# Recitation 18

BJT: Regions of Operation & Small Signal Model

6.012 Spring 2009

Recitation 18: BJT-Regions of Operation & Small Signal Model
BJT: Regions of Operation
System of equations that describes BJT operation: Ic = Is exp( IB IE qVBE qVBC Is qVBC ) − exp( ) − (exp( ) − 1) kT kT βR kT Is qVBE Is qVBC = (exp( ) − 1) + (exp( ) − 1) kT kT βF βR qVBE qVBC Is qVBE = −Is (exp( ) − exp( )) − (exp( ) − 1) kT kT kT βF Is = βF = βR = qAE n2 i DnB NaB wB NdF DnB wE NaB DpE wB NdC DnB wC NaB DpC wB

This set of equations can describe all four regimes of operation for BJT

Forward Active: VBE > 0, VBC < 0

1

Recitation 18 BJT: Regions of Operation & Small Signal Model 6. VBC > 0 2 .012 Spring 2009 Reverse Active (RAR) VBE < 0. VBC > 0 Cut-oﬀ VBE < 0. VBC < 0 Saturation VBE > 0.

VBC reduces.Recitation 18 BJT: Regions of Operation & Small Signal Model 6. hole ﬂux into emitter must be reduced. VCE curve: IC drops rapidly below VCE. As we reduce VCE . Why? • Each curve IB is ﬁxed • VCE = VBE − VBC . =⇒ VBC = VBE − VCE • When VCE is large. Small Signal Model of BJT (Next week we will be using BJT & MOSFET for ampliﬁer circuits) Want to know the small signal circuit model of BJT δic 1. diﬀerent from MOSFET: gm bipolar case.2 V. =⇒ IC drops quickly. to keep IB constant. VBC < 0. but not for L . at some point. 3 q Ic Is eqVBE /kT = kT Vth w 2 ID (depends upon device size). VBC starts to become forward biased. Now. FAR. =⇒ VBE drops.1 to 0.012 Spring 2009 Understanding the IC vs.SAT 0. hole ﬂux from B → C increases exponentially from Law of Junction. Transconductance gm = δVBE Q Ic = Is eqVBE /kT =⇒ gm = Note.

Model: go = slope = go = 1 Ic = γo VA VCE ) Example: Ic = 100 μA.7 kΩ) βF 150 3. This is also why NaB usually NdC 4 . VA = 35 V. Output resistance: Ebers-Moll model have perfect current source in FAR.267 mS (γπ = 3. In order to have a high input resistance for BJT. Input resistance: IB = gπ = or γπ = Is qVBE /kT e βF 1 δiB IB gm = = = γπ δVBE Vth βF βF gm The input resistance of MOSFET is ∞. =⇒ γo = 350 kΩ VA increases with increasing base width and increasing base doping. need high current gain βF Example: npn with βF = 150.012 Spring 2009 2. Ic = mA gm = gπ = Ic 1 × 10−3 A = 40 mS = Vth 0.025 V 40 mS gm = = 0. Real characteristics show some increase in ic with VCE go = In FAR: Ic δic where does go come from? δVCE qAE n2 i DnB qVBE /kT = Is eqVBE /kT = e NaB wB Ic VCE + VA Ic (VA VA wB shrinks as |VBC | ↑. thus Ic ↑.Recitation 18 BJT: Regions of Operation & Small Signal Model 6.

CjE CjC ..Recitation 18 BJT: Regions of Operation & Small Signal Model 6. CjC is often called Cμ . Junction Capacitance (depletion capacitance) (B-E): CjE = (B-E): CjC = q s NaB NdE (∵ NdE 2(NaB + NdE )(φBE − VBE ) q s NaB NdC 2(NaB + NdC )(φBC − VBC ) NaB ) q s NdC 2 (φBC − VBE ) • Both are functions of bias • Since NaB NdC .012 Spring 2009 Now what do we have so far? Need to add capacitances. Diﬀusion Capacitance Cb = |QnB | = = Cb = 2 wB 2Dn δ |QnB | δVBE 1 qAE wB npBO eqVBE /kT 2 wB qAE DnB 1 wB npBO eqVBE /kT = 2 DnB wB 2 2 wB wB δ ic = gm δVBE 2DnB 2Dn 2 wB 2DnB Ic = τF base diﬀusion transit time 5 ..

Recitation 18 BJT: Regions of Operation & Small Signal Model 6.012 Spring 2009 Cb is in between base and emitter: Cb + CjE = Cπ Add the following • depletion capacitance: collector to bulk CCS • parasitic resistances: γb of base. γex of emitter. γc of collector Complete small signal model 6 .

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