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(single degree of freedom Harmonic Loading)

Fawad Muzaffar

M.Sc. Structures (Stanford University) Ph.D. Structures (Stanford University)

Equation of Motion: In this case, a harmonically varying load () is applied to the structure. Suppose that the system is subjected to 0 Undamped Case: The equation of motion becomes ---Equation 1 Complementary solution of the above equation (already evaluated for free undamped case) is given by The particular solution of Equation 1 is given by Evaluating the value of and using the above equation and plugging this value in equation 1, we get

Fawad Muzaffar 2

After rearrangement, where The particular solution then becomes 0 1 () = 1 2 The general solution can then be obtained by adding complementary and particular solution The values of A and B are then obtained by observing 0 = 0 = 0

The response of the system then becomes 0

..

1 1 2

Steady State Response: Response that is directly related to applied loading. It is the component at the frequency of the applied load. Transient Response: Response at the natural vibrating frequency. It is the free vibrating effect controlled by initial Condition.

4

Response Ratio The ratio of dynamic displacement to static displacement is called response ratio. Note: i. Tendency of two components to Get in and out of phase beating

ii. The zero slope of total response at time t=0. Conclusion: Initial velocity of transient response cancels initial velocity of steady state response.

5

For this case, the equation of motion becomes Dividing the above equation by m + From = 2 = 2 ; 2 = Equation 2 becomes The particular solution of Equation 2 is of the form where 1 and 2 are real constants. Plugging in the particular solution into EQ-2

----Equation 2

For this equation to hold at all values of , the terms inside square brackets should be equal to zero, resulting in the following system of equations.

The complimentary solution of equation of motion for this case was already derived for damped freely vibrating system

The general solution for this case can then be obtained by adding particular and general solution.

Transient Solution

Steady State Response of Damped Structure Transient Response is not that important, steady state response is!

Alternate Representation

where

1/2

1/2

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1 2 = 0 = 0 Unknowns: and . Use two observations at known conditions

2

11

From equation F,

cos = (1 2 ) 0

From

= 2 (1 2 ) = (1 2 ) 2 (1 2 ) 2 1 = 0 2 0 0 0 0 = = = 2 2 2 2 = 0

12

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Dynamic Magnification Factor

The ratio of resultant harmonic response amplitude to the static displacement due to 0 is called dynamic magnification factor, D.

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Resonant Response - From Steady State Response (Using Dynamic Magnification Factor): The dynamic magnification factor for damped-harmonically loaded structure is given by Evaluating dD/d and equating to zero, the value of resulting in peak D is obtained as Note: becomes imaginary if > 1/ 2 The value of corresponding to comes out to be

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i. Amplitude of Undamped System tends towards infinity as approaches 1. ii. For low values of , max response occurs at < 1. Resonant Response - From Total Response (Using Response Ratio): For more complete understanding of resonant response, consider general response. At resonant frequency ( = 1) From initial values i.e.

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Frequency Response Curve

17

The equation becomes

The Response becomes Steady State in a few Cycles Build up in amplitude is almost Linear because contribution of is negligible

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is directly proportional to

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Accelerometers Consists of viscously damped oscillator. The equation of motion (already derived) Considering a harmonic () becomes The steady state displacement response is given by (already derived)

= 1 2 2 + 2 = sin /

1 2 2 sin(

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Notes: i. At = = 2, transmitted quantity is equal to source. For > 2, increasing increases transmission of quantity of interest. For < 2, increasing decreases transmission of quantity of interest. For rapidly moving systems, c is undesirable. Because TR is low for high values of , systems are operated at high for isolation of base

ii.

iii. iv. v.

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Objective of Instrument Design To make and / independent of so that each harmonic component of acceleration will be recorded with the same modification factor and the same time lad to obtain response due to general loading. Plots of R d and against

Note: For small values of and 0.7, 1 and For = 0.6 Such an instrument can be used to measure acceleration.

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Displacement Meters Consider the case when the support displacement is given by

The acceleration due to the above support displacement The steady state displacement response is given by (already derived)

1 2 2 2 2 = 1 + 2 sin( ) = 2 sin / = 2 sin /

& . Hence

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Vibration Isolation Objectives

Prevent Support Structure from Machine Vibrations Prevent Equipment from Vibrations in Support Structure

In this case, the force produced by machinery is given by = 0

The displacement response of this system has been evaluated previously as Assuming deflection of supporting structure to be negligible, Force in spring => Force in Damper => Note: Spring and Damping forces at 900 phase out with each other.

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The resultant of the two forces is given by The ratio of to then becomes Transmissibility = Displacement Transmitted to Machinery from Structure For this case, the equation of motion is given by + + = 0 or + + = + --Equation A Now = and = cos

25

Plugging back the values of and into equation A

+ + = 0 + 0 Combining force terms as before 0 = 0 2 + 0 = 0 1 + /

2 2

---Equation B

2

= 0 1 +

= 0 1 + /

2

0 = 0 1 + /

and = tan

1

= 0 1 + 2/

2

0 = 0 1 + 2 0 0

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The solution of the above equation has already been calculated as

0 1 + 2 0 = sin =

2

sin ----Equation C

or = 0 1 + 2

2

sin

Transmissibility is defined as the maximum amplitude of vibration of the equipment to the maximum amplitude of vibration of the supports. or

= 1 + 2 2

Note: Transmissibility of Acceleration is Equal to Transmissibility of displacement Exercise: Differentiate = twice. Then differentiate Equation C twice.

Calculate

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Free-Vibration Decay Method: Procedure: Deflect the structure, remove force instantaneously, measure peaks m cycles apart. The damping ratio: where

Advantages: i. Simplest and most frequently used method. ii. Equipment and instrumentation requirements are minimal.

Disadvantages: i. Damping so obtained is often dependent on amplitude (because damping are not exactly proportional to velocity). ii. Generally, smaller amplitudes results in smaller values of damping.

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Resonant Amplification Method: Procedure: i. Select amplitude of applied dynamic loading. ii. Load structures at discrete frequencies, measure maximum amplitude of steady state response. iii. Plot these values to obtain frequencyresponse curve. iv. Calculate using 1 1 = = 0 2 2 1 2 Disadvantages: i. 0 is not always known since typical loading system cannot produce loading at zero load. ii. is dependent on amplitude of loading.

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Resonant Amplification Method: Procedure: Same as Resonant Amplification Method Derivation: 1 From Resonance Analysis: = 2 The Dynamic Mag. Fact: 1 + 2 The value of at which = 2

2 1 2 2

2 1/2

Squaring both sides, solving resulting quadratic Taking square root of the above expression and using Taylor series i.e. Subtracting the roots from each other -- Equation D

30

Adding both roots results in

--- Equation E From equations D & E

Advantage: i. 0 does not need to be calculated for this case. Disadvantage: i. The shape of the frequency response curve has to be determined carefully.

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