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# Civil Engineering Department

## Structural Analysisspring 2013

(single degree of freedom - free vibrations)

M.Sc. Structures (Stanford University) Ph.D. Structures (Stanford University)

## Equation of Motion of The Basic Dynamic System

Free Vibration: When a structure is disturbed from its equilibrium position and allowed to vibrate without any external force. Components of Dynamic System: i. Mass ii. Elastic Properties (Stiffness) iii. Energy Loss Mechanism (Damping) iv. The External Force Acting on the System The First Derivation Use dAlemberts Principle to express equilibrium of forces acting on the block ------Equation 1

## Equation of Motion of The Basic Dynamic System

Note: DAlemberts Principle (named after French Mathematician Jean le
Rond dAlembert) states that different of sum of forces acting on a system of mass particles and time derivative of momenta of the system is equal to zero. From Newtons Second Law:

## Assuming Viscous Damping:

Finally, the Elastic Force can be obtained from Plugging all of the above values into Equation 1, we have

## Equation of Motion of The Basic Dynamic System

The virtual work Derivation
If mass is given a virtual displacement , the total work done by equilibrium of forces must be equal to zero.

The negative signs in the above equation indicates that force act in the negative direction relative to the direction of motion. Plugging in all constituent values, we have Since 0

## Equation of Motion of The Basic Dynamic System

Influence of Gravitational Forces
From Equilibrium of forces Expressing The component forces can be evaluated as The equation of motion can then be written Noting that , we have

## Equation of Motion of The Basic Dynamic System

Since does not vary with time The equation of motion can then be written as Note: equation of motion expressed with reference to static-equilibrium position of dynamic system is not effected by gravity.

## Influence of Support Excitation

Dynamic deflections can be induced by motion of support points e.g. i) Excitation of supports by E.Q. ii) Motions of base of equipment due to vibration of foundation

## Equation of Motion of The Basic Dynamic System

Assumptions
The Girder is Rigid. The Columns are Weightless. The Columns are Inextensible in Axial Direction. Resistance to Lateral Displacement is Provided by Columns. The Damper Provides a Velocity Proportion Response to Displacement From Equilibrium in Horizontal Direction. The Inertial Force is given by where represents total displacement of mass from fixed reference axis.

## Equation of Motion of The Basic Dynamic System

The total motion of mass, can be expressed as Plugging this value of back into equation of motion results in The above expression can then be manipulated to yield Note: () is called effective support excitation An alternate form of above equation can be obtained by using instead of ().

R.H.S. depends on velocity and displacement of earthquake motion. L.H.S. depends on quantities depending on total displacement.

## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Math Preliminaries

Math Preliminaries
The Complex Number Concept
A Complex Number G has real and imaginary parts The Polar form of Complex Number in complex plane. where = || is the length of the vector. Using Eulers Identity, the polar form can be expressed as Note: Multiplying G by rotates it by /2 e.g. = + = +

## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Math Preliminaries

Eulers Identity
Taylors Series = +
=

= +

sin =

## Expressing with = and 0 = 0 = + . . + . + . . . + . + . ! ! ! ! ! ! !

= + . . + . + . . + . . + . ! ! ! ! ! ! ! = + . sin
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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures

For a freely vibrating structure, the equation of motion becomes The solution of the above linear, 2nd order homogeneous differential equation is

where G is a complex constant and s is a real constant. Plugging in the value of into the equation of motion results in

## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures

Case 1 - Damping c=0:
When c=0, the values of s becomes The general solution of the differential equation then comes out to be ----Equation 3 The complex constants can be expressed as Also from Eulers Identity Plugging all values in Equation 3 results in

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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures

The free vibration response HAS TO BE REAL. Terms inside square brackets should be zero. Only possible if 1 and 2 are complex conjugate pair. The solution equation becomes = 2 cos 2 sin() Using Euler Identity to expand in the above equation results in where The value of A and B can be determined from initial conditions (0) and 0 , resulting in

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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures

The equation of motion becomes The Solution Represents SHM The time required to complete 1- Cycle, T is given by

The frequency of motion is given by T is measured in secs and f is measured in Hertz (Hz). The maximum value of displacement is given by The phase angle is given by

## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Critically Damped Structures

From previous derivation (Equation 2) If 0 ----Equation 4 Critically Damped Structures When the Radical term vanishes i.e.
2
2

= 2

or
= 2

1 = 2 = = 2

## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Critically Damped Structure

Note The 2nd term must contain t because the two roots of the equation are identical. 1 2 are real since () is real. From initial conditions, (0) and (0) For +ve values of (0) and (0), the plot is shown adjacent Note: System does not oscillate about zero deflection. Single zero displacement crossing occurs if velocity and displacement are different. Smallest Amount of Damping for which no Oscillation occurs for free vibrating structure is defined as Critical Damping.
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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Under-Critically Damped Structure

Under-Critically Damped Structure Definition
When < = 2, the structure is termed as under-critically damped structure.

Derivation of Expression
From previous derivation (Equation 2)

1,2 = . 1 2 2
2

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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Under-Critically Damped Structure

1,2 = . 1 2

Defining
Free Vibrating Frequency of Damped Structure, = 1 2 1,2 = . From Previous Calculations, Particular solution of equation of motion was calculated as

The general solution of the equation can be evaluated using 1,2 = 1 exp[ + . ] + 2 exp[ . ] or = 1 exp . + 2 exp . exp() As argued previously, 1 and 2 are complex conjugates since response has to be real. Hence 1 = + . ; 2 = .
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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Under-Critically Damped Structure

From Boundary Conditions

Alternatively In which

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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Under-Critically Damped Structure

Note: for < 20%, 1 Calculation of From consideration of any two successive peaks at (2 ) & ( + 1)(2 )
+1

## cos 2 + exp 2 = = exp(2/ ) cos ( + 1)2 + exp ( + 1)2

Logarithmic Decrement, ln
+1

## Taking natural log on both sides and inserting, = 1 2

=
2 1 2

For low values of Taking exponent on both sides and using Taylor Series to open Resulting Expression

2 = exp exp 2 = 1 + 2 + +1 2!

+
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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Under-Critically Damped Structure

Retaining the first two terms in Taylor Series

For Lightly damped systems, greater accuracy is achieved by considering peaks several cycles apart

## This can be simplified to

Convenient rule of thumb: For = 10%, 5% & 2.5% , the amplitude of vibration reduces to 50% of initial value after 1, 2 and 4 cycles respectively.

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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Over-Critically Damped Structure

Over-Critically Damped Structures Structures which have

## > 1, are referred to as over-critically

damped structures. Equation of Motion For this case, the solution of quadratic equation where

becomes

## Resulting derivation then results in

The values of A and B can be evaluated from initial values, = 0 ; = 0 The motion of over-critically damped system is similar to motion of critically damped, except that the return to zero deflection is slower.
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## Analysis of SDOF Free Vibrating Structures Summary of Equations and Responses

Undamped: Critically Damped: Under-Critically Damped: Over-Critically Damped: = 0 cos +
0

sin()

= 0 1 + 0 exp()
= 0 + 0 exp()

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Solution

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