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Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 118

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Analysis of a bayonet tube heat exchanger


T. O'Doherty*, A.J. Jolly, C.J. Bates
Cardi University, Cardi School of Engineering, P.O. Box 685, Queen's Bldgs, The Parade, Cardi CF2 3TA, Wales, UK Received 19 February 1999; accepted 5 July 1999

Abstract This paper details the design, construction and testing of a bayonet tube heat exchanger for use in the process industry and potentially as part of an externally red combined cycle. Detailed analysis of the system has been undertaken, in particular on the tube side. The data is reported in terms of temperature, pressure, heat gain and heat exchanger eectiveness, over a range of Reynolds numbers and shell side mixture ratios. Much of the heat gained by the tubes is in the annular ow of the bayonet tube. Overall the eectiveness of this system could exceed 70%. 7 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Heat exchanger; Bayonet tube type; Combined cycles; Experimental data

1. Introduction The use of coal as the major energy source for electricity generation is being threatened by the dramatic increase in the number of gas red power stations that are being commissioned. Gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal (which is an important consideration in the environmentally aware society of today) and gas turbine cycles are 1015% more ecient than coal-red steam plants [1]. Therefore presently, in both environmental and economical terms, gas is an attractive fuel. However, coal represents 70% of the world's energy reserves [13] and coal quantities are about an order of magnitude larger than natural gas reserves. Therefore, in the long-term, coal should be the dominant fossil fuel for electricity generation. The current
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +44-1222-874-797; fax: +44-1222-874-317. E-mail address: odoherty@cardi.ac.uk (T. O'Doherty). 1359-4311/01/$ - see front matter 7 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 1 3 5 9 - 4 3 1 1 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 6 3 - 0

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direction of research regarding coal-red cycles is to match the gas-red cycles in terms of eciency and pollution levels (Clean Coal Technology). As a result of the perceived ineciency, and high pollution, associated with the large scale combustion of coal for power, a number of working parties have been set up to investigate modern systems. It should be noted that research into coal combustion makes good commercial sense since,although it is not currently in favour as a fuel, it will be viable in the future as other sources become increasingly depleted and the higher extraction cost of coal is justied [1]. The requirements of clean coal power generation systems may be summarised as follows [12]: . . . . . . . . . . Competitive capital cost. High overall plant eciency. Low emissions (in line with environmental legislation). Competitive cost of generation. Ability to deal with variable composition feedstock. Reasonable simplicity of design. High availability. Enhanced operational exibility. Suitability for retrotting to existing schemes. Potential for expansion and improvement.

In recent years eort has been focused in a number of key areas in an attempt to meet some or all of these requirements, which are described below. 1.1. Fluidised bed technology Fluidised Bed Combustors (FBCs) fall into two main categories; atmospheric and pressurised, and within these divisions bubbling and circulating systems are available. Atmospheric Fluidised Bed Combustors (AFBCs) are currently commercially available up to 250 MWe in both circulating and bubbling form [10]. In recent years, large systems operating at atmospheric pressure have been predominately circulating, bubbling types being used more in the small industrial market or for retrotting to existing plants. Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion (PFBC) is a very modern science with both bubbling and circulating systems currently only at the advanced demonstration stage. 1.2. Gasication cycles The basic principles of coal gasication to provide a more easily distributed and burnt fuel have been fully understood for many years. Indeed before the increase in the commercial availability of Natural Gas, Coal or `Town' Gas was commonplace in many cities. Over recent years interest in coal gasication has increased, with the aim of producing an advanced system with a high yield of gas created in a manner that is not detrimental to the environment. Gasication oers considerable potential for clean and ecient combustion of coal. Fuelgas is generated when the ground particulate coal is brought into contact with oxygen and steam in a gasication chamber. Reactions between the steam and the carbon give rise to a product

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gas which is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. These reactions take place quickly at high temperatures and absorb heat during the process. The heat supply is, therefore, maintained by introducing sucient oxygen to burn a small proportion of the coal charge. To be eective, the gasication process must ensure that as much as possible of the energy contained in the coal is retained in the product gas [10]. Three principle types of gasier have been proposed for large scale power generation, these may be summarised as: . The moving bed gasier which produces gas with an exit temperature of 5008C. . The uidised bed gasier improves on the above by increasing residence time, therefore producing high conversion eciency and (if limestone is added) lower emissions, exit temperatures are typically greater than 9008C. . The entrained ow gasier which produces gas at an exit temperature of between 1000 and 15008C. Coal conversion is high, however at these temperatures ash will melt to form slag. A number of modern Clean Coal Power Generation Cycles have been designed to take advantage of the benets of coal gasication. In general, the Combined Cycle principle is used i.e., coal is rst gasied, and then cleaned of dust, sulphur and other impurities before ring into a gas turbine to generate power. The hot exhaust is then fed to a waste heat boiler where steam is raised and used to drive a steam turbine in order to produce further power. Hence, a combined cycle is one in which both gas turbines and steam turbines are used to drive generator sets. This type is known as the Integrated Gasication Combined Cycle (IGCC), and in general produces very low particulate and SO2 emissions. Combination of the above with an FBC leads to the Air Blown Gasication Cycle (ABGC or Topping Cycle). The main advantage of the ABGC is that it can exploit the potential of high inlet temperature gas turbines while minimising energy losses due to the gasication process. In addition, the emissions are low. The latest type of combined cycle under development is the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) which provides a major advance in that it addresses all the ineciencies associated with the gasication of coal and the subsequent burning of the solid and gaseous components [8]. The EFCC is an advanced coal-red power generation concept with a potential for higher thermal eciency and lower cost than conventional coal-based generating systems. The concept incorporates ecient gas turbine combined cycle technology for use with coal. Unlike `direct red' combined cycles, the EFCC does not require any special fuel preparation [3]. Conceptually at least, the EFCC can provide a coal-red cycle which can realistically compete with the current gas-red power stations in terms of cycle eciency. The EFCC has a relatively more simple cycle layout than some of the other cycles, the complexity of coal gasication and product gas ltration has been completely removed. Instead, the combustion products of coal (combustion techniques can take various forms) are red directly into an Ultra High Temperature Heat Exchangerr (UHTHE). This allows heat transfer between large volumes of gas at typically 14008C and compressed supply air. In eect, the UHTHE replaces the combustion chamber of a standard gas turbine. Having transferred some of its energy at high temperature to a gas turbine cycle the UHTHE exhaust is then fed to a virtually standard steam raising plant.

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The EFCC, although still in the development stage, promises much in terms of high overall eciency and compact, environmentally `friendly' design. Apart from the UHTHE, all the components are currently available. The requirement for continual optimisation of heat transfer processes in industry is being addressed via innovative techniques and through the emergence of new materials. The benets to be gained from continued research range from the economic: savings made by more ecient processes and better quality products; to the environmental: reduction of atmospheric pollution brought about by combustion of fossil fuels; to the technical: a greater understanding of heat transfer and uid ow mechanisms. This paper is aimed at analysing a potential candidate in the role of a UHTHE. Although the materials used are not suitable for the high temperature, the analysis can provide insight into the basic characteristics and eectiveness of a bayonet type heat exchanger. The data can be used and extrapolated, using the COHEX code [5,6], to verify the capability of such a heat exchanger, with a suitable choice of material (i.e. silicon carbide tubes), and boundary conditions (i.e. temperature, pressure and gas constitution). 2. Experimental equipment A schematic plan of the rig is shown in Fig. 1. Essentially, it consisted of a single-pass shell where the combustion gases entered at the xed end of the bayonet-tubes and exited at the free end of the tubes. The skin of the shell was lined with refractory material for thermal insulation. The shell inlet and outlet were required to be on the same side of the heat exchanger shell for reasons forced by the gas and air supply to the burner and ducting into the exhaust stack. Having the inlet and outlet on the same side required an odd number of baes inside the shell. The heat exchanger was tted with three `D' shaped bae plates which directed the ow back

Fig. 1. Schematic of bayonet-element heat exchanger showing dierent inlet/outlet ow congurations (directions A and D were used for this work).

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and forth on a horizontal plane to give four passes of the tube bundle before exiting the shell. For the work described here the shell side ow direction was that of `D'. The tube-side consisted of seven bayonet tubes, all of equal dimensions, arranged with six of the tubes equi-spaced around a single centre tube. The tube-side air ow was arranged so that the air owed along the inner tube rst and exited via the annulus, as indicated in the gure by direction `A'. The inner tubes were required to be longer than the outer tubes so as to span the tube-side exit plenum which can be seen in Fig. 1. The tube-side inlet and outlet ports were positioned on the same side of the heat exchanger as the corresponding burner ports. The burner air supply was delivered by a `Gebr. Becker' SV1000 blower and was regulated by a bank of four rotameters. The swirl burner was red on natural gas, taken from the mains supply, and was regulated by two rotameters. The tube-side air was supplied by an ASEA blower with a 30 kW rated motor. The ow was regulated at the blower by a sliding plate situated downstream of the fan. The mass owrate was measured via a Pitot-static tube positioned in the middle of the ow on a straight section of duct upstream of the inner tube plenum. Proles were made across the centre-line of the duct using the Pitot-static tube. The proles indicated the ow to be well developed. 2.1. The shell The shell was a 2 m long cylindrical section with a 900 mm external diameter, lined with 150 mm thick refractory cement for thermal insulation k 0X79 W/mK). The inlet and outlet ports on the side of the cylindrical shell sections were both 250 mm diameter. The shell was also tted with eight rectangular ports for optical access. Four of the ports were positioned on the side of the shell opposite the inlet and outlet ports, and four were positioned on the top of the shell. Finally, the shell was also tted with probe holes through the shell for thermocouple access (Fig. 2). 2.2. The tube-side of the heat exchanger The tube-side section of the heat exchanger rig consisted of essentially two sections. The inner tube bundle, and the outer tube bundle. These were separated from each other by a tubesheet. Both the outer and inner tube plenums had 200 mm diameter ports positioned on the same side as the shell ports. The pitch-diameter ratio of the tubes in the bundle was 1.59. The outer tubes were made from 1770 mm long steel pipe. The outer tubes were welded in position to their tubesheet using collars around each tube to provide both support and to minimise leakage between the shell-side and tube-side ows. The clearance between the closed end of the outer tubes and the refractory on the end-plate was 50 mm. This value was chosen as a compromise: i.e. close enough to the end-plate refractory so that maximum use was made of the available space for the tubes in the shell; and a suitable distance from the refractory such that the end-cap temperatures were not overly inuenced by surface rather than uid temperatures. The closed end geometry was rounded but not hemispherical. The inner tubes were made from 2295 mm lengths of 50 mm nominal bore mild steel. Each of these tubes were tted with a set of spiders: three 8 mm diameter lengths of steel rod welded circumferentially at 1208 to each other, 100 mm from the free-end of the tubes, in order to

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support the inner tube and keep it centred inside the outer tube. Since the inner tubes were not permanently xed to the tubesheet they were able to slide inside the outer tube so that the positioning of the end of the inner tube relative to the end-cap could be varied. For the results presented in this paper the free-end of the inner tube was 25 mm back from the outer tube/ end-cap join which, allowing for the curvature of the end-cap, approximates to one diameter of the inner tube ow. 2.3. Bae plates The three `D' shaped bae plates, positioned 430, 900 and 1360 mm from the outer tube tubesheet, are shown in Fig. 3. Allowing for the area reduction caused by the cross-section of the tubes, the coverage of the actual shell cross-section area that was available to the ow was increased to 69%. 3. Temperature measurements With the exception of the shell-side inlet temperature measurements, all of the thermocouples used for the heat exchanger temperature measurements were calibrated Industrial Mineral Insulation Probes, of K-type, having a composition of ve arm Ni 95%, balance Al, Si, Mn; +ve arm Ni 90%, Cr 10%. The shell-side inlet temperature thermocouple was an R-type protected inside a ceramic

Fig. 2. View of the experimental test rig.

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sheath. The thermocouple wire composition was 87% platinum, 13% rhodium for the negative arm, and platinum for the positive arm. Apart from the R-type thermocouple which was linked to a digital LED temperature display, all of the K-type thermocouples data was acquired using a PC-based data acquisition (DAQ) system [2]. The system consisted of a shielded terminal block, a shielded signal preconditioning and multiplexing unit and a multi function high speed and high resolution DAQ board for the PC. All of the DAQ system components and routines were programmed in a specic application software package, called LabView [9]. The following is a list of the tube-side and shell-side thermocouple locations . . . . . . . Inner-tube plenum inlet port Outer-tube plenum outlet port Annulus outlet for each tube End-cap for four of the seven tubes Shell-side burner inlet port (T type) Shell-side exhaust port Inner refractory surface.

4. Static pressure measurement instrumentation The shell-side and the tube-side ows were instrumented with pressure tappings, conforming to BS1042, in order to evaluate the pressure losses incurred. The central bayonet-tube was

Fig. 3. The heat exchanger under construction showing the baes and tube bundle.

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chosen to be representative of all the tubes in the tube bundle. Four circumferential tappings were spaced around the tubes at 908 intervals at each measurement location and lie either on the horizontal or vertical planes. The use of four tappings at each location was to measure any degree of non-uniformity in the ow as it passed along the inner tube, around the end-cap and back down the annulus. The xed-end tube tappings were positioned 25 mm from the outertube tubesheet for both the inner tube and annulus tappings. The free-end tappings were positioned on dierent cross sections through the tubes. This was because the tube tappings were positioned as close as possible to the end of the tube. A total of 16 pressure measurements were made simultaneously in the tube. 5. Experimental conditions Temperature and pressure data were obtained at six dierent shell-side power inputs. Air/ fuel ratios (AFRs) were varied to maintain the total mass owrate through the shell while varying the inlet temperature value. The six shell-side conditions are shown in Table 1. The mixture ratio, f, is dened as: f Actual airafuel ratio by volume Stoichiometric airafuel ratio by volume

where for natural gas the Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is 9.751 [11]. Hence, three of the mixture ratios were fuel rich and three lean. A theoretical calculation of the thermal power (heat rate) input to the shell-side of the heat exchanger was calculated via the caloric value (CV) of North Sea natural gas and either the total volumetric gas input for the lean mixture ratios; or the Stoichiometric gas input for the rich mixture ratios. The net CV of natural gas was 34.82 MJ/m3 at 158C and 101.325 kPa [11]. The theoretical power input into the shell is shown in the nal column of Table 1. Since the calculation of the heat rate input assumes that only Stoichiometric conditions apply (regardless of whether the actual mixture was fuel rich or lean), the eects of unburnt air (under very lean conditions) and not fully combusted gas (under rich conditions) result in lower than calculated
Table 1 Shell-side air/fuel input conditionsa Volumetric owrate (m3/s) Air 0.06267 0.06238 0.06267 0.06267 0.06083 0.05667
a

AFR

MR f

Mass owrate (kg/s) Air Gas 0.00283 0.00343 0.00406 0.00537 0.00723 0.01024 Total 0.080 0.080 0.081 0.082 0.082 0.080

Power (kW)

Gas 0.00392 0.00475 0.00562 0.00743 0.01000 0.01417 15.99 13.13 11.15 8.43 6.08 4.00 1.64 1.35 1.14 0.87 0.62 0.41

0.0769 0.07654 0.0769 0.0769 0.07464 0.06953

136.5 165.4 195.7 223.8 217.2 202.4

These values were calculated using air and gas densities at 158C and 101.325 kPa.

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heat rates. It has to be pointed out that the theoretical power calculated for the fuel lean conditions would in practice be much lower, hence the calculations provide a `worst case' scenario. As expected, the highest thermal powers occurred near to the Stoichiometric ratio (such as f 0X87). The power reduced as the AFR diverges from the Stoichiometric condition f 1X64 and f 0X41). The most fuel rich AFR f 0X41 still had a higher power than the closest to Stoichiometric lean AFR f 1X14 which shows the Stoichiometric gas calculated from the available air at f 0X41 was still higher than the total gas at f 1X14X The six combustion conditions shown in Table 1 were conducted with temperature and pressure measurements under steady state. For each of the shell-side power inputs given in Table 1, four tube-side air mass owrates were used. The mass owrate of the air delivered to the tubes was measured indirectly by using a Pitot-static tube positioned in the tube-side inlet ducting. The velocity pressure was measured using both the electronic manometer and a standard inclined manometer. The velocity of the air was calculated using s 2Dp U r where the air density, r, was determined at a pressure of 101.325 kPa and the measured tubeside inlet port temperature. The velocity was then used to calculate the tube-side mass owrate rUA, where the air density r was calculated at the measured inlet temperature and using m the area A was the internal ow area of the inlet duct. Due to the uctuations of ambient air temperature into the ASEA blower and the accuracy of the owrate regulator mechanism, exact repetition of tube-side mass owrates was dicult to achieve. However, nominal values of the tube-side air conditions used in the tests are shown in Table 2. The mean average Reynolds numbers ReIT and ReAnn have been included for the inner tube and annulus, respectively. They were calculated at the tube-side inlet temperature of the non-combustion case and assume an equal distribution of the ow between the seven tubes. The values are valid at the inlet even though under combustion conditions the Reynolds number was certain to vary as the air temperature increases along the tubes. For the purposes of this study, the tube-side ow was dened using the inner tube Reynolds number shown in Table 2. Tables 1 and 2 give the complete test matrix for the temperature measurements on the heat exchanger. One extra set of data was taken for the pressure measurements at non-combustion
Table 2 Tube-side air ow conditions approximate values Duct velocity (m/s) 18 22 27 30 Mass owrate (kg/s) 0.65 0.77 0.97 1.06 Inner tube ReIT 120,000 141,000 179,000 194,000 Annulus ReAnn 54,000 64,000 80,000 87,000

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conditions to provide a baseline data set for the tube-side ow. Hence, there was no shell-side ow, only tube-side air, as stated in Table 2, since the shell-side ow was not a prime consideration for extracting baseline tube-side data. 6. Tube-side temperature results Fig. 4 shows two examples of the temperature rise of the tube-side air in the Reynolds number range 120,000194,000 for dierent mixture ratios. The reference temperature was the value recorded at the inner tube plenum port. It is assumed that this was the inner tube inlet

Fig. 4. Tube-side air temperature rise for (a) f 0X87 and (b) f 1X14X

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temperature disregarding the eects within the inner tube plenum. Hence the distance along the tube to the end- cap, where the next thermocouple was located, was 2.295 m. The tube-side outlet temperature was recorded at the outer tube plenum port to obtain a consolidated temperature rise obtained by all of the tubes at the exit of the 1.77 m long annulus. It was assumed that the individual tube ows were fully mixed inside the outer tube plenum before exiting the heat exchanger. The gures are representative of the range of mixture ratios considered. Most of the temperature rise occurs inside the annulus with a smaller contribution inside the inner tube due to its closer proximity to the shell-side ow. The temperature rise for both the inner tube and annulus ows decreases with increasing tube air mass owrate due to the shorter residence times inside the heat exchanger. Total temperature rise varies from 114 to 97 K for the minimum and maximum tube air owrates considered respectively. Fig. 5 plots the tube-side air outlet temperatures against increasing tube air owrate for each mixture ratio. Again, it is evident that the residence time of the air inside the heat exchanger has a signicant eect on the temperature gain of the air. The ratio of `annulus-to-inner tube' temperature rise over the tube mass owrate range for each mixture ratio is plotted in Fig. 6. Generally, the eect of increasing the tube air ow is to increase the amount of temperature gain inside the annulus compared to the inner tube, with only one of the 24 data points showing a drop in this ratio f 1X14 and mass owrate = 0.80 kg/s). The ratio varies such that the contribution by the annulus ow to the total bayonet tube temperature gain is from a minimum of 81% to a maximum of 87% for the conditions in the study. Fig. 4 shows the inner tube and annulus temperature rises for two mixture ratios for each tube air mass owrate setting. Fig. 5 shows that the maximum and minimum tube-side temperature rises are achieved at f 0X87 and 1.64, respectively. This was expected from, comparison with the calculation of the theoretical power input in Table 1. The gures indicate poor correlation between the measured temperature rise and the theoretical power input into

Fig. 5. Tube-side air outlet temperature variation with tube-side Reynolds number.

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the shell for mixture ratios 0.41, 1.14 and 1.35, which suggests that in reality the power dierence between these three burner settings is less than theoretically calculated. A number of the mixture ratios, namely 1.64, 1.35, 0.62 and to a lesser extent 0.87, exhibit uniform relationships between temperature rise and Reynolds number for the inner tube and, more especially, the annulus ow channels. Deviations from a linear curve for some values of f can be attributed to experimental error due to a degree of inaccuracy in the setting of the tube-side ow. 7. Shell-side temperature results The total shell-side temperature drop is dened as the dierence between the burner ame temperature at the shell inlet and the combustion gas temperature measured in the shell-side exhaust duct. Fig. 7 shows that the shell-side outlet temperature decreases as the tube-side air owrate is increased, indicating a higher rate of heat extraction. 8. Heat rates 8.1. Calculation of the heat exchanger eectiveness Heat exchanger eectiveness, e, is dened by,

Fig. 6. Ratio of annulus to inner tube temperature rise with tube-side Reynolds number.

Ch Th, in Th, out e Cmin Th, in Tc, in

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or

Cc Tc, out Tc, in e Cmin Th, in Tc, in

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h cph and m c cpc magnitudes [7]. where Cmin is the smaller of the m , and the specic heat To calculate the eectiveness, the product of uid mass owrate, m capacity, Cp , needs to be determined for the tube-side and the shell- side ows. This product is known as the heat capacity rate. To determine which of the two ows has the lower heat capacity rate, the lowest possible tube-side and shell-side heat capacity rates were compared. It was found that the maximum product of shell-side mass owrate and specic heat capacity, for shell Cpshell max 117X2 J/Ks. However, the minimum all the mixture ratios considered was m product of tube-side mass owrate and specic heat capacity, for all the mixture ratios shell Cpshell ` m tube Cptube and so the tube Cptube min 547X2 J/Ks. Hence, m considered was m eectiveness of the heat exchanger was calculated using the rst of the two equations stated above. 9. Heat exchanger eectiveness results The trend of heat exchanger eectiveness with tube-side Reynolds number is shown for each mixture ratio in Fig. 8. It clearly shows that the eectiveness increases with Reynolds number,

Fig. 7. Shell-side gas outlet temperature variation with tube-side air owrate.

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and hence the heat rate capacity, of the tube-side air. Data points that contradict this trend can be attributed to errors related to settings in the tube-side owrate measurement. Also, the highest eectivenesses are obtained with the two mixture ratios with the greatest amount of excess air. This relates to the lowest heat capacity rates on the shell-side; however there is much less correlation for the other four mixture ratios. 10. Heat exchanger pressure results The pressures in the central tube of the tube-bundle were measured for each of the six mixture ratio settings on the shell-side and also under non-combustion conditions. The tubeside air owrates used were the four mass owrates that were used for the temperature study. 11. Circumferential pressure variation The static pressure at each location along the tube was measured by the four equispaced circumferential tappings. A typical set of results are shown in Fig. 9 for the f 1X14 case. All of the results show that the gauge pressures at each measurement location increase with the tube-side air owrate. The inner tube inlet pressure is fairly stable around the circumference. Tapping I5 is the top tapping for the inner tube inlet. Its pressure reading is consistently higher than the other pressures at this location. Tapping I7, the bottom tapping, shows the next highest pressure reading and I6 the lowest. The circumferential pressure variation around the inner tube is possibly caused by the fact that the plenum inlet was perpendicular to the tubes, creating a distorted ow at the tube inlet. The development length of the tube before the tappings was

Fig. 8. Heat exchanger eectiveness variation with tube-side air owrate.

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Fig. 9. Pressure results for f 1X14X

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only 10.5 diameters long, where for full turbulent ow development, the minimum length was 30 diameters. The pressure measurements taken at the free-end of the inner tube, immediately before the end-cap, show a greater degree of pressure discrepancy than the inner tube inlet. The development length was 45.4 diameters which was sucient to allow the ow to stabilise. In addition to the greater variation around the circumference, the distribution of maximum and minimum pressures has completely changed. The top Tapping I1, now exhibits the lowest pressure; I4 the next lowest; and tappings in the horizontal plane, I2 and I3, share the highest pressure. Observation of pressures at the annulus entrance immediately after the end-cap, tappings O1 to O4, show consistent relative pressures between the four circumferential tappings. The pressure magnitudes from maximum to minimum are always in the order of O4, O1, O2 and O3, which may suggest a distortion of the ow such that the internal volume of the end-cap was not uniformly utilised by the tube air. Non-uniform ow would lead to circumferential variations of velocity and hence ow structure. Flow velocity variations and separated ows in the vicinity of the pressure tappings would manifest themselves as discrepancies in circumferential pressure. The lowest pressures are exhibited in the ambient case and rise in line with the shell-side heat rate input to give maximum circumferential pressures at f 0X87X This pressure rise can be related to the higher tube-side air temperatures lowering the air density and hence increasing the mean velocity of the ow. The pressure tappings at the outlet of the annulus, O9 to O12 show an excellent level of agreement for all seven shell-side conditions and throughout the tube-side air owrate range. The very good agreement around the circumference can be attributed to the long development length (39.9 hydraulic diameters) of the annulus upstream of the measurement location. 12. Pressure variation along the bayonet tube The circumferential pressure tappings were averaged to give a representative pressure for the four bayonet tube locations. A simple denition of the positions of the pressure tapping sets along the bayonet tube is given in Table 3. A typical set of the corresponding variation of average pressure along the bayonet tube for f 1X14 is shown in Fig. 10. The pressures values at position 1 for tube-side air ow of 1.06 kg/s increased with the inlet heat rate in the shell-side due to initial heating of the air causing
Table 3 Pressure tapping positions along the bayonet tube Tapping set position Inner tube inlet Inner tube outlet Annulus inlet Annulus outlet Number 1 2 3 4

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Fig. 10. Average pressures along the bayonet tube for dierent reynolds numbers f 1X14).

higher mean velocities. The pressure drops along the inner tube and under combustion conditions are marginally greater than for the ambient case: between 1460 and 1690 Pa at the maximum tube air owrate, and between 620 and 760 Pa at the minimum tube-air owrate. This compares to 1400 and 450 Pa for maximum and minimum values respectively for the noncombustion case. Between positions 2 and 3 the pressure decreases further which is in contrast to the ambient case, which shows an increase in pressure between the exit of the inner tube to the entrance of the annulus. This increase has been shown to be the result of the annulus inlet prole which includes a recirculation zone [4]. The pressure variation between positions 3 and 4 again contradict the non-combustion case as a further pressure drop is indicated. This can be explained due to the fact that the air was being rapidly heated as it ows along the annulus thus causing the expanded gas to increase in velocity. The velocity increase can oset the pressure recovery due to the larger annulus area and hence the appearance of a static pressure drop between positions 2 and 4. Although the local features of the ow around the end-cap cause erroneous readings at position 3 and possibly position 2, the total bayonet tube pressure drops, as dened by the dierence between the static pressure at positions 1 and 4, are valid and clearly demonstrate the expected trend that greater pressure losses are incurred at higher tube-side ow velocities.

13. Conclusions The results presented in this paper have shown that considerable potential exists for a bayonet tube heat exchanger for use in both the process industries and EFCCs. Analysis of the data acquired in the heat exchanger have shown that the majority of the heat transfer occurs in the annulus of the bayonet tube. Thus any heat transfer enhancement should be concentrated in this area in order to improve the eectiveness, which can reach in excess of 70%, based on

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the conditions considered. The overall tube side pressure drop was found to be very low with a maximum of 1800 Pa or 2% of the atmospheric inlet pressure. References
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