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Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems
1 2 3 Tho Army
The defensive task of an army is to conduct operations on the ground that will wear the enemy down by a process of attrition and repel or deter an attack. T o achieve this end, the army will make use of the usual corps: Infantry; Armored units; Artillery; Engineers.
To stop or weaken enemy forces, the army will have at its disposal ballistic or inertial-guidance SSMs and long-range artillery to strike in-depth and to prevent the enemy from taking the initiative. It will have tanks to counter enemy tanks. Those tanks will have weapon delivery systems controlled by laser rangefinders, which enable them to hit with the first shot, hopefully without having come to a halt. The army will be provided with SAM systems (Figure 1.19) to counter the enemy's ground attack aircraft, as well as with radar-guided artillery (MA) (Figure 1.20). A characteristic of army systems is their mobiliry, so
Figure 1.19 S A M systems are frequently used to defend ground forces against air raids. The photograph showsthe Soviet SA-13 battery.
The photographs show (a) the Soviet ZSU-23. .Figure 120 Radar-guided anti-aircraft artillery has shown its great effectiveness.4 system and (b) the integrated point defense SKYGYARD.
The photograph shows the A-129 antitank helicopter. The army will also be equipped with helicopters (Figure 1.21) able to climb swiftly and to launch wire.or infrared-guided ASMs against enemy ranks.20 Introduction to Electronic Defense Svnems that they can easily follow troop movements and be redeployed frequently to avoid being detected and destroyed. Figurel2l Thanks to as mobility. . the helicopter is extremely effectiveagainn tanks.
also known as unmanned air vehicles (UAVs).or infrared-guided missiles. T o sum up. Battlefield surveillance systems. In fact. Long-. Artillery systems. f ~ e or d mobile. C ~systems sists of a multitude of extremely mobile units whose activities are constantly in need of coordination. SAM systems. Antimortar radars and WLRs. . infrared systems. the army will use dedicated information-gathering sensors. Search and acquisition radar systems to detect the ground attack aircraft.Electronic Defense 21 T o help them control the battlefield. the main systems employed by the armed forces against which protection is required are the following: Search systems. The army will have antimortar radar systems capable of locating accurately the direction and hence the location from which projectiles are fired so as to be able to direct counterfire with precision to destroy the battery. weapon-locating radars (WLRs) have been developed to specifically locate the source of rockets. SSM systems. More recently.and short-range artillery systems.3 The Main Weapon Systems All the operations listed above are conducted in two phases: first the detection phase. and remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs). Helicopters with wire. AAA systems. 1. the army will mainly draw upon the following weapon systems: C31systems. Accordingly. medium. and then the response phase in which missiles or guns are used. the army conIn an army. Armored vehicles. I have great importance. such as radars. Missile systems.
The concept of electronic defense. As already stated. The performance of an air defense system depends on the capabilities of the long-range search radar associated with it. if the energy source is an illuminator at the missile site and the seeker is a tracking radar receiver that sees radiation reflected by the target. A number of tracking radars.22 Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems The functioning of all these systems is based on the use of electronic sensors. as the ensuing data processing can take place in remote. Homing. are all consequences of this fact. Passive. and the mission it has to accomplish. An electronic device designed to jam a detection system can interfere only with the radar sensor and its signal processing. In order to understand the way in which jamming interferes with weapon systems. it is necessary to examine in more detail how the weapon systems themselves are structured and how they operate. It has been amply proved that the effectiveness of a weapon system is destroyed by adequately jamming its sensors. . a missile system usually consists of: A medium-range search radar (acquisition radar). Semiactive. An artillery system consists of: A medium-range search radar (acquisition radar). if the missile has a seeker that does not require any transmitter but detects the energy radiated by the target in the infrared. each tracking one target to supply guidance data for the missile. or microwave spectrum. A missile may be guided exclusively by commands from the tracking radar (command missile) or it may be launched on the basis of data supplied by the tracking radar. if the missile is fitted with a sensor (seeker comprising a small tracking radar). the development of specialized equipment. can be as follows: Active. ultraviolet. therefore. well-protected command and control centers. and then acquire signals for self-guidance to its target (homing). A number of missile launchers.
which could be the victim of electronic jamming systems: Search radar." This section deals with the electronic defense devices themselves. and supplies its data to a computer that accurately computes the interceptor point and aims the weapon. Tracking radar.1 The Organization of Electronic Defense It should be remembered that the ultimate objective of electronic defense is to minimize the effectiveness of those weapon systems that draw on . 1. Radio-frequency seeker. detects. The tracking radar searches.Electronic Defense 23 A number of tracking radars (sometimes the tracking is achieved by optical means).4. These systems will also be examined briefly in Chapter 3. Chapter 3 will analyze the way in which the weapon systems themselves operate. Electro-optic search systems. T o sum up. their military functions. In Chapter 2.3. Here too the search radar detects and identifies the target. based on "hard kill. 1. and how by interfering with them "soft kills" of the enemy can be achieved. A number of cannon and machine guns.4 The Objectives of Electronic Defense In Section 1. The armed forces coordinate among themselves by extensive use of communications systems. the main means of defense and offense have been listed. Infrared seeker. then designates it to a tracking radar. acquires. it is apparent from this review that all of the weapon systems that we have examined employ one of the following sensors. and tracks the indicated target. T o show to what extent disturbance of a sensor is useful for electronic defense. an analysis of the way in which the sensors operate will also indicate their weaknesses and the possibilities for interfering with them. which can be jammed.
which has as its aim the maximum reduction of the operational capabilities of enemy electronic devices.22. Tactical knowledge of the enemy's devices. This is obtained by monitoring and studying the signals that they emit [signal intelligence (SIGINT)].22). Generation of electronic countermeasures (ECM).24 Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems electronic sensing devices for their operation. For example. Responses employing traditional weapons are not discussed here. T o achieve this end. This is needed both for a defensive response for self-protection or mutual protection and for an electronic offense operation suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD). including search radars.5 Electronic Defense Systems and Their Operational Objective The main electronic defense systems will be defined here according to their position in the table of organization (Figure 1. as shown in Figure 1. the following measures are necessary: Strategic knowledge of the enemy's electronic devices. which collect . Adoption of electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). and communications systems. it is possible to have two separate electronic support measures (ESM) and ECM systems. or one integrated system. or around the protected point or platform. Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) The task of SIGINT systems is the acquisition of as much data as possible about the electromagnetic emissions of a potential enemy. when both functions are performed together. They can be further classified into electronic intelligence (ELINT) systems. is based on the above list. that is. 1. It is in fact sometimes possible to reduce or eliminate an intentionally caused disturbance or interference by incorporating filters and other special devices. It should be remembered that an electronic defense system can consist of a collection of the equipment described next. laser systems. infrared systems. acquisition and tracking radars. knowledge of the distribution over an area. of hostile electromagnetic sources [electronic order of battle (EOB)]. The organizational display of electronic defense.
22 Electronic defense organization. Figure 1.Electronic I I I IW intelligence Electronic support measures Electronic countermeasures Electronic countercountermeasures Information warfare I Electronic intelligence EL'NT I COMINT Communications intelligence I II (Communication) ECM 1 (Weapons systems) (Weapons systems) ECM 1 ECCM 1 I (Communication) ECCM I I CI Counter information CCI Counter-counter information prl onboard rn off-board Expendable decoys Towed decoys I ESM RWR 1 (Weapons systems) 1 ESM (Communication) 1 Passive ECM Location Reduction Deception IRMC cources z R . .
or at different times. Figure 1. and correlates them with the information gathered by equipment of other types. and the location of hostile electronic emissions. located on sufficiently elevated mountain sites and on promontories or straits. fingerprinting).e. the time dependence. These systems can be airborne for deep probes into the electronic scenario of a potentially hostile country. and to associate with them a serial number of the enemy's equipment (i. all the electromagnetic radiation generated in a potentially hostile country. which collect enemy communication data. and communications intelligence (COMINT) systems. for strategic purposes.. Their function is primarily a strategic one. or by other organizations. . they are essential for the identification of a potential enemy's operational procedures.23 The main purpose of an ELINT system is to intercept and analyze. which codes them suitably. It should also be able to analyze the enemy's electronic signals both in time and in frequency. sometimes even in a one-to-one relation.26 Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems radar emission data. The collected data are usually transmitted to an analysis center. Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) This equipment must be able to define the characteristics. for control of sea traffic (Figure 1. They can also be land-based. memorizes them in a database. thus making it possible to follow the movement of the equipment.23).
that is. Electronic Support Measures (ESM) The main objective of equipment of this type of class is tactical interception. The simplest systems are those whose main function is to detect the presence of already known emitters by comparison of the intercepted signals with stored data. is more sophisticated. Its task is an almost real-time reconstruction of an electromagnetic scenario. They are mainly committed to aircraft defense and enable the pilot to react promptly either by an evasive maneuver.Electronic Defense 27 All this information. which consists of explosive cartridges containing millions of tiny. or by both a maneuver and the simultaneous launching of chaff. They are called radar warning receivers (RWR). will be used to build up special files in which all emissions and other features of enemy equipment will be listed (libraries). From these files information is compiled to be loaded into the memories of electronic defense equipment used for detection of enemy signals. These are the ESM systems. which can be highly complex and previously unknown. high reliability. RWR The main features of equipment of this class are simplicity (they measure few parameters with moderate accuracy). or by a combination of these different techniques. processed according to operational criteria established by the military organizations. the presence in a given direction of the radar of a hostile weapon system locked on to the protected platform. and can therefore contribute to an attack by identifying and detecting enemy platforms. capable of generating a very strong radar echo that masks the platform (see Chapter 5). low weight. . extremely light dipoles. including previously unknown emitters. They are used to detect an imminent threat. which can instead reconstruct a very complex electromagnetic scenario. or by generating electronic jamming signals. Communications Intelligence (COMINT) These systems are similar to the preceding ones. This equipment. and low cost. but their task is the interception and analysis of telecommunications emissions and the identification of relevant communications networks. ESM This class of equipment is characterized by medium to high complexity and sophistication.
amplitude. and is called sorting or deinterleaving. and so forth. by discovering the presence of enemy platforms (ESM on a naval platform) (Figure 1. 3 Figure 1. modulated pulses. wrong conclusions are reached: Emitters that do not really exist are created. Reconstruction of the electromagnetic environment depends both on detection of the electromagnetic signal input to the antennas and on characterization of signals in terms of carrier frequency. Frequently. and so false alarms are generated that reduce the reliability of the equipment. The main aim of such a system is to give a picture of the electromagnetic scenario in the environment both for self-defense. time of arrival (TOA). direction of arrival (DOA). are dispersed on bandwidths from a few hundred megahertz to a few tens of gigahertz to millimeter waves.24). 2 TN3:RADAR No. . and for passive surveillance of a wide area (ESM on an aerial platform or landbased network of ESM systems). modulation on pulse (MOP).24 The purpose of an ESM system is to detect the presence of enemy platforms by intercepting their electromagnetic emissions. and modulation and amplitude of continuous waves (CW). Out of this information an ESM installation must extract knowledge of the generating emitters. including pulses. the total "traffic" consists of pulse and continuous wave signals. automatic extraction is even more difficult. form and modulation in time. Pulse signals are frequently very dense (millions of pulses per second). Because of the variability of the signals. Usually. pulse width (PW). and make use of the most varied wave forms.28 Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems starting from the interception of the multitude of signals crowding into its antenna. The process of correlating pulses and of grouping them in possible "families" is a very complex one. TN2:RADAR No.
should be distinguished from much more complex and costly systems capable of warning automatically. This means that the presence of an infrared missile cannot be detected by any radio frequency electronic support measure equipment. fonvardlooking infrared (FLIR). The problem with these sensors is that the background infrared radiation usually gives a much stronger signal than the signal produced by the threat to be intercepted. while laser designators give precision guidance for bombs or missiles toward ground targets. Among the latter. This kind of equipment is in fact capable of detecting either the aerodynamic heating or the infrared radiation produced by the booster at the time of launching. however. Infrared Warning Enemy missiles with infrared guidance do not need to radiate any RF signals because they lock onto infrared emission naturally generated from a target. In tank warfare. Laser Warning Receivers The last decade has seen a proliferation of weapons either guided or controlled by a laser emitter. which has to be extracted from a crowded and complicated background. such as infrared search and track (IRST). The desire to defend a platform against missile attack. as the complex electromagnetic signal. often conflicts with the need to keep radar turned off to avoid detection by the enemy (a "radar silence" situation). laser rangefinders yield accurate ranges. is usually not known in advance. the simpler surveillance or infrared vision systems. Knowledge of enemy intentions is of the first importance to the choice of appropriate action and to the effecting of electronic countermeasures. for example. In fact. . In this case. ESM automatic extraction is generally regarded as one of the most difficult problems.Electronic Defense 29 In the field of military electronics. Systems that detect the infrared radiation emitted at launch are distinct from those that detect aerodynamic heating. passive electro-optic sensors offer a solution. The aim of these systems is to intercept all enemy communications. The carbon dioxide laser now allows missiles to be guided toward fast-moving platforms. their detection is normally obtained by dedicated radar. both for location of transmitters and radio relay systems and for detection and decoding of the messages themselves.
In this case. T o this end a new technology has been developed in recent years for the study of materials and structural geometries capable of minimizing target RCS. the supporters of the stealth aircraft in the United States call it "invisible." Noise Jammers A noise jammer generates signals of the same frequency as an opponent's radar. the best way of preventing dangerous response is to avoid detection. These signals create a disturbance equivalent to a very strong thermal . These are very promising. even at altitudes different from those filled with chaff (Figure 1.25). it is time to describe those systems whose task is the neutralization of hostile electronic systems that have been detected. Chaff generates wide corridors within which search radars are dazzled. Chaff A chaff system comprises a launcher that ejects cartridges. Since the signal received by a radar is directly proportional to the radar cross section (RCS) presented by the platform. These dipoles remain suspended in space.30 Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems Obviously. the weapon system's radar is usually deceived by the strong signal produced by the chaff and is diverted from the pursuit of the true target. These cartridges explode within a certain distance of the protected platform and disperse a multitude of tiny dipoles into space. Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) After this brief survey of the main types of equipment for reconnaissance of the electromagnetic environment surrounding a protected area. Sometimes chaff is launched from a platform as a defense against an attacking weapon system. the first requirement of adequate defense against such threats is the ability to detect their presence. producing a cloud that radiates back radar signals. a drastic reduction of the strength of the radar signal produced by the protected platform is very desirable. The techniques are usually called stealth techniques. This is what laser warning receivers do. aircraft flying at great heights dispense an enormous quantity of chaff over a very wide area. and therefore cannot identify aircraft targets. Their purpose is either to conceal the protected platform or to deceive the hostile weapon system by creating spurious targets. Stealth Techniques Naturally. T o create these corridors.
the signal produced by the platform is drowned in noise and is no longer "visible" (Figure 1. Figure 1. . conductive metal foil strip dipoles is used to create areas in which radar is blinded and cannot see targets.Electronic Defense 31 Figure 1. Thus.25 Chaff consisting of clouds of extremely light.26 The purpose of a noise jammer is to mask targets by emission of signals that create confusion on the radar display.26). noise in the radar receiver.
a Figure 1... Currently there are two types of system: onboard and off-board.27). False target ..... In the case of tracking radars. Decoys can be passive (a corner reflector on a buoy) or active (i....... In the case of search radars. Inability to rely on its communications systems is a major drawback for any armed force.. A decoy is considered to be an object...32 Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems Deception Jammers A deception jammer generates false radar targets.... in order to jam the receivers of enemy telecommunications systems.... ECM-COM The purpose of these systems is to generate noise signals.. . thus rendering messages incomprehensible.... it ensures that the tracking and ensuing locking on of the weapon system is progressively shifted onto the false target (Figure 1.. able to return a strongly amplified radar signal)... it impedes identification of the real platform... which generates a spurious but sufficiently convincing target for enemy radar..e...' ... Expendable Decoys There are several types of decoy. Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) These are systems that prevent infrared-guided missiles from reaching the target. or interference. usually ejected from the protected platform.. .'"'" True target .27 The purpose of a deception jammer is to protect a platform by luring enemy radars with false targets.
classification. and manipulation of information. especially in competitions.g. we are now in the Information Age. to the point that it has been claimed that.6 Information Besides the traditional assets present in war operations.Electronic Defense 33 The onboard type is composed of modulated infrared transmitters. thanks to the evolution of computer technology and the associated structured communication network (e. Information technology can be defined as The branch of modern technologies aimed to create new tools and methodologies to support all the phases of information management . the information advantage is considered one of the key elements to achieve and maintain one's superiority over the enemy. the information technology. the Internet) that now allows a quick exchange. storage. an amplitude-modulated infrared signal can introduce huge errors into a missile trajectory. this is even truer in the military field. These systems are designed to prevent accurate rangefinding by a laser system. where the winner is normally the one that had the better information. If information is of vital importance in civilian life. with minimal reduction of their normal capabilities. after the Agricultural Age and the Industrial Age. in recent years the importance of a modern information system in defense operations has emerged very clearly. in the presence of intentional jammers. that is. Today this is even truer. it has become very important to understand the supporting technology. Electronic Counter-Countermeasures (ECCM) These devices are usually added to weapon sensors to enable them to operate in an electronically hostile environment.. Everybody is witnessing the importance of information and requires more and better accessibility to that information. In fact. Since infrared seekers are quite often based on a scanning tracking system. The off-board system is a flare dispenser. which is a launcher capable of ejecting cartridges that generate an intense infrared radiation to deceive the missile heat seeker. 1. Consequently. that is. It is well known that in all life aspects it is necessary for successful operations to possess the right information. They either operate on the same principles as the jammers mentioned above or dispense clouds of smoke that reduce visibility.
retrieval. storage. it will be necessary to protect one's own information operation system from the enemy attacks. dissemination. Besides . that enhances the employment of resources. blind until a few years ago. even if they do not have any special sensor. or transformation of information. Considering the strategic value of information. storage. I 0 can also have a tactical importance.6. and the targets. A ship in the middle of the ocean can receive via satellite communication the complete surrounding situation (wide area picture) even in a complete silent operation mode. and exploitation) in a cost-effective and secure way. Therefore. in order to achieve information superiority. a good definition of information operations can be [I] Any actions involving the acquisition.34 Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems and exploitation (acquisition. 1. the position of the enemy echelons. dissemination. transmission. and exploitation of information are defined as the information operations (10). in the information field. it is clear that in the military field it is of vital importance to achieve and maintain information superiority over the enemy. A soldier in the desert or in a jungle. 1.he strategic value of information operations. In fact. At the same time.2 lnformation Warfare (IW) As in "hard kill" war operations. All the information operations that are dedicated in particular to attacking the enemy information or to protect one's own information can be .1 Information Operation (10) All the operations that involve the gathering. it will be necessary to attack the enemy's information systems in addition to building up a good information system. I 0 can also change significantly the tactical way of conducting war operation. Examples of the tactical exploitation of I 0 include the following: The blind firing against a target with targeting coordinates provided by the information system. can have now in their portable computer the complete picture of the local war theatre: their position.6. where to achieve superiority it is necessary to attack the enemy forces and reduce their capabilities.
the aim of IW is the same as that of I 0 and of all other warfare operations. in warfare operations today information operations have achieved a greater importance than in the past and represent a strategic and tactical interconnective tissue-to protect it. or victory over an adversary. objective. that is. As already emphasized. deny or destroy the enemy information or information resources. Figure 1. A general definition of information warfare is the following : Information Warfare consists of those actions intended to corrupt.Electronic Defense 35 defined as information warfare. to achieve a significant advantage. it is necessary to foresee a good level of information warfare (Figure 1. .28 Information operations as the "broad mean" of acting with high effectiveness.28). and [at] the same time to protect one's own information resources for their good exploitation. O f course.
For example... the use of countermeasures capable of reducing the detection range by half is enough to indicate that the objective of electronic defense has been at least partially achieved. it is easier to neutralize the system. E. However. for instance.. however.36 Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems The attacking I W  operations are generally oriented against the enemy's information-based processes. In fact. that is. Nonvood. October 1998. C. Information Wafare. with the technical solutions and with their distinctive characteristics. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. there is no need to prevent tracking entirely.  . and that this is an absolute requirement for the performance of an artillery system. This book will concentrate more on the technical aspects of information operation (Chapter 3) and information warfare (Chapter 5). Once the problems are known. if it is known that a radar is employed to give an angular tracking accuracy of a milliradian.. if it is known that a search radar guarantees valid protection only if it can detect targets at its maximum range. and computerbased networks. the principles on which it is based. information systems.7 Need for the Study of Weapon Systems The main purposes of electronic defense equipment have now been described. (Col. today it could be necessary. its problems." A disturbance introducing a 10-mrad error will suffice to reduce the effectiveness of the weapon system satisfactorily. 1996. Second Edition. "Electronic Warfare: Foundation of Information Operations. 1. in general. for strategic purposes their targets can be even wider." Journal of Electronic Defense. MA: Artech House. Chapters 4 and 5 will deal with actual performance. Waltz. before contemplating action against a weapon system (the "victim" of the jamming). USAF). W. it is necessary to know how the weapon system operates. to use the information to influence people and organizations through a planned use of the mass media. 1998. T. Schwartau. and its limits. Information Wafare: Principles and Operations. Again. It is precisely by amplifying the problems of weapon system sensors that enemy forces can be weakened. to achieve a "break lock. References [I]  Allan.
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