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ABSTRACT Bio shield AM 500 3- (trimethoxy silyl)- propyl - dimethyl octadecyl ammonium chloride was applied to cottonfabrics by a cold

pad-batch method in the presence of an alkaline catalyst to evaluate its use as a durableantimicrobial finish. The antimicrobial activities of the Bio shield AM 500 treated cotton fabrics were evaluated quantitatively against AATCC 147 by Gram staining and Turbidity test method. The turbidity value was maintained over 187 even after being exposed to 15 consecutive home laundering conditions. The antimicrobial treated sweat sample was tested for microbial activity and the turbidity was 189. INTRODUCTION In the present day world most of us are very conscious about our hygiene and cleanliness. Clothing and textile materials are not only the carriers of microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria, odour generating bacteria and mould fungi, but also good media for the growth of the microorganisms. Microbial infestation poses danger to both living and non living matters. Obnoxious smell form the inner garments such as socks, spread of diseases, staining and degradation of textiles are some of the detrimental effects of bad microbes. Though the use of antimicrobials have been known for the decades, it is only in the recent couple of years several attempts have been made on finishing textiles with antimicrobial compounds. Anti microbial finish is a recent innovation in finishes. The consumers are now increasingly aware of the hygienic life style and there is a necessity and expectation for a wide range of textile products finished with antimicrobial properties. This finish prevents the growth of bacteria and products finished in it have been proved environment friendly and health protecting, preventing diseases. It also prevents garments from unpleasant odour. In this research, subjective evaluations of antimicrobial finish applied fabrics are analyzed. The result of the antimicrobial activity is based on the standard test method AATCC 147 for evaluating antimicrobial effectiveness. EXPERIMENTAL Material used Fabric Cotton fabric with the following specification is scoured and bleached prior to the application of finish. Fabric Count : Yarn Count : GSM : 80 x 80 60s Combed X 60s Combed 180

Type of weave : Plain


Bio shield AM 500 which is an aqueous solution of silicon quaternary ammonium salt, the key ingredient in it being 3 - (trimethoxy silyl) - propyl - dimethyl octadecyl ammonium chloride. ANTIMICROBIAL FINISH Pretreatment The material is treated with 2g/l acetic acid at 70 0C for 15 minutes with water. The liquor ratio is 1:20. The material is given a cold wash for 5 minutes. The pH is maintained at 7. Finish Application The pretreated cotton fabric is treated with bio shield AM 500 at three different concentrations 1%, 2% and 3% respectively at room temperature for 30 minutes with water. The liquor ratio is 1:7. The material is hydro dried for 5 minutes. The pH is maintained at 6. Finally the fabric samples are tested for antimicrobial activity as per the standard test methods. Standard assessment test for anti microbial finish The subjective test is carried out based on the various standards set by the American Association for Testing Chemicals and Colorist AATCC 147. The following tests are carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity. 1. Gram staining 2. Turbidity test Gram staining Preparation of Nutrient broth solution: Nutrient broth is a media which helps to grow bacteria with the necessary ingredients in a broth for the analysis of bacteria. A broth is prepared with the following ingredients. Water Peptone Yeast 100ml 0.2 gm 0.2 gm

Beef extract - 0.3 gm NaCL 0.5 gm

The solution is sterilized for 15 min at 1200C and it is allowed to cool. Then the fabric is immersed in the broth solution for 24 hours. Gram staining After 24 hours of growth from nutrient broth, the growth suspension is taken using an inoculation needle and it is placed on a glass slide. A smear is made and it is heat fixed. Then it is treated with solutions like

crystal violet and kept for 1 min. Then it is rinsed with distilled water and 2 drops of iodine is added and kept for 60 sec. Then it is decolorized with few drops of alcohol because large amount of alcohol makes even a gram positive cell to gram negative. After adding alcohol, it is again washed with water and saffranin is added and it is kept for 1 min. It is again washed with distilled water, air dried and observed under microscope. Bacteria stained by the gram method fall under two groups. Gram positive bacteria which retain violet colour and the Gram negative bacteria stained by sarafnin and hence appear pink in colour. Turbidity test Turbidity test is the subjective evaluation test carried out to find the bacterial growth in the microscope .The result is predicted based on the turbidity of the solution which is determined by the amount of passage of light. The turbidity decreases, as the bacterial growth reduces with the increase in the concentration of the antimicrobial agent. Hence, the turbidity rate decreases as the bacterial growth reduces. There is a decrease in turbidity rate as the concentration increases.The findings of the study reveals that the 3 % concentration of anti microbial treated fabrics found to be very effective and can be used for hygenic and health care application. The bacteria found in the fabric are gram positive (turbidity value 183 indicates, there are 183 microbes) which will not cause any problem to human beings. Further research work has to be carried out in finding out the genus and species of the organism. CONCLUSION Apart from the industrial use, anti microbial finish on textiles has become essential in our day today life to live in fresh and hygienic atmosphere. The finish has excellent potential in various textile uses like inner wears, house hold articles and baby care products. Even though many products have come, but still there is very good scope for the textile researchers in this field.