate and function normally. - On a hot day or daytime On a hot night

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

Reinforcement Chapter 9 Part A: Objective questions 1. Which of the following is not a property of cathode rays? A. It is positively charged. B. It travels in a straight line. C. It can be deflected by magnetic field. D. It can be deflected by electric field. 2. Cathode rays consists of A. Fluorescent particles B. Light rays from a screen C. Beams of fast moving particles D. Light rays from hot filament A. B. C. D. E. 2.5 V 5.5 V 7.5 V 12.5 V 15.0 V

5. In p-type semiconductor A. The number of holes are equal to the number of electrons. B. The number of the holes are more than the number of electrons. C. The number of the holes are less than the number of electrons. 6. Which of the following is not true about diode? A. It can be used to rectify alternating current. B. It can only conduct electricity when it is connected in forward in forward bias in a circuit. C. It is formed by joining an n-type and a p-type semiconductor. D. The majority charge carriers in the diode are electrons. 7. The figure 9. 35 shows the arrangement of silicon atoms after an atom P is doped to form an extrinsic semiconductor. Figure 9.35

3. A beam of electrons is being deflected due to a potential difference between plates P and Q. P Figure 9.33 Q Which of the following statements is not true? A. The potential at plate P is positive. B. The deflection would be greater if the potential difference is greater. C. The deflection would be greater if the electrons are moving faster. D. The electron beam will return to straight line if a suitable magnetic field is applied between the plates. 4. The figure 9.34 shows the trace displayed on a CRO with the Y-gain control is turned to 3.75 V/div. What is the maximum value of the potential difference being measured?

Figure 9.34

Which of the following is not true? A. The conductivity of the semiconductor increases. B. The semiconductor becomes an ntype. C. The majority charge carrier is electron. D. Atom P is a trivalent atom.

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

8. The figure 9.36 shows a rectifier circuit. Which of the following statements is true? P Q Figure 9.36 A. A rectifier changes d.c to a.c. B. Device P allows current to flow in any directions. C. Device Q acts as a rectifier. D. The rectifier circuit would still work if device P is reversed. 9. The figure 9.37 shows a circuit consisting of two diodes and a bulb. When the switch is on, the bulb does not light up. What needs to be done to light up the bulb? Figure 9.37

components connected in a circuit. Which of the following bulbs will light up continuously when the switch is on? A. P and Q only B. P, Q and R only C. R and S only D. P, Q and S only 11. Which of the following circuits shows the connect directions of the base current IB, emitter current, IE and collector current, IC?

A. B. C. D.

Replace the diode with a new one. Reverse the connection of the diode. Increase the number of bulbs. Connect a resistor in series with the bulb.

10.

Figure 9.38 Figure 9.38 shows four identical bulbs, P, Q, R and S, and four electronic

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

12. Which of the following statements about a transistor is not true? A. A transistor can act as an amplifier B. A transistor can act as a relay switch. C. The function of a transistor is the same as that of two diodes. D. A transistor is a combination of two types of semiconductors. A. B. C. D. E. 3 k 4 k 5 k 6 k 7 k

Figure 9.41

Figure 9.39

13. What is the function of the transistor circuit shown in figure 9.39? A. As an amplifier B. As a rectifier C. As a switch device D. As a modulator 14. The figure 9.40 shows a transistor being used as a current amplifier. IB IC

16. The figure 9. 42 shows a transistor circuit being used to amplify sound. M-microphone C- Capacitor S- speaker

Figure 9.40 Which of the following is correct? A. IB > IC B. IB = IC C. IB < IC 15. Figure 9.41 shows a circuit consisting of a transistor which acts as an automatic switch. When the potential difference across the thermistor is 3 V and the resistance of the thermistor is 1000 , the resistance value of resistor, R is ..

Figure 9.42 Which of the following is not correct about the circuit? A. T is an npn transistor B. The capasitor prevents d.c current but allows a.c current to pass through it. C. Speaker amplifies the sound. D. R1 and R2 act as potential divider. 17. The figure 9.43 shows a logic gate circuit with input signals, X and Y.

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## 18. The figure 9.43 shows a logic gate circuit.

What is gate X? A. AND B. NOR C. OR D. NAND 20. The figure 9. 45 shows a combination of three logic gates in a logic circuit. When inputs P and Q are both 1 output Y is 1. J K

Figure 9.43 Which of the following is the output signal Z? A. 0110 B. 1010 C. 1110 D. 0101 19. The figure 9.44 shows the combination of three logic gates. Output 1110 Y

Figure 9.45 Which of the following logic gates can be used to represent J and K? J AND NAND OR NOR K NOR NOR AND AND

Figure 9.44 The truth table for the combination of tree logic gates is as follows.

A. B. C. D.

Part B: Structured Questions. 1. Figure 9.46 shows a trace obtained on an oscilloscope screen when an a.c voltage is connected to the Y-plates of an oscilloscope.

Scale: 1 division = 1 cm The Y-gain is set at 3 V/cm The time base is set at 5 ms/cm

Figure 9.46

(a) Explain what is meant by thermionic emission. Emission of electrons from the surface of a metal by heat. (b) Determine the peak voltage of a.c voltage. 2 x 3 = 6V (c) Determine the time for one complete oscillation on the screen. 2 x 5 = 10 ms

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

(d) What is the frequency of the a.c voltage? f =1/T = 1 / 10 x 10-3 =50 Hz (e) With the same a.c voltage applied to the oscilloscope, the time-base setting is altered to 2.5 ms/cm and the Y-gain setting is altered to 2 V/cm. On the space below, sketch the new trace would appear on the oscilloscope.

2. Figure 9. 47 shows a full wave bridge rectifier. The a.c supply has a frequency of 50 Hz.

Figure 9.47

(a) When the polarity of the a.c supply voltage is positive at A, state the two diodes which are forward biased. D1 and D3 .. (b) When the polarity of the a.c supply voltage is negative at A, state the two diodes which are forward biased. D2 and D4 (c) Using the axes in figure 9.48, sketch the voltage-time graph across the resistor, R. Voltage/V Time/ms

Figure 9.48

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

(d) On the figure 9.49, sketch the voltage-time graph across the resistor if a capacitor is connected across the resistor if a capacitor is connected across the resistor R parallel with the resistor. Voltage/V Figure 9.49 Time/ms

(e) Explain how the capacitor causes the voltage across the resistor to vary with time in the way that you have drawn. The charging of the capacitor by the power supply and the discharging of the capacitor through the resistor will smooth the output.

3. A student wants to build a simple lift motor control system which operates using two buttons, A and B for a two-storey building. A: Up button B: Down button The lift motor only activates when someone presses any one of the buttons. Figure 9.50 shows the circuit that can be used to activate the motor. 12 V Logic gate A B X 240 V

## Relay switch 0V Keys: Buttons A and B : X Output :

Motor

Figure 9.50 When pressed, Not pressed, Motor is activated, logic 1 logic 0 logic 1

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

(a) The truth table below shows the operations of the logic gates in a lift motor control system. Input Output A 0 0 1 B 0 1 0 X 0 1 1

(i) (ii)

Using the keys given, complete the truth table. Name the logic gate in the circuit in the figure 9.50. OR In the space below, draw the logic gate symbol in 3(a)(ii).

(iii)

(b) Why is a relay switch needed in the circuit? Activates large current in the main secondary circuit supply// small current at the output cannot activate the motor. (c) The door of the lift is fitted with a light transmitter and a detector which is a light dependent resistor, LDR. If the light dependent resistor detects light, the relay switch is activated and the lift door will close. Figure 9.51 shows an electronic circuit for the control system of the lift door. Figure 9.51 240 V

Motor

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

(i)

State the relationship between the resistance and the intensity of light received by the light dependent resistor, LDR. The higher the light intensity, the lower the resistance of the resistor.

(ii)

Complete the circuit in figure 9.51 by drawing the resistor and the light dependent resistor using the symbols given below.

Resistor

## Light dependent resistor

(iii)

Explain how the circuit functions. High light intensity produces lower resistance and high base voltage - A bigger base current flows and activates the transistor - A big collector current flows through the relay switch and activates the circuit of the door motor.

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

Part C: Essay Questions 1. (a) The diode, bulb and battery in circuit X and circuit Y of figures 9.52 and 9.53 are identical.

## Figure 9.52 (i) (ii)

Figure 9.53

What is meant by a direct current and an alternating current? [2 marks] Using Figures 9.52 and figure 9.53, compare the connection of the diodes and the conditions of the bulbs. Relating the connection of the diodes and the conditions of the bulbs, deduce the function of a diode. [5 marks] (iii) State the use of a diode. [1 mark] (b) A semiconductor diode is made by joining a p-type semiconductor with a n-type semiconductor. Describe and explain the production and the characteristics of a p-type semiconductor and a n-type semiconductor. [4 marks] 2. Figure 9.55 shows four circuits W, X, Y and Z, each has an ideal transformer and the circuit are used for the purpose of rectification.

Circuit W

Circuit Y

Circuit X

Circuit Z

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## (i) (ii) (iii)

What is meant by rectification? [1mark] Explain the working principle of a transformer. [3 marks] You are asked to make a 12 V battery charger. Study the circuits W, X, Y and Z in figures 9.55 and consider the following aspects: Type of transformer The number of turns in the primary coil and in the secondary coil. Type of rectification Characteristics of output current Explain the suitability of the above aspects and hence, determine the most suitable circuit to make the battery charge. [6 marks]

3. A student carries out an experiment to determine the relationship between the collector current IC to the base current IB of a transistor. R1 = 1k A2 IC R2 = 56k R3 = 2k Figure 9.56 Transistor T is connected to fixed resistor R1 =1k and R2 = 56 k and a rheostat R3 as shown in figure 9.56. The battery supplies a voltage of 6 V to the transistor circuit. Rheostat R3 is adjusted until the current IB detected by microammeter A1 is 10 A. The collector current, IC recorded by miliammeter A2 is shown in figure 9.57(a). 2 1 0 mA 3 4 5 A1 IB 6V T

(a) IB = 10A

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

Rheostat R3 is then adjusted to lower value so that microammeter A1 gives IB = 20 A, 30 A, 40 A, 50 A and 60 A. The corresponding readings of IC on miliammeter, A2 are shown in figure 9.57(b), 9.57(c), 9.57(d), 9.57(e) and 9.57(f). 2 1 0 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

mA

mA

(b) IB = 20A

(b) IB = 30A 3 4 5 0 1

2 1 0

3 4 5

mA

mA

(c) IB = 40A 2 1 0 3 4

(d) IB = 50A

mA

(e) IB = 60A

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

(a)

For the experiment described identify The base current, IB (i) the manipulated variable : .. The collector current, IC (ii) the responding variable : .. (iii) the fixed variable The supply voltage : ..

(b)

From the figure in 9.57, record the collector current, IC when IB = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60A. Tabulate your results for IB and IC in the space given below. IB/A 10 20 30 40 50 60 IC/mA 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.1 3.9 4.8

(c) (d)

On a graph paper, draw a graph of IC against IB. Based on your graph, determine the relationship between IC and IB. Ic is directly proportional to IB

4.

Figure 9.58 shows a microphone connected to a power amplifier. When the microphone has detected a sound, an amplified sound is given out through the loudspeaker. The sound becomes louder if the volume of the amplifier is turned on to increase the power. Power amplifier loudspeaker

Volume control

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

Using the information based on the observation of the brightness of the bulbs, (a) Make one suitable inference. (b) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. (c) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b). Choose suitable apparatus such as a diode, rheostat and others. In your description, state clearly the following: (i) Aim of the experiment, (ii) Variables in the experiment, (iii) List of apparatus and materials, (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus, (v) The procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable, (vi) The way you would tabulate the data, (vii) That way you would analyse the data.

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

Scheme Part : No. 4 (a) Inference : The strength of the output signal of the amplifier depends on the input current of the amplifier. (b) Hypothesis: The larger the input current in an amplifier circuit, the larger the output current. (c) (i) Aim: To determine the relationship between base current and collector current of a transistor amplifier circuit. (ii) Manipulated variable: Base current, IB Responding variable : Collector current, IC Fixed variable : Supply voltage (iii) Apparatus and materials: npn transistor, 2 batteries, microammeter, miliammeter, rheostat, connecting wires. (iv) Functional arrangement of apparatus.
mA

Battery

R Battery

(v)- The rheostat is adjusted until the readings of microammeter for base current, IB = 25 A. - The readings of the miliammeter for collector current, IC is recorded. - The steps are repeated for the values of microammeter, IB = 50, 75,100,125A. (vi) Tabulation of data: IB/A 25.0 50.0 75.0 100.0 125.0 IC/mA

IC/mA

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## Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

Scheme Part C : No. 1 (a) (i) In a direct current, the current flows in one direction only. - In a alternating current, the current changes reverses it direction periodically. (ii) - Circuit X : the diode is forward biased, the bulb is lighted. - Circuit Y : the diode is reversed biased, the bulb is not lighted. - Function of a diode: Diode only allows current to flow in one direction only. (b) A p-type semiconductor is produced by adding trivalent impurity material such as boron or gallium to silicon. - In a p-type semiconductor, majority of the charge carriers are the positive holes. - A n-type semiconductor is produced by adding pentavalent impurity material such as phosphorus or arsenic to silicon. - In a n-type semiconductor, majority of the charge carriers are the free electrons.

Scheme Part C : No. 2 (i) Rectification is a process of converting alternating current to direct current. (ii) -When an alternating current flows in the primary coil, a changing magnetic field is produced. - The changing magnetic field is linked to the secondary coil through the laminated iron core. - As a result, a secondary coil is in a changing magnetic field, this procedures an induced e.m.f at the two ends of secondary coil. (iii) -It must be a step-down transformer to step down the voltage from 240 V to 12 V. -The ratio: The number of turns in the secondary coil 12 1 = = The number of turns in the primary coil 240 20 A full-wave rectification is better than a half-wave rectification, because a halfwave rectification loses half the input power as heat. A smoothing capacitor is required to change the pulsating d.c to a constant d.c. The most suitable circuit to be used is circuit Z.

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