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(single degree of freedom - free vibrations)

Fawad Muzaffar

M.Sc. Structures (Stanford University) Ph.D. Structures (Stanford University)

Free Vibration: When a structure is disturbed from its equilibrium position and allowed to vibrate without any external force. Components of Dynamic System: i. Mass ii. Elastic Properties (Stiffness) iii. Energy Loss Mechanism (Damping) iv. The External Force Acting on the System The First Derivation Use dAlemberts Principle to express equilibrium of forces acting on the block ------Equation 1

Fawad Muzaffar 2

Note: DAlemberts Principle (named after French Mathematician Jean le

Rond dAlembert) states that different of sum of forces acting on a system of mass particles and time derivative of momenta of the system is equal to zero. From Newtons Second Law:

Finally, the Elastic Force can be obtained from Plugging all of the above values into Equation 1, we have

Fawad Muzaffar

The virtual work Derivation

If mass is given a virtual displacement , the total work done by equilibrium of forces must be equal to zero.

The negative signs in the above equation indicates that force act in the negative direction relative to the direction of motion. Plugging in all constituent values, we have Since 0

Fawad Muzaffar

Influence of Gravitational Forces

From Equilibrium of forces Expressing The component forces can be evaluated as The equation of motion can then be written Noting that , we have

Fawad Muzaffar

Since does not vary with time The equation of motion can then be written as Note: equation of motion expressed with reference to static-equilibrium position of dynamic system is not effected by gravity.

Dynamic deflections can be induced by motion of support points e.g. i) Excitation of supports by E.Q. ii) Motions of base of equipment due to vibration of foundation

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Assumptions

The Girder is Rigid. The Columns are Weightless. The Columns are Inextensible in Axial Direction. Resistance to Lateral Displacement is Provided by Columns. The Damper Provides a Velocity Proportion Response to Displacement From Equilibrium in Horizontal Direction. The Inertial Force is given by where represents total displacement of mass from fixed reference axis.

Fawad Muzaffar 7

The total motion of mass, can be expressed as Plugging this value of back into equation of motion results in The above expression can then be manipulated to yield Note: () is called effective support excitation An alternate form of above equation can be obtained by using instead of ().

R.H.S. depends on velocity and displacement of earthquake motion. L.H.S. depends on quantities depending on total displacement.

Fawad Muzaffar 8

Math Preliminaries

The Complex Number Concept

A Complex Number G has real and imaginary parts The Polar form of Complex Number in complex plane. where = || is the length of the vector. Using Eulers Identity, the polar form can be expressed as Note: Multiplying G by rotates it by /2 e.g. = + = +

Fawad Muzaffar

Eulers Identity

Taylors Series = +

=

= +

sin =

= + . . + . + . . + . . + . ! ! ! ! ! ! ! = + . sin

10

Fawad Muzaffar

For a freely vibrating structure, the equation of motion becomes The solution of the above linear, 2nd order homogeneous differential equation is

where G is a complex constant and s is a real constant. Plugging in the value of into the equation of motion results in

Fawad Muzaffar 11

Case 1 - Damping c=0:

When c=0, the values of s becomes The general solution of the differential equation then comes out to be ----Equation 3 The complex constants can be expressed as Also from Eulers Identity Plugging all values in Equation 3 results in

Fawad Muzaffar

12

The free vibration response HAS TO BE REAL. Terms inside square brackets should be zero. Only possible if 1 and 2 are complex conjugate pair. The solution equation becomes = 2 cos 2 sin() Using Euler Identity to expand in the above equation results in where The value of A and B can be determined from initial conditions (0) and 0 , resulting in

Fawad Muzaffar

13

The equation of motion becomes The Solution Represents SHM The time required to complete 1- Cycle, T is given by

The frequency of motion is given by T is measured in secs and f is measured in Hertz (Hz). The maximum value of displacement is given by The phase angle is given by

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From previous derivation (Equation 2) If 0 ----Equation 4 Critically Damped Structures When the Radical term vanishes i.e.

2

2

= 2

or

= 2

1 = 2 = = 2

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Note The 2nd term must contain t because the two roots of the equation are identical. 1 2 are real since () is real. From initial conditions, (0) and (0) For +ve values of (0) and (0), the plot is shown adjacent Note: System does not oscillate about zero deflection. Single zero displacement crossing occurs if velocity and displacement are different. Smallest Amount of Damping for which no Oscillation occurs for free vibrating structure is defined as Critical Damping.

16

Under-Critically Damped Structure Definition

When < = 2, the structure is termed as under-critically damped structure.

Derivation of Expression

From previous derivation (Equation 2)

1,2 = . 1 2 2

2

17

1,2 = . 1 2

Defining

Free Vibrating Frequency of Damped Structure, = 1 2 1,2 = . From Previous Calculations, Particular solution of equation of motion was calculated as

The general solution of the equation can be evaluated using 1,2 = 1 exp[ + . ] + 2 exp[ . ] or = 1 exp . + 2 exp . exp() As argued previously, 1 and 2 are complex conjugates since response has to be real. Hence 1 = + . ; 2 = .

18

From Boundary Conditions

Alternatively In which

19

Note: for < 20%, 1 Calculation of From consideration of any two successive peaks at (2 ) & ( + 1)(2 )

+1

Logarithmic Decrement, ln

+1

=

2 1 2

For low values of Taking exponent on both sides and using Taylor Series to open Resulting Expression

2 = exp exp 2 = 1 + 2 + +1 2!

+

20

Retaining the first two terms in Taylor Series

For Lightly damped systems, greater accuracy is achieved by considering peaks several cycles apart

Convenient rule of thumb: For = 10%, 5% & 2.5% , the amplitude of vibration reduces to 50% of initial value after 1, 2 and 4 cycles respectively.

21

Over-Critically Damped Structures Structures which have

damped structures. Equation of Motion For this case, the solution of quadratic equation where

becomes

The values of A and B can be evaluated from initial values, = 0 ; = 0 The motion of over-critically damped system is similar to motion of critically damped, except that the return to zero deflection is slower.

22

Undamped: Critically Damped: Under-Critically Damped: Over-Critically Damped: = 0 cos +

0

sin()

= 0 1 + 0 exp()

= 0 + 0 exp()

23

Solution

24

25

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