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1. m, n, k are positive integers. It is known that mn | nm , and nk | k n . Prove that mk | k m . (a | b means a is a divisor of b.) 2. Do there exist four polynomials such that the sum of any three of them has a real root while the sum of any two of them does not? 3. Numbers {1, 2, . . . , 10} are divided into two groups so that the product P1 of the numbers in the rst group is divisible by the product P2 of the numbers in the second group. What is the minimal possible value of P1 /P2 ? 4. The area of the convex quadrilateral ABCD is equal to 1. Prove that the area of the qaudrilateral, whose vertices are the midpoints of AC , AD, BD, BC , is smaller than 1/2. 5. Let f (x) and g (x) be polynomials with non-negative integer coecients, and let m be the greatest coecient of f . Show that if, for some natural numbers a and b satisfying a < m < b we have f (a) = g (a) and f (b) = g (b) then f and g are equal. 6. A geologist collected eight stones. He has a pan balance (without weights). He wants to know whether or not any two stones are heavier than any single stone. Will he be able to nd out if this is true or not using 13 weighings? 7. Among 100 coins there are several false ones (at least one). All real coins have equal weight and all false ones have equal weight. The false coins are lighter. Using a pan balance in 51 weighing nd the number of false coins. 8. Four circles are situated inside the convex quadrilateral so that each circle touches two sides of the quadrilateral and two other circles as shown

It is known that a circle can be iscribed into this quadrilateral. Prove that at least two circles inside it have equal radii.

Solutions

1. Let p be an arbitrary prime. Let m , n , k be positive integers such that pm , pn , pk be the largest powers of p which divide m, n, k , respectively. then the two given conditions mean that nm mn and kn nk . Multiplying these together we get km mk . Since this is true for every prime, mk | k m . 2. If a sum of two polynomials does not have a real root, then it is everywhere positive or everywhere negative. Let us depict the polynomials by points P, Q, R, S on the plane, draw the edges between these vertices and mark an edge with a + if the sum of two polynomials at the vertices is positive and with a if the sum of two polynomials at the vertices is negative. Let us note that there cannot be a triangle with all edges positive or with all edges negative. Indeed, if, say, P (x) + Q(x) > 0, Q(x) + S (x) > 0, and P (x) + S (x) > 0, then P (x) + Q(x) + S (x) = 1 2 ((P (x) + Q(x)) + (Q(x) + S (x)) + (P (x) + S (x))) > 0, which is a contradiction. Now it becomes clear that, for any vertex, it is not possible that all edges adgacent to it are all positive or all negative, otherwise the remaining edges, which form a triangle, must be all negative or, correspondingly, all positive. Therefore without loss of generality we may assume that P Q and P S are positive and P R is negative. Then QS must be also negative. Hence P (x) + Q(x) + R(x) + S (x) = (P (x) + R(x)) + (Q(x) + S (x)) < 0. Now neither QR nor RS can be positive. Indeed, if RS is positive, then P (x) + Q(x) + R(x) + S (x) = (P (x) + Q(x)) + (R(x) + S (x)) > 0. Again we obtain a triangle QRS with all sides negative. Contradiction.

P + Q S

3. Since 7 is prime, it must be in the rst group and it will not cancel. Hence P1 /P2 7. This minimum can be achieved by taking P1 = 3 5 6 7 8 and P2 = 1 2 4 9 10. The idea of this construction stems from the following: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 = 28 34 52 7. 2

4. Let K, L, M, N be the midpoints of AC, AD, BD, BC , respectively. Let H, G be the midpoints of AB, CD and E, F be the intersections of HL and N G with AC as shown below.

N B F K H E A D M G C

The area of HLGM is exactly S/2 so all we need to show is that KLM N lies inside HLGM . For this, it is sucient to prove that K and M lie inside HLGM . Let us prove it for K by showing that it must lie on the segment EF . The length of EF is half the length of AC , the same as the length of AK . Since their total length is the length of AC , they cannot have empty intersection. Hence K is on AC and we are done. 5. Suppose f (x) = g (x). Then f (x) g (x) = cn xn + cn1 xn1 + . . . + c1 x + c0 , = dk xk + dk1 xk1 + . . . + d1 x + d0 .

If all coecients of g (x) are also smaller than b, then we will have f (x) = g (x) from the uniqueness of (??). Suppose that di b. Then di = bq + r, where r < b. Let us consider now a new polynomial g1 (x), which appear when we replace in g (x) coecient di with r and di+1 with di+1 + q . Then we will still have g1 (b) = g (b) but g1 (a) < g (a) since di ai + di+1 ai+1 = (bq + r)ai + di+1 ai+1 > (aq + r)ai + di+1 ai+1 = rai + (di+1 + q )ai+1 . Repeating this procedure several times, and obtaining polynomials g1 (x), . . . , gm , respectively, we will come to the situation, where no coecients of gm (x) are smaller than b, f (b) = gm (b) but f (a) > gm (a). This is impossible since from f (b) = gm (b), as above, we deduce that f (x) = gm (x), which contradicts to f (a) > gm (a). 6. Answer: Yes. Let us note that, if he knew the heaviest stone and two lightest ones, he can nd out the truth using just one weighing. So let us try to nd these three stones in 12 weighings. 3

Firstly, he can divide eight stones in four pairs and compare them in four weighings. Then he divides the stones into two groups: those which were the heaviest in their pairs and those which were the lightest. Clearly the heaviest stone is in the rst group and the lightest is in the second. We might divide the heaviest group in two pairs, compare the stones with them and then compare those which were the heaviest in their respective pairs. Comparing them we nd the heaviest stone in three additional weighings. Similarly three more weighings yield the lightest stone. To this moment we made 10 weighings. Now we can nd the second lightest stone in two additional weighings checking the three stones which were compared at some stage with the lightest one. 7. Let us take two arbitrary coins and compare them. There are two possible outcomes. Either we nd that one coin is heavier than another or their weights are equal. In the rst case we have one genuin and one false coin, in the second both coins are of the same kind but we dont know which. Case 1: In this case we split the remaining 98 coins into pairs and compare each of the 49 pairs with the standard, i.e. the pair which consists of the coins participated in the rst weighing. Each weighing will give us the number of false coins in the pair which is compared with the standard: if, for example, the pair is heavier than the standard, it contains two genuine coins. In this case we will need 50 weighings. Case 2: We would love to nd the standard (a pair of a genuine and a ase coins) but the rst weighing tells us that we obtained a pair of coins (C, D) of the same kind. Still let us split the remaining 98 coins into 49 pairs and start comparing these pairs with the rst pair until we nd a pair (E, F ) of dierent weight. Suppose it is lighter than (C, D). Hence both C, D are genuine and all coined weighed before were genuine too. Now we may in one additional weighing to create a standard pair. Let us compare C and E . If they are the same, then F is false and (C, F ) is a standard pair. If, say, C is heavier than E , then E is false and (C, E ) is a standard pair. Then we continue as in Case 1. This way we will need 51 weighing. 8. Let us note, rst, that if two circles of radii r1 and r2 are tangent to the same line and to each other, then the distance between the points of tangency on the line is 2 r1 r2 .

O2 O1

K1

K2

Indeed, K1 K2 =

2 O L2 = O1 O2 2

(r1 + r2 )2 (r1 r2 )2 = 2 r1 r2 .

B L1 L2 C

K2

rB rC

K1 A N2

rA rD M1

N1

M2

Since AK1 = AN2 , BK2 = BL1 , CL2 = CM1 , and CM2 = DN1 , the latter leads to the equation K1 K2 + M1 M2 = L1 L2 + N1 N2 and to rA rB + rC rD = rB rC + rA rD . The latter can be rewritten as ( rA rC )( b D) = 0. This proves that some two opposite circle have equal radii.

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