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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND

0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)

Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April, 2013, pp. 41-47 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)

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IJECET

© I A E M E

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND

ENHANCED BANDWIDTH SLOTTED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

Anurag Sharma * , Ramesh Bharti ** , ArchanaAgarwal *** *M-Tech Student, Jagannath University, Jaipur **Assistant Professor, Jagannath University, Jaipur ***Assistant Professor, Institute of Technology and Management, Bhilwara

ABSTRACT

In this paper, in order to improve the performance of a conventional microstrip patch antenna a new design technique for enhancing the bandwidth of antenna is proposed. This paper includes a wideband inverted slotted microstrip patch antenna fed by microstrip transmission line feed. The design enumerates contemporary techniques such as microstrip transmission line feeding, inverted patch structure and slotted patch. The combined effect of integrating these techniques and by introducing the proposed design, offer a low profile, enhanced bandwidth, and high gain. The antenna operating the band of 1-12 GHz shows an impedance bandwidth (2:1 VSWR) of UWB.

Keywords: Slotted antenna, Microstrip patch antenna, wideband, Microstrip Transmission Line fed.

I. INTRODUCTION

As the process of miniaturization of devices is in full swing, antennas cannot remain as standalone devices. Compact designs have to be implemented to cope with the demands of the industry. With the explosive growth of wireless system and booming demand for a variety of new wireless application, there is great need to design broadband antennas to cover a wide frequency range. Now days the designers are basically focused to deal with UWB (Ultra Wide Band) Technology and to make advance antennas that can give UWB response so that they can be operated in that particular frequency range. With increasing requirements for personal and mobile communications, the demand for smaller and low-profile antennas has

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

brought the microstrip antennas to forefront. Modifying the shape and dimensions of conventional microstrip antennas leads to the design of microstrip antenna for UWB communication system by tuning the shape and dimensions. Present time is witnessing a very rapid growth of wireless communications, for which antennas with very large bandwidth are in strong demand. Microstrip antennas are attractive due to their light weight, conformability and low cost and have broad application in wireless communication system owing to their advantages such as low-profile, conformability, low-cost fabrication and ease of integration with feed-networks [7]. For good antenna performance, a thick dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency, larger bandwidth and better radiation. However, such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size. In order to design a compact Microstrip patch antenna, substrates with higher dielectric constants must be used which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. Hence a trade-off must be realized between the antenna dimensions and antenna performance. There are various methods to increase the bandwidth of antennas, including increase of the substrate thickness, the use of a low dielectric substrate, the use of various impedance matching and feeding techniques, the use of multiple resonators, and the use of slot antenna geometry[2],[5],[6]. In order to enhance the bandwidth, several techniques have been proposed. A novel single layer wide-band rectangular patch antenna with achievable impedance bandwidth of greater than 20% has been demonstrated [3]. Utilizing the shorting pins or shorting walls on the unequal arms of a U-shaped patch, U-slot patch, or L-probe feed patch antennas, wideband and dual-band impedance bandwidth have been achieved with electrically small size [4],[9],[10]. In this paper, for enhancing the impedance bandwidth, a novel slotted double E shape patch is proposed. A better cross-polarization and wider impedance bandwidth of 28% is achieved compared to the design reported in [11].

II. ULTRA-WIDE BAND TECHNOLOGY

UWB or Ultra-Wide Band technology offers many advantages, especially in terms of very high data transmission rates which are well beyond those possible with currently deployed technologies such as 802.11a, b, g, WiMax and the like. As such UWB, ultra wideband technology is gaining considerable acceptance and being proposed for use in a number of areas. Already Bluetooth, Wireless USB and others are developing solutions, and in these areas alone its use should be colossal. Just as many wireless technologies seem to be moving into high volume production and becoming established a new technology has hit the scene and is threatening to turn the industry upside down. Known as Ultra Wide Band (UWB) this new technology has much to offer both in the performance and data rates as well as the wide number of application in which it can be used. Currently ultra wideband (UWB) technology has been proposed for or is being used in applications from radar and sensing applications right through to high band width communications. Furthermore ultra wide band, UWB can be used in both commercial and military applications. There are a wide number of applications that UWB technology can be used for. They range from data and voice communications through to radar and tagging. With the growing number of way in which wireless technology can be used, the list is likely to grow. Due to the extremely low emission levels currently allowed by regulatory agencies, UWB systems tend to be short-range and indoors. However, due to the short duration of the UWB pulses, it is easier to engineer extremely high data rates.

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976

Fig 1. Comparison of Narrowband, Spread Spectrum and Ultra wide band Signal Concept

With the growing level of wireless communications, ultra wide band UWB offers significant advantages in many areas. One of the main attractions for WAN / LAN applications is the very high data rates that can be supported. With computer technology requiring ever increasing amounts of data to be transported, it is likely that standards such as 802.11 and others may not be able to support the data speeds required in some applications. It is in overcoming this problem where UWB may well become a major technology of the future.

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976

Fig 2. Features and benefits of UWB

III. DESIGN PROCEDURE

The basic design steps includes following parameters Frequency of operation: The resonant frequency must be selected appropriately. For my design the frequency selected will be from ultra wideband frequency range. Dielectric constant of the substrate ε r : The Dielectric constant of the substrate plays an important role in patch antenna design. A substrate with high dielectric constant reduces the dimensions of antenna but it also affects the antenna performance. So, there is a trade-off between size and dimensions of antenna. Height of Dielectric substrate: For the Micro strip patch antenna to be used in communication system, it is essential that the antenna is not bulky. Hence the height of dielectric should be less.

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

IV. ANTENNA DESIGN LAYOUT

Fig. 3 depicts the geometry of the proposed patch antenna. The inverted rectangular patch, with width W and length L is supported by a low dielectric superstrate with dielectric permittivity ε l and thickness h l . An air-filled substrate with dielectric permittivity ε o and thickness h o is sandwiched between the superstrate and a ground plane. The proposed patch integrates the double E shaped patch on the same radiating element. For the main E-shaped, the slots are embedded in parallel on the radiating edge of the patch symmetrically with respect to the centerline (x-axis) of the patch and it is incorporated extra E shaped slot on the same radiating edge of opposite side. The patch is fed by a coaxial probe along the centerline (x-axis) at a distance H from the edge of the patch as shown in Fig. 1(b). Table I shows the optimized design parameters obtained for the proposed patch antenna. A dielectric substrate with dielectric permittivity, ε l of 2.2 and thickness, h l of 1.5748mm has been used in this research. The thickness of the air-filled substrate ho is 12.5mm. An Aluminum plate with dimensions of 1.393 λ 0 ×1.254 λ 0 (where λ 0 is the guided wavelength of the centre operating frequency) and thickness of 1 mm is used as the ground plane. The proposed antenna is designed to operate at 1.80 GHz to 2.36 GHz region. This design employs contemporary techniques namely, the microstrip transmission line feeding, inverted patch, and slotted patch techniques to meet the design requirement. The use of transmission line feeding technique with a thick air-filled substrate provides the bandwidth enhancement, while the application of superstrate with inverted radiating patch offers a gain enhancement, and the use of parallel slots also reduce the size of the patch. The use of superstrate on the other hand would also provide the necessary protections for the patch from the environmental effects. By incorporating extra E shape slots in radiating edges, the gain and cross-polarization has been improved. These techniques offer easy patch fabrications, especially for array structures.

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976

Fig 3. Geometry of proposed patch antenna

Dimension

W

L

w 0

l

0

h 0

H

mm

75

46

7

30

12.5

12

Dimension

w 1

l

1

h l

Wf

Lf

Gpf

mm

15

5

1.5748

6.2

35.1

1

Table 1

Proposed Patch antenna design parameters in millimeters (mm)

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

CST Microwave Studio has been used to calculate return loss, impedance bandwidth, radiation pattern and gains. Fig. 4 and Fig.6 depicts the simulated result of the return loss and group delay of the proposed antenna. From the figure, the simulated group delay shows less variation on broader bandwidth except for sharp changes at the middle of the center frequency at 6.85 GHz. The simulated impedance bandwidth of 5 GHz is achieved at 10 dB return loss

(VSWR2).

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976

Fig 4: Return Loss Curve of the proposed patch antenna

Antenna radiation pattern depicts the radiation properties on antenna as a function of space coordinate. For a linearly polarized antenna, performance of antenna is often described in terms of the E and H plane patterns [12]. The H-plane is defined as the plane containing the magnetic field vector and the direction of maximum radiation [13] while E-plane as the plane containing the electric field vector and the directions of maximum radiation while Fig.5 shows the simulated two dimensional E and H-plane at upper bound frequency. In the E- plane, the value of azimuth angle of 0 o , 45 o and 90 o while in H-plane, the value of elevation angle θ of 0 o , 45 o and 90 o are taken into consideration.

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976

Fig 5: Radiation pattern curve of the proposed patch antenna

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976

Fig 6: Group delay of the optimized proposed antenna.

VI. CONCLUSION

For enhancing bandwidth of microstrip a new double E shaped patch antenna is successfully designed in this paper. An impedance bandwidth of 5 Ghz is achieved in this design with respect to the centre frequency of 6.85 GHz by employing proposed slotted patch shaped design, inverted patch, and microstrip transmission line feeding techniques. With this, good radiation characteristics and antenna gain have also been obtained. The proposed patch has a simple structure with dimension of 0.516 λ 0 × 0.383 λ 0 . The design is suitable for array applications with respect to a given frequency of 1-12 GHz.

REFERENCES

[1] Norbahiah Misran, Mohammed N. Shakib, Mohammad T. Islam, and Baharudin Yatim , “Design Analysis of a Slotted Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Communication,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 49 2009. [2] K. L. Lau, K. M. Luk, and K. L. Lee,“Design of a circularly-polarized vertical patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1332-1335, 2006. [3] F. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Wide-band E-shaped patch antennas for wireless communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 49, pp. 1094-1100, 2001. [4] Y. X. Guo, K. M. Luk, K. F. Lee, and R. Chair, “A quarter-wave Ushaped antenna with two unequal arms for wideband and dual-frequency operation,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 50, pp. 1082-1087, 2002. [5] D. M. Pozar and D. H. Schaubert, Microstrip antennas, the analysis and design of Microstrip antennas and arrays, New York: IEEE press, 1995. [6] D. M. B. Sun, I. S. Song, S. H. Choa, I. S. Koh, Y. S. Lee, and J. G. Yook, “Package- Level integrated antennas based on LTCC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 2190-2197, 2006. [7] W.He, R. Jin, and J. Geng, “E-Shape patch with wideband and circular polarization for millimeter-wave communication,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 893- 895, 2008. [8] Y. P. Zhang and J. J. Wang, “Theory and analysis of differentiallydriven microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1092-1099, 2006. [9] R. Chair, C. L. Mak, K. F. Lee, K. M. Luk, and A. A. Kishk, “Miniature wide-band half U-slot and half E-shaped patch antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 53, pp. 2645- 2652, 2005.

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

[10] C. L. Mak, K. M. Luk, K. F. Lee, and Y. L. Chow, “Experimental study of a microstrip patch antenna with an L-shaped probe,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-48, pp. 777–783, May 2000. [11] M. Tariqul Islam, N. Misran, and K. G. Ng, “A 4×1 L-probe fed Inverted Hybrid E-H Microstrip Patch Antenna Array for 3G Application,” American J. Applied Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 897-901, 2007. [12] Hertz, H., Electrical Waves, London, Macmillan and Co., 1893. [13] Breed, G., “A summary ofF CC rules for ultra wideband communications,” High Frequency Electronics, 42–44, Jan. 2005. [14] M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Design And Development Of Triple Band Ominidirectional Slotted Rectangular Microstrip Antenna” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 17 - 22, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [15] Mahmoud Abdipour, Gholamreza Moradi and Reza Sarraf Shirazi, “A Design Procedure For Active Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 123 - 129, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [16] K. Karuna Kumari and Dr. P.V.Sridevi, “Performance Evaluation of Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna Array with Different Dielectric Substrate Materials” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 236 - 249, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.

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