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PRoviding SolUtionS FoR thE WoRldWidE PUmP indUStRY FEBRUARY 2013
PUMPS AND ENERGY
DEWATERING IN AN EMERGENCY HARNESS THE POWER OF HYDRAULICS INSIST ON BETTER PUMPS
ContEntS 4 8 FEBRUARY 2013 10 Unraveling a Super-Synchronous Pump vibration issue 18 Solving a very dirty Problem Perforated plate dewatering boxes help the pumping and filtration industry clean our water industry news trade Show Profile Case Studies 10 22 A new hope for a Common Water treatment Plant Problem Water & Wastewater Solutions Combining bearing carrier and shaft grounding ring mitigates electrical bearing damage in vertical pump motors 26 insist on Better Pumps Part 2: Breaking the Cycle of Pump Repairs maintenance Solutions 18 32 history Repeats itself Pump Solutions Laying the groundwork for the next generation of centrifuge technology Hydraulically driven submersible pumps offer advantages over electric alternatives 36 harness the Power of hydraulics 40 dewatering in an Emergency A flooding concern dewatering Solutions 44 Pumps and Energy Performance motor Solutions 54 .
All Industry News material has either been submitted by the subject company or pulled directly from their corporate website. or who are not specifically employed by Highlands Publications. or any information storage-and-retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher. and can be submitted to jay@modernpumpingtoday. V.com . electronic or mechanical. please contact Jamie Willett: firstname.lastname@example.org P. Calm.modernpumpingtoday.O. are purely their own. Alabama 35216 T: 866. recording. which is assumed to be cleared for release. Inc.highlandspublications.9796 LARRY DAUGHETY President TIM GARMON Vice President DENNIS DAUGHETY Vice President 56 60 No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. and the global customer base of the future www.P.com LISA AVERY Assistant Art Director email@example.com RUSSELL HADDOCk Sr.com SCOTT GORDON Art Director scott@modernpumpingtoday. CAMPBELL Editor firstname.lastname@example.org | F: 205..com JEFF FLETCHER Associate Publisher jeff@modernpumpingtoday. For address changes. The views expressed by those not on the staff of Modern Pumping Today.com INGRID BERkY Administrative Assistant RANDY MOON Account Executive NANCY MALONE Account Executive DAVID MARLOW Account Executive DON MORGAN Account Executive 54 the BlockBuster Rises to the Challenge 56 monitor Your Pump for Process Efficiency 60 no Seals? no Problem! 62 valves & Controls Solutions Sealing Solutions Non-metallic drum pump is a sealless solution evacuating hazardous and corrosive fluids 64 What Comes next? modern Pumping Products Pumping trends Nidec’s Tim Albers on government regulation.251.com JAMIE WILLETT Circulation Director email@example.com RANDY ARMISTEAD Associate Publisher firstname.lastname@example.org J.com DONNA CAMPBELL Editorial Director email@example.com CHRIS GARMON General Manager chris@modernpumpingtoday. Comments and submissions are welcome. industrial standards.com. Box 660197 | Birmingham. including photocopy.www. Alabama 35266 @ModPumpMag 48 Cool. of Sales/Marketing firstname.lastname@example.org. and Collected An analysis of a circulating water pump system Power generation Solutions Processing Solutions Circumferential piston pump increases productivity and consistency demands for bakery TIM GARMON Publisher email@example.com 312 Lorna Square | Birmingham.
Patterson’s global presence means their customers can easily PATTERSON PUMP COMPANY PARTNERS WITH PUMPSCOUT. com.” Johnson says. horizontal split case. in locations around the world.” says Brian Henry. “We are excited about being a featured supplier on PumpScout. as well as manufacturing plants. The pump manufacturer has sales and service offices. And the end result is a faster process for buyers and more sales for suppliers.” says Justin Johnson.com and connecting with the increasing number of buyers who use the website. in Patterson’s marketing/technical services.com . it’s also fantastic for the thousands of pump buyers who use PumpScout. “We’ve already received several high-quality leads and we’re looking forward to getting even more.com aims to streamline the pump buying process by providing buyers with an easy way to find suppliers and get multiple product quotes.modernpumpingtoday. “Patterson is known around the globe for the quality of their water and waste water products and services. HVAC.” PumpScout. a Gorman-Rupp Company.com.COM tap into to the company’s expertise and service whenever they need. flood control. and industrial. and then PumpScout immediately connects them with pump suppliers who can provide the appropriate product. PumpScout users fill-out the simple quote request form. CEO of PumpScout. “We’re proud of the highvalue leads that we’re sending our partners every day.” Patterson specializes in heavy duty flow control equipment for a range of applications that involve moving water and other liquids such as fire suppression. The company offers numerous pump types including vertical turbine. “This partnership is not only great news for PumpScout.com to find suppliers and pumps. and mixed and axial flow models. “We’ve created an innovative way to ensure that the thousands of people searching the Web for pumps connect with the right suppliers. vertical in-line.com now have access to a range of pumps manufactured by Patterson Pump Company.” 4 | FEBRUARY 2013 www.INDUSTRy news Pump buyers requesting price quotes on PumpScout.
The two-day Commercial Plumbing Applications course is available six times throughout the year beginning in March. “We are continuing our momentum in the commercial plumbing sector by offering several options for professionals to learn more about Uponor PEX-a piping systems. The use of the software is by invitation only but users can visit cloudruge. ■ UPONOR ADDS NEW COMMERCIAL PLUMBING COURSE TO 2013 FACTORY TRAINING SCHEDULE Uponor recently announced its factory training schedule for 2013. The 2013 Uponor Academy factory training schedule also includes Radiant Hydronics and Design with Controls and Advanced Radiant Hydronics with Advanced Design Suite™ (ADS). Ltd. unit piping. Up-time on remote servers is also generally much higher than if the servers are kept in-house. which are also eligible for CEUs. which is eligible for continuing education units (CEUs).” The new Commercial Plumbing Applications Lab features all of Uponor’s products and systems for suspended piping. To learn more about Uponor Academy factory training courses and to register. The course. the features go anywhere with its native mobile version. pipe sizing.com/training. manual work request / work order assigned to asset. The system is a cloud-based CMMS. 6 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. riser piping. asset list import using an Excel file. 2013.INDUSTRy news NEW CLOUD-BASED CMMS LAUNCHES THIS MONTH Cloudruge. “This includes webinars. multi-user.” on the February 13. Attendees who complete the course are eligible for CEUs to meet continuing education requirements. and advanced web application framework.com and request to be added to the invite list. field training. released the alpha version of its free online Computerized Maintenance Management Software (CMMS). upload of documents assigned to assets or assigned to work orders—plus. risers. in-suite and out-of-the-wall plumbing systems to showcase the benefits of the flexible. efficient. and user level implementation. public and service piping. and now factory training with our newly constructed Commercial Uponor Commercial Plumbing Applications Lab Plumbing Applications Lab. and design and installation practices. Other functionality to be available soon on the alpha version includes work-order scheduling. distribution piping. known as “cloudruge. training manager at Uponor.” says Wes Sisco. This results in important cost savings as there is no need to employ specialized IT staff. durable pipe in real-world applications. asset organization tree.com . focuses on codes and standards.uponorpro.modernpumpingtoday. which includes a new course on commercial plumbing applications. The main features of the alpha version are a secure. so the application runs on cloudruge servers and users need only a browser to access it. visit www.
Furthermore.com . Abu Dhabi.modernpumpingtoday. the 18th Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference is truly an oasis of advancement. Sarma of the Petroleum Institute. providing professional networking connections. information. offers participants a chance to learn the psychological factors that employees need to unlock their potential. “Geomechanics for Effective Shale Gas Exploitation. For attendees. an overview of options and tools. ■ www. every aspect of the petroleum field shows their face at MEOS. From regional companies to national oil trusts to multinational conglomerates. of the Vital Work Center. MEOS plays a crucial role in spreading vital operations information.” presented by Dr. as the most widely attended petroleum technology show in the oil-rich region. those who believe oil and gas technology has become endlessly grandfathered by set procedures will be surprised by the wideranging seminars on new techniques and views of the industry’s future. the Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference. Abdullah Al-Mulhim. Featured speakers address topics ranging from shale gas and shale liquid acquisition to unconventional drilling methods to revolutionary facilities management. and partnership. MD. offers participants an interactive environment to discuss the right time for EOR implementation. each addressing unique needs of oil and gas professionals: “How to Charge Your Body Cell Phone. and broader issues from field experience. MEOS is also rightly heralded for its innovative training courses. At MEOS 2013. Since 1979. presents the theoretical underpinning and representative cases for successfully optimizing shale gas exploitation using geomechanics.” led by Professor Hemanta 8 | FEBRUARY 2013 O K.” instructed by Dr. and presenters. This year’s conference will offer three training courses. the conference has maintained a tradition of open and cooperative exchanges within the industry. and allowing a spotlight for the industry’s latest trends. or MEOS. exhibitors. “Enhanced and Improved Oil Recovery Methods.TRADE SHOW profile Expect the Unexpected at MEOS 2013 rganized by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). is the biggest conference of its kind in the Middle East. The exhibit floor will showcase the global reach of the oil and gas industry. Safdar Khan of Schlumberger Canada.
high vibration level. bearing housings. electromagnetics. mechanical Solutions. API pump design to replace the legacy About the Authors Maki Onari is the manager of turbomachinery testing and Eric Olson is the principal engineer at Mechanical Solutions.” requires less several facilities. per second RMS vibration Radial Torsional level occurred at a superTHE INITIAL EVALUATIONS & Axial Strain Gage Proximity and RF synchronous frequency. subject to coke formation.com . For more information. with a tests still exceeded the OEM’s the pump.12 inch per second RMS the OEM still measured at BEP (best efficiency point). 750 feet (228. in spite of the of the support structure. This outcome efficiency of the pump as suggested that the vibration determined by the performance problem’s origin was internal to Figure 2: The accelerometers were “roved” to over one hundred locations. such as the several key probes level was detected on the that was supported with three shown here. Torsional Strain Gage and RF puzzling. housings. 10 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. A pump OEM (original pumps that were being used Radial Optical equipment manufacturer) in vacuum bottoms service at Proximity Tachometer Probes needed help to solve a a sizable petroleum refinery. and that it was not single axis accelerometer always kept at the same location and direction for phase reference. stage.modernpumpingtoday. primarily superInterestingly. The 0. visit www. YIELDED LIMITED INSIGHT Probes Transmitter approximately 100 Hertz. water.6 meters) TDH. the OEM had customized an existing single piping system. suction impeller and a “wrapan elevated overall vibration around” coke-crusher wear ring Figure 1: For the vibration testing. The pump Triaxial performance testing of the featured a six-vane double Accelerometer newly manufactured pump. New Jersey. oil. During the OEM’s routine and 245 horsepower. or the acoustic natural frequencies from the In this case. pump with different drivers “Centrifugal Pumps for General and piping arrangements at Dynamic Pressure Triaxial Refinery Service. the hydraulic synchronous. the problematic double suction pump was outfitted with an array of special instrumentation. double suction.CASE Studies U nraveling a S Uper -S ynchronoUS ib n i SSUe at on ti p Ump V Vibration ra io br Vi By maki onari and Eric olson.154 inch per second levels at the pump’s bearing RMS below 70 percent BEP.mechsol. consistently high vibration and 0. In To determine whether this was distinct contrast with this test a pump or system vibration data. (MSI) of Whippany. OEM recently had designed The rated capacity of the new and built for one of their pumps was 1160 gallons per larger customers in service minute (4391 liters per minute). Unfortunately Transducers Accelerometer than 0. Fahrenheit (371 degrees double suction pumps that the Celsius) in this application. super-synchronous Vacuum residuum (a mix of Transmitter machinery vibration issue. and coke) typically Excessive vibration had was pumped at a 700 degrees emerged in a set of centrifugal.4 inch unevenly spaced struts. motor. the eleventh edition of issue. related to the natural frequency expectations. Inc. inc. the OEM tested the the API 610 specification.com .
Mark 1 (Real) \ FFT Analyzer 1 0. which required the installation of excessive peak-to-peak displacement responses at the bearing a number of transducers on the pump system (figures 1 and 2) housings. about 9 mils.59x rpm Cursor values X: 94.0 mils pk-pk ~9. Orbit (Signal 14. Representative data are presented.com Autospectrum (Signal 2) . Two major peaks stand out deflection shape (ODS) and modal (“bump”) vibration tests of in the plot. the OEM explored internal modifications to the pump orbits.modernpumpingtoday. Signal 17) (Nyquist) where the pump was Working : 1159 GPM Linear Rec 15 OK : Input : FFT Analyzer Working : 1159 GPM Linear Rec 15 OK : Input : FFT Analyzer coupled directly to an induction motor which was controlled through a variable frequency drive (VFD). the structural natural frequencies. and in During the startup and the coast down of the pump.1 mils pk-pk @95 Hz 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 [Hz] [Hz] Figure 3: A representative trace of the velocity response in the vertical direction at the outboard bearing of the pump.2 0. and was [mil] [mil] observed to increase with both flow and speed. The pump was evaluated at different flow capacities.38 in/s RMS IBB Proximity Probe Y: 9.1 50m 20m 10m 5m 2m [in/s] 1m 500u 200u 100u 50u 20u 10u 5u 2u 1u Autospectrum (Signal 17) . The OEM then Radial Proximity Probes brought the pump to ~9.3 Hertz). In all instances.THIS SecTIon SponSored by www. a “wrap-around” cokecrusher wear ring that featured three unevenly spaced struts. the high supersynchronous vibration level remained. the pressure to attempt to mitigate the excessive vibration.59X rpm. Signal 14) (Nyquist) Orbit (Signal 16. of the vertical displacement at the inboard bearing.2 0. as recorded by the pump was equipped with perpendicularly mounted radial proximity probes during the rotordynamic instability event.229 in/s 2 1 0. the root cause of the pump’s unexpected outboard bearing housing.875 Hz Y: 0.875 Hz Y: 0. and the shaft lateral and torsional natural internal modifications proved to be ineffective. in this instance on the Ultimately. these pulsations.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 11 . Figure 3 illustrates the high RMS velocity response due SPECIALIZED TESTING HELD THE KEY to the vibration that was recorded. www.Mark 1 (Real) \ FFT Analyzer Cursor values X: 94. housings. By circumferentially monitoring was performed to observe parameters which staggering the coke-breaker struts and also by removing them included the shaft and bearing vibration amplitudes and entirely. one at 1X rpm and the other at 1.1 50m 1x rpm 1. which occurred at full speed as load was increased. This enabled the pump to be run at two different speeds: 2970 [mil] [mil] rpm (49.5 0. are displayed in figure 4 in terms to collect the considerable amount of test data.5 0.5 Hertz) and 3555 rpm (59. frequencies. A series of operating overall in the vertical direction. nearly 0.yaskawa. Figure 4: The vertical displacement response at the inboard bearing’s proximity probe. which was the pump’s rated speed. However. The the pump were completed. OBB IBB As stated earlier. figure 5 in terms of the radial displacements at both bearing and also during the steady state of operation of the pump.4 inches per second RMS rotordynamic issues was identified. the Figure 5: The radial displacement responses at the inboard and the outboard bearings of the pump.5 mils pk-pk their research and development center.229 in/s [mil] 10m 5m 2m 1m 500u 200u 100u 50u 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 0 20m OBB Vertical Overall: 0.59x rpm 1x rpm 1.
2 0 -0.8 0.5 1 1.3 -2 -1.8 -2 -2.5 -1 -0.2 -1.8 -2 -2.2 1 0.8 -1 -1.3 2 1.3 -2.8 1.3 -2 -1.2 -1.4 -0.com .3 2 1.4 0.2 -0.2 -0.modernpumpingtoday.3 -2.6 -0.6 Shaft position in time (seconds) Vertical [mils] 0.6 -1.6 -1.4 1.3 Vertical [mils] 0.3 Horizontal [mils] Horizontal [mils] Figure 7: Shaft center-line trajectory plots for the outboard and the inboard bearing housings of the pump.6 1. Time(s) Time(s) Frequency [Hz] OBB 2.4 0.8 -1 -1.5 0 0.4 -0.4 -1.6 -0.2 1 0.8 1.4 -1.5 -1 -0.5 2 2.4 1.6 1. 12 | FEBRUARY 2013 www.CASE Studies Pump OBB X 1x rpm 1x rpm Pump OBB Y Time(s) Time(s) Amplitude (mils pk-pk) Amplitude (mils pk-pk) Frequency [Hz] Frequency [Hz] Pump IBB X 1x rpm 1x rpm Pump IBB Y Amplitude (mils pk-pk) Frequency [Hz] Amplitude (mils pk-pk) Figure 6: Horizontal (X) and the vertical (Y) peak-to-peak displacement responses at the inboard and the outboard bearing housings of the pump.8 0. as viewed from the non-driven end (NDE) of the pump.5 1 1.2 0 -0.6 Shaft position in time (seconds) IBB 2.5 0 0.5 2 2.
When the shaft speed was above 1380 rpm. the shaft position is shown during the coast-down of the pump from 3570 rpm. No cracks.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 13 . FCxx. Figure 6 indicates the presence of the super-synchronous vibration in the peak-to-peak displacement responses that were recorded at both bearing housings.com 3D View 3D View Z Y X Y Z X Figure 8: The operating deflection shape (ODS) computer model of the single stage.modernpumpingtoday. In figure 7. The ODS graphical animations that were created from the test data demonstrated the relative motion of each portion of the pump’s structure at a given frequency of vibration (figures 8 through 10). indicating that the shaft moved towards the upper left or nine o’clock position after the pump was started.THIS SecTIon SponSored by www. double suction pump system. the destabilizing static cross-coupled stiffness force. and it is shown to suddenly disappear below 1380 rpm. was larger than the stabilizing damping force. FKyx. The supersynchronous vibration that had plagued the pump clearly is visible in each of the four plots. Operating Deflection Shape (ODS) Operating deflection shape (ODS) testing also was executed during the steady state operation of the pump.yaskawa. The green circles represent the shaft centerline locations at various points in time. delaminations. or loose bolts were www.
4 Hertz [Complex] 3D View BLK: ODS 01 REC 0 Freq: 59. Amp:5 Figure 9: Four stills from the ODS animation. evident in the ODS animations. which included the pump casing. the pump motor.4 Hertz [Complex] Y View BLK: ODS 01 REC 0 Freq: 59. using a cumulative time-analyzing procedure. the pedestals.com .4 Hertz [Complex] Dwell:1.4 Hertz [Complex] 3D View BLK: ODS 01 REC 0 Freq: 94. to determine the mode shapes of the pump structure and of the rotor system at the pump assembly’s natural frequencies of vibration. The data from this testing was mapped on the pump assembly.modernpumpingtoday.8 Hertz [Complex] X View BLK: ODS 01 REC 0 Freq: 59. and the red arrows in the figure indicate the directions of motion of the pump system at this frequency of vibration. and except for the supersynchronous orbiting of the rotor. Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) Experimental modal analysis (EMA) testing was performed during operation. The data consisted of hundreds of sampling locations. and the baseplate 14 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. Figure 10: The operating deflection shape (ODS) of the pump system at 95 Hertz.CASE Studies Z View BLK: ODS 01 REC 0 Freq: 59. the motions due to the vibration of the operating pump generally were considered to be typical for this type of machine. including its rotor system centerline.
The first bending mode of the pump’s rotor was detected at 98 Hertz when the pump was not operating (figure 11) and shifted to about 111 Hertz while the pump was in operation (figure 12) due to the effect of speed and the stiffness from the wear rings. Signal 7) .com Frequency Response (Signal 14. (figures 11 and 12). Figure 12: Additional experimental modal analysis frequency response test results. ensuring absolute precision and reliability. Iowa.Mark 1 (Magnitude) Working: Rotal Modal IBB Hor Rec 9 : Input : Enhanced 10m 3m 1m 100m 30m 10m www.modernpumpingtoday.Input (Magnitude) Working: Input : Input : Enhanced [mil/lbf] 300u 100u 30u 10u 3u 1u 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 [mil/lbf] 3m 1m 300u 100u 30u 10u 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 [Hz] [Hz] Figure 11: An experimental modal analysis test pump rotor frequency response function (FRF) plot recorded at the pump’s inboard bearing radial proximity probe in the vertical (Y) direction. SINCE 1958 Get me a Check-All.THIS SecTIon SponSored by Frequency Response (Signal 17. Plus. A visual inspection of the interior of the pump also was performed (figure 13). The intensive testing pointed to the source of the unusual pump vibration.com FEBRUARY 2013 9/21/12 9:16 AM | 15 . non-axisymmetric pressure within the pump’s “wrap-around” coke crusher wear rings provided the excitation and feedback mechanisms for the unstable rotor whirl. about 9 mils peak-to-peak. The large displacement response of the pump shaft that was detected. Resulting rotating. while the pump was not operating. They work like they should. Once the cross-coupling force from the Superior check valves should . www.indd 5 Manufactured in West Des Moines. Check-All the above Save space Arrive on time Withstand rigorous conditions A superior check valve does all the right things. Fluid whirl rotated at a speed greater than running speed. That’s what makes Check-All the only choice. as is evident in the figure. Signal 7) .. All the better. was enough to have caused contact with the internal “wrap-around” coke-crusher wear rings to occur. due to conservation of angular momentum as the more slowly whirling fluid leaked through the double wear ring gaps. The excessive vibration of the pump was due to rotordynamic instability which excited the first bending mode of the pump shaft. USA • 515-224-2301 • www..checkall. most lead times are less than one week.com Check-All_CheckMateAd_921. Check-All spring loaded check valves are assembled to your exact needs.yaskawa.
Quickly it became apparent from the results of the testing that the wear ring modifications were successful (figures 14 through 16). a limited range of vibration testing was performed by the pump OEM to verify how effective the wear ring modifications were at mitigating the supersynchronous pump vibration. the super-synchronous vibration has disappeared and the overall vibration level has been reduced dramatically.Mark 1 (Magnitude) \ FFT Analyzer 0.250 Hz Y: 8. based on collaborative discussions with the pump OEM. but the overall vibration from the bearing housing and the shaft were less than one quarter of their previous excessive levels.510m in/s A successful solution to the rotor instability problem was devised. which is an expensive 16 | FEBRUARY 2013 Cursor values X: 59. The first bending mode of the pump’s rotor. The solution consisted of the addition of swirl breaks to the “wrap-around" coke-crusher case wear ring.1 50m 1x rpm 20m 10m Immediately after the pump was reassembled. OBB Vertical Overall: 0. Ru bb in g Case wear ring rub only between 9 and 12 O'clock as viewed from the NDE or OBB Figure 13: Images of the pump’s rotor recorded during the visual inspection.CASE Studies wear ring seals exceeded IB side impeller wear ring with the opposing net damping evidence of force that the seals and the rubbing bearings generated together. the rotordynamic instability ensued. dropping its rotational speed away from the shaft’s bending natural frequency. led to the entrainment of the nearby rotor’s lateral natural frequency that enabled unstable response of the shaft vibration at the super-synchronous frequency. This type of unstable operation could not have been predicted analytically through typical rotordynamic analysis. THE SOLUTION WAS VERIFIED AS EFFECTIVE Autospectrum (Signal 3) .1 50m 20m 10m 5m 2m [in/s] 1m 500u 200u 100u 50u 20u 10u 5u 2u 1u A POTENTIAL SOLUTION WAS AT HAND 1x rpm Cursor values X: 59. a trace of the velocity response in the vertical direction at the outboard bearing of the modified pump.3 Hz [Hz] Figure 15: Similar to figure 4. which were generated through the machining of slots in the case wear ring of the pump. The significant excitation which occurred at 95 Hertz. from supersynchronous fluid whirl. This confirmed that a rotordynamic instability had excited the first bending mode of the double suction pump’s rotor and was the root cause of the pump’s excessive vibration. The removal of the material from the case wear ring to create the 18 equally spaced slots formed vanelets that had a width-to-depth ratio of 1:2.5 0. Four equally distributed slots were machined circumferentially at the bottom of the turn-around “pocket”. A detailed CFD analysis of the wear ring would need to have been performed to uncover this form of excitation.2 0.com . and the ID side of the case wear ring also was modified to have between two and three degrees of draft angle.404 mil [mil] 5m 2m 1m 500u 200u 100u 50u 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 ~110 Hz IBB Proximity Probe Y: 1. so the exhausting flow rotation was slowed down by the opening gap. shifted to approximately 111 Hertz while the pump was in operation.1 mils pk-pk @59. The swirl breaks took the form of radial vanelets. a trace of the vertical displacement response of the modified pump at the inboard bearing’s proximity probe verifies the effectiveness of the swirl breaks that had been added to the wear ring.05 in/s RMS 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 [Hz] Figure 14: Similar to figure 3. Not only had the super-synchronous vibration disappeared. www.modernpumpingtoday. Autospectrum (Signal 8) .250 Hz Y: 0.Mark 1 (Magnitude) \ FFT Analyzer 1 0. Unlike in the earlier figure.2 0. which occurred at 98 Hertz.
Signal 4) (Nyquist) Working : 1164 GPM Rec 11 : Input : FFT Analyzer [mil] [mil] [mil] [mil] OBB IBB Figure 16: Comparison of the radial displacement responses (mils) at the inboard and the outboard bearings. ■ FEBRUARY 2013 | 17 .yaskawa. The overall vibration levels which had been recorded at the pump bearing housing and at the pump shaft were less than one quarter of their previous magnitudes. and fell considerably below the recommended 0.5 mils pk-pk Orbit (Signal 16. Once the problem occurred.1 mils pk-pk Mostly Run-Out Orbit (Signal 3.THIS SecTIon SponSored by www. www. Signal 14) (Nyquist) Working : 1159 GPM Linear Rec 15 OK : Input : FFT Analyzer ~9. including modal testing while the pump operated (as performed by the author’s company) was able to diagnose the problem in sufficient detail that a solution could be prescribed.12 inches per second RMS vibration limit of the API 610 specification.com Radial Proximity Probes ~9. and uncommon practice. comprehensive vibration testing.com After the prescribed modifications to the “wrap-around” wear ring were implemented. Swirl breaks were introduced to disrupt the fluid whirl and the non-axisymmetric pressure distribution that had previously been established in the wear rings during the pump’s operation.0 mils pk-pk Orbit (Signal 14. the super-synchronous vibration completely disappeared. which were recorded by the radial proximity probes during the “before and after” vibration monitoring of the pump. Signal 17) (Nyquist) Working : 1159 GPM Linear Rec 15 OK : Input : FFT Analyzer [mil] [mil] [mil] [mil] OBB IBB Radial Proximity Probes ~2 mils pk-pk Mostly Run-Out Orbit (Signal 1.modernpumpingtoday. Signal 2) (Nyquist) Working : 1164 GPM Rec 11 : Input : FFT Analyzer ~2.
and service centers. E FRACKING AND WATER CONTAMINATION Fracking is one of many industries that uses a large amount of water. and specific capabilities to meet the needs of architects. and streams and used in the oil and gas industry for fracking or other energy related ventures.621. Often the job site is in the middle of nowhere and far away from large filtration plants or other infrastructure. natural gas.com .com . Water is pumped from rivers. OEMs. Contaminated water needs to be cleaned and. Water can also experience various levels of contamination as run-off from rain water About the Author Jeff Kaminsky is the national sales manager for Accurate Perforating.823. billions of gallons of our most precious resource are used and often “wasted” in order to produce something or support the manufacturing process.5050 or 800. the water needs to be cleaned on or near the job site. Fracking is a technique that uses pressurized fluid to release petroleum. who offers a breadth of materials.0273 x310 or via email at jkaminsky@accurateperforating. Accurate Perforating very day in various industries throughout the United States. patterns and finishes. in many cases.CASE Studies Figure 1: Dewatering boxes are a mobile solution for remote locations in need of filtration. lakes. customization. That precious resource is water. Perforated Plate dewatering boxes helP the PumPing and filtration industry clean our water By Jeff Kaminsky.modernpumpingtoday. He can be reached at 773. 18 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. or other substances for extraction.
In all cases. rock. The perforated plate can be used to line the entire inside of the dewatering box as is the case in figures 2 and 3.to three-week period. is usually under pressure.modernpumpingtoday. The custom made perforated plate is a major part of the solution. the water that has been used still needs to be sufficiently cleaned before it can be returned to its natural environment.yaskawa.” which are mobile and able to be trucked to industrial sites in urban and rural areas alike. and other www. And many industries are doing their part. is durable. or perforated metal. and even the federal government are requiring industry to clean and recycle the water that they use. Another problem that needed to be addressed was how to handle the large volume of contaminated water that needs to be cleaned. Even though that water is “replaced” naturally by rainfall in a two.76 millimeters) thick to 1/4-inch (6. states.com and contaminants efficiently and cost effectively. local municipalities. or the perforated metal plate can be used to strengthen and support other filter media. the fracking industry has received increased attention for this issue. such as expanded metal. www. Other metals. Either way. and allows engineers to control the flow of pumped materials. According to drilling industry website GoMarcellusShale. When we consider the droughts throughout much of the country this past summer. Accurate Perforating’s team of engineers developed unique tooling and perforated pattern that can perforate heavy steel plate from 3/16-inch (4. or “dewatering boxes. long lasting. perforated metal plate allows the dewatering boxes to process large volumes of liquids PERFORATED PLATE: PART OF THE SOLUTION Accurate Perforating has a team of engineers and designers who work directly with their customers’ engineers to design the best perforated metal solution. In the application in figures 2 and 3.35 millimeters) thick. Perforated plate. and often contains large. com. That water needs to be pumped. that amount of clean water becomes even more important to everyone. In recent years.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 19 . Accurate Perforating offers a tooling library with thousands solid contaminants are pumped into a container. are not able to offer control of the open area or structural integrity as they cannot retain their form when heavy sand. Accurate Perforating has been working with its customers in the pumping and filtration industries to help clean and recycle water long before it was popular to do so.” as it can withstand the heavy sediments and solids that are pumped into large containers called filter shells. a two drilling pad fracking site will use an estimated 12 million gallons of water. The perforated plate offers what is referred to as “load support. heavy rock-like contaminants that can severely damage equipment.THIS SecTIon SponSored by to agricultural contamination to raw sewage from flooding—such as that from the recent floods from Hurricane Sandy.
Once the perforated metal is made.com .CASE Studies Figure 2: Perforated plate lining offers greater control than expanded metal. Accurate Perforating manufactures perforated and fabricated metal in A VARIETY OF FILTERING APPLICATIONS 20 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. Although perforated metal is typically made from carbon steel or stainless steel for heavy screening and filtering applications such as the dewatering boxes. galvanized. of patterns suitable to work with a wide range of metals and gauges. Figure 3: A view inside a dewatering box using perforated plate. and other metals for other screening and filtering applications. it can also be made out of aluminum.modernpumpingtoday. it can be cut to size and welding to the dewatering box where it is then painted or coated. The consistency of the round holes in the perforated metal offers an added value by allowing for easy cleaning of the dewatering boxes and helps to prevent debris from getting caught.
and within budget.com sewage water can be processed into secondary and tertiary filtration systems. • Removing the silt and clarifying the water from very large water dredging projects allowing waterways and shipping lanes to remain active. and to the bottom line of many projects. Some metals such as stainless steel provide excellent corrosion resistance when left unfinished. The water can then go on to be further processed and treated for recycling. acoustical panels for noise control. support for water filtration media. This highly sustainable material can be produced from recycled materials and lasts for generations. sheets. That experience provides us with hundreds of tools that can be configured to offer thousands of different patterns in material as light as 24 gauge and as heavy as ½ inches (12. on-time. Perforated metal is used for thousands of OEM applications from dewatering boxes to filter baskets to aeration screens to guards and generator enclosures just to name a few. we can fabricate and finish perforated metal into a component that’s ready to be installed. • Dewatering the water and sand from active oil wells or reclaiming fracturing fluids from fracking units and recycling the flowback water for re-use. or perforated metal can be finished with a variety of coatings to customize its appearance and further increase its longevity. perforated metal is commonly used to support the filtration media while under intense pressure. Accurate’s team of experts meets these needs through their close collaboration of engineering and logistics. ■ FEBRUARY 2013 OTHER INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS | 21 . Figure 5: Interior of a high volume dewatering container. an array of services. and responsive support from initial quote through final delivery. Landfills require solid materials and often times they won’t accept liquids in order to meet federal and state regulations.modernpumpingtoday. and architectural elements in building construction. the results are spotless. When its useful life is over.yaskawa. perforated metal can be completely recycled. our environment. the United States exclusively and can ship anywhere in the world.THIS SecTIon SponSored by www. Accurate Perforating has over seventy years of experience manufacturing perforated metal. and oil filtration. In each application.7 millimeters) in widths up to 60 inches (1. water. • Raw sewage treatment facilities use perforated metal to screen intake flow from deep channels and pumping stations so that the www. Although the process of filtration and dewatering can be very dirty.52 meters). Not only can we produce perforated metal into custom coils. The needs of manufacturers and metal fabricators are always changing. Some of the more common applications for filter shells or dewatering boxes using perforated metal plate include • Potable water filtration for cleaning water from water wells for potable water in the desert areas. With air. the operators and engineering team needs to quickly and efficiently remove or separate solids and other heavy contaminants from the water. but the goal remains to bring the best possible product to market. generator enclosures. The water then needs to be pumped through high volume dewatering or filtration containers (such as the ones in figures 4 and 5) in order to clean and drain off fluids from contaminates. These are just a few of the applications for perforated metal. The costs to transport and treat liquid waste become very costly to our infrastructure. Accurate Perforating works with engineers and designers to control the open area and flow by controlling the hole pattern. Perforated metal is used in air diffusers for the HVAC market.com Figure 4: Exterior of a high volume dewatering container. while the non-liquid contaminants become sludge and other solids as the liquids continue to be removed. and blanks.
and common Bearing Protection Ring to block and divert currents has overseen the reconditioning mode voltage. applies ceramic insulation to the carrier that holds construction. diminish the reliability of an entire system. a new technique. visit www. offers optimism in the face of this persistent risk that some water and wastewater engineers had accepted as inevitable. a Kansas motor repair shop has developed a virtually foolproof process for protecting vertical hollow-shaft motors from electrical bearing damage caused by stray shaft currents. capacitive coupling. and. The costly repair that would otherwise damage motor bearings. ceramic-coated carrier and an AEGIS® Company (IEMCO) in Kansas City. Concentrated pitting at regular intervals along a race wall can form washboard-like ridges called fluting. circuitry. which causes excessive noise and vibration. but. his team installs a shaft grounding ring next “The energy-saving potential of drives has led to to the motor’s guide (lower) bearing.998.” Wilkins explains. For more information. so this problem is a recurring concern at treatment plants around the world.est-aegis. The many names used vertical hollow Shaft motor manager of motor shop operations to describe this phenomenon The proprietary Vertical Motor Solution developed at Independent Electric Machinery include parasitic capacitance.com . Scott Wilkins. general contractors and consultingWilkins reports that most of the bearing damage he sees is in specifying engineers (CSEs) frequently end up with unhappy motors controlled by energy-saving variable frequency drives customers. He can be reached at 207. for example. Electro Static technology A New Hope T (VFDs). leaving fusion craters—pits in the bearing balls and race walls. None of that a VFD yields and severely them has had repeat bearing failure. also known as inverters or simply as drives. 22 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. VFDs can save 30 percent or more in energy costs. whether used to control a motor’s speed or torque. in the motors at new water or wastewater treatment plants. pitted bearings. especially in new techniques. bearing failure is often imminent. However. By this time.com . of hundreds of these vertical or replacement of failed motor motors (most of which run pumps) bearings can wipe out any savings through the process. “We often see the problem the thrust (upper) bearing in place at the motor’s drive end. Although destructive currents can occur in any motor.WATER & WASTEWATER solutions for a Common Water Treatment Plant Problem Combining bearing carrier and shaft grounding ring mitigates electrical bearing damage in vertical pump motors By Adam Willwerth. About the Author Adam Willwerth is the sales and marketing manager for Electro Static Technology.5143. they often induce shaft voltages that discharge through the bearings. After replacing the ruined. by Independent Electric Machinery Company uses a well-tooled. who discovered only after bearings failed hrough trial-and-error and much hard work. The cumulative degradation of bearings in VFD-controlled motors is well-documented and believed to be caused by repetitive and extremely rapid pulses applied to THE VERTICAL MOTOR the motor from a modern VFD’s SOLUTION non-sinusoidal power-switching For six years. using proprietary a dramatic increase in their use. As a result.998. known as the Vertical Motor Solution. Vertical pump motors are commonly used in the water/wastewater industry.5140 or by fax at 207.modernpumpingtoday.
coated with ceramic “We have seen an increase in specs the Philadelphia-based Bartlett Bearing insulation by Independent Electric Machinery Company. in (axial and radial runouts) and maintains the correct finished fact—could be built to withstand shaft currents in the first bearing tolerance. “In addition to applying the ceramic late than never. while continuing to him complete new motors or motor service motors from its own customers.” says Bill Potts. He does recently added the AEGIS® SGR Bearing Protection Ring— a fantastic job.that most warranties do not cover electrical bearing damage. some of the failed motors IEMCO has reconditioned were originally marketed as “inverter-rated. Vertical Motor Solution to a distributor. components prior to shipping them to IEMCO for the first time offered its end users. like nothing else I’ve seen in the industry.” the same brand IEMCO uses—as a standard feature on certain models. but retrofitting is still the most common way As for the motor’s guide bearing.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 23 . A few forward-looking motor manufacturers have experience. he checks each carrier for mechanical integrity The “elephant in the room” is the growing awareness throughout the industry that these motors—all motors. including the motor manufacturers. “Sometimes.” coating. This leads to a lot of finger pointing. We benefit from his knowledge. that include shaft current mitigation Company. Bartlett offers the AEGIS® to prevent electrical bearing damage.” “inverter-duty. the OEM or the general “We often have our customer send contractor might not catch it in the bid. A carrier from a vertical pump motor. and it has to be fixed the carriers from motors that have experienced bearing later. to be mutually beneficial. his expertise. and his workmanship. and typically the CSE and the end user get stuck with the repair costs. The relationship appears using proprietary techniques.” IEMCO frequently retrofits brand new motors before they are put into service. The perturbed users who purchased them did not understand that most of these motors have extra insulation to protect the windings but nothing to protect the bearings.modernpumpingtoday. Inc. shaft grounding ring in addition to options such as insulated GROWING AWARENESS Sadly. www. for VFD-driven motors. Bartlett’s vice president of operations. Wilkins has even performed the Vertical Motor Solution for some SPREADING THE WORD motor manufacturers.” says Wilkins. his place.” or “inverter-ready” models. to equip the motors with what was specified—better damage to Scott Wilkins. who have sent In December 2011.
Jim Willier tells of a municipal water supply plant with six 150 horsepower vertical solid-shaft pump motors that were plagued with recurring fluting of the bearings. and the ring goes in the fixture. So we get IEMCO’s services and the AEGIS® ring in front of the faces of a lot of potential customers. Whether installed by IEMCO. “So far everything’s been working—no complaints. New Jersey. a special fixture is created for the bearing retainer/cap.” Willier adds. the AEGIS® ring should be mounted internally.WATER & WASTEWATER solutions bearings (most commonly coated with ceramic. bolt through. Inc.” says Potts.” he says. with a brass insert to make sure the ring was centered and protected from bearing grease.” says Kerry Dodd. coats the carriers themselves. Depending on the size and shape of the retainer/cap. but we deal primarily with over 1000 electric motor repair shops that are trying to solve end-user problems created by VFDs. when we sell a new vertical pump motor and a drive together. or “top hat. Two of the six motors were upgraded this way and reinstalled early in 2012. Precision’s vice president and coowner. Based outside of South Bend. we’ve had 100 percent satisfaction.” 24 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. Indiana. “Insulating bearings on the top and bottom. When using insulated bearings. Willier then tried something new.” says Willier. or the end user. we sell them with the insulated carrier and the AEGIS ® grounding ring. a contractor. The company also designs and carries out automation projects.. “We’re just not geared up to do it right now.” In the “top hat” method. Willier’s crew also applied an extrathick ceramic coating to the carrier at the upper end of the motor. Bartlett Bearing recommends one of three mounting methods: press fit.com MORE SUCCESS STORIES . but sometimes with another nonconductive compound) and hybrid bearings with ceramic rolling elements. “Now. which shipped them to Kansas City for IEMCO to coat and machine. Precision Electric sent the carriers for the top (thrust) bearings to Bartlett Bearing. Precision Electric. sells and services electric motors and industrial electronics. “We sell to HVAC contractors and to end users. Most of their customers are in northern Indiana and southern Michigan.” Not all of the shops that get bearings from Bartlett use IEMCO. “Whenever we have used an AEGIS ® ring in this formula. installing the AEGIS ® ring at the lower end of a motor. For two ailing vertical hollow-shaft pump motors (60 and 150 horsepower) at a municipal water plant. Willier Electric. never worked. in Gibbsboro. shaft grounding rings are recommended to divert the bearing currents to ground. “It doesn’t mean we won’t do it ourselves in the future. to the lower bearing retainer or cap. however. The end user plans to upgrade the rest of the motors as they come out of service. and other methods. Potts explains.modernpumpingtoday. thus protecting attached equipment.
Electron transfer technology includes three distinct current-transfer processes that work simultaneously: • Tunneling of electrons: This mechanism is based on the ability of electrons to “tunnel” across an insulating barrier. and works for gaps smaller than 2 nm. and other contaminants—and are unaffected by motor speed. “This customer was going through bearings like crazy. Although an AEGIS® ring safely bleeds damaging currents to ground. maintenance-free performance of the AEGIS ® ring. An AEGIS® Bearing Protection Ring. IEMCO is by no means the first motor repair shop to realize that coating the bearing carrier with an insulating material is a good idea. “Frankly. an effective long-term method of shaft grounding is essential. “It’s the combination that does it. tachometer. Some carriers conduct electricity. it’s a technique that we feel we have perfected. mounted in the lower bearing retainer of a vertical pump motor. These noncontact nanogap processes provide highly effective electron transfer—even in the presence of grease. Protected by an AEGIS® SGR Bearing Protection Ring. IEMCO uses a tightly controlled flame-spray welding procedure. encoder. the water plant intends to rotate out four more motors for the same fix. after we’ve added the grounding ring and upgraded the carrier. To apply the coating of ceramic. Because no other grounding product works with both contact and noncontact electron transfer. • Townsend avalanche of gaseous ions: This process results from the cascading effect of secondary electrons released by collisions and the impact ionization of gas ions accelerating across gaps greater than 5 μm. the currents were gone. • Field emissions of electrons: Field emission is a form of quantum tunneling whereby electrons move through a barrier in the presence of a high electric field. “It solved the problem. but the ring in a vertical motor is competing for the current that exists in the possible path of the thrust bearing.” says Wilkins. We’ve found that in vertical applications the thrust bearing can be a lower-impedance path to ground. disconnecting the motor from the pump shaft electrically though not mechanically. the “fluted” bearing race wall on the left resulted from inverter-induced bearing currents. So we have to eliminate that current path via insulation on the carrier. When the AEGIS® ring is installed. or application protocols that fail to provide long-lasting protection. To make the savings generated by VFDs sustainable. etc. the bearing race on the right is undamaged. slowly wear to fit the shaft surface perfectly.” says Dodd.” Many motor manufacturers and repair shops use carriers fabricated from inferior metals. dust.” Both motors have been running fine since.” ■ FEBRUARY 2013 | 25 . The finished carrier has a hardness of Rockwell 50C and provides a resistance of more than 1 gigohm at 1000 volts. It provides grounding across gaps of 2 nm to 5 μm.com AEGIS® NANOGAP TECHNOLOGY A LONG-TERM SOLUTION electrical damage. vertical pump motors need something more. but Wilkins is convinced that a carrier should be electrically isolated.modernpumpingtoday. The AEGIS® ring’s unique design includes proprietary conductive microfibers arranged in a continuous circle around the motor shaft. providing hundreds of thousands or even millions of contact and noncontact voltage discharge points. no other product offers the long-term. so Wilkins’ team grinds each newly coated carrier to very tight tolerances. over time. But it may be the first shop to do it right.” says Wilkins. the motor is truly inverter-ready. Virtually all VFD-driven motors are vulnerable to bearing damage. “The grounding ring does a great job. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standard for carrier isolation is only 1 megohm at 500 volts.Taken from a failed motor. continuing to maintain excellent electrical contact throughout the life of the bearing. www. To minimize subsequent wear on the coated surface. “With a vertical hollow-shaft motor. and their widespread use means that virtually all water and wastewater facilities are vulnerable to breakdowns and exorbitant repair costs. proper bearing fit is of the utmost importance. In addition. In addition to protecting the motor’s thrust bearing from Key to the AEGIS ® Bearing Protection Ring’s effectiveness is its patented Nanogap Technology. or to the bearings of a gearbox. the lower bearing caps were machined with a press fit and AEGIS ® rings installed. oil. this keeps shaft currents from jumping to the bearings of the pump itself. According to Dodd. which ensures superior contact/noncontact grounding protection for the normal service life of the motor’s bearings. because of the Hertzian point contact of the thrust bearing and the load that it is placed under. inappropriate coatings. and we had actually measured significant shaft currents. its conductive microfibers overlap the motor shaft and. Once we made those modifications. Dodd’s shop did replace the motors’ upper and lower bearings.
here are some more items to pursue or investigate. As a consultant.P s e r i e s breaking the cycle part of pump repairs two By heinz P.com . someone knows the true root causes and has decided not to do anything about the situation. in addition to having maintained his registration as a Professional Engineer in both New Jersey and Texas for several straight decades. Bloch. you may move on and seek redress..com . since there are only these two possibilities. Process machinery Consulting r ecall that this 4-part series of articles deals with avoiding the cycle of pump repairs.modernpumpingtoday. if your facility encounters repeat failures. He is a Life Fellow of the ASME. Bloch. About the Author Heinz P. Bloch is world-renowned and value-adding.E. alternatively. the plant and its staff have perhaps not found the true root causes of the problem (see references 1 and 2). P. 26 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. He can be contacted at heinzpbloch@gmail. is one of the world's most recognized experts in machine reliability and has served as a founding member of the board of the Texas A&M University's International Pump Users' Symposium.MAINTENANCE solutions Part 2 i n a p a r t 4 . Mr.
Don’t overlook the merits of testing.motionindustries.com Therefore. Using different words. Our topic is failure avoidance.THIS SecTIon SponSored by The vulnerability of operating certain pumps in parallel is not always emphasized by pump vendors. It comprises shaft seal. Every so often. The tie-in between the lack of conservatism in piping and issues of less-thanadequate pump reliability is tenuous. still. low-risk couplings. others advocate a 10-diameters equivalent of straight pipe run at the pump suction. Collective piping issues make up our Point 2. Better pumps are ones that avoid risk areas in the mechanical portion commonly www. the multipoint trouble illustration (our earlier figure 1 in Part 1) is of interest here. it’s not just hydraulics. reliable bearings and lube application methods. and drive coupling or sheave. and the seal rings (see reference 3). The flow velocity at the small-radius wall of an elbow will differ from that at the large-radius wall. we will direct our discussion to pump mechanical or drive end (power end) issues. And again.modernpumpingtoday. the drive end of a process pump is also called the mechanical assembly (see reference 3). An over-emphasis on (initial) cost-cutting called the drive end. Follow us on: www. mechanicals (reasonable L^3/D^4 ratios). because these facts are generally well known and many symposia have been devoted to them. by listing Point 2 we simply wish to make you aware of hydraulic and flow separation issues. bearings. bearing housing or frame. shaft.com Log on now for a free subscription! Moreover.modernpumpingtoday.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 27 . the volute. Suffice it to say that tight-radius elbows and their incorrect orientation can quickly wreck doubleflow pumps. The same reference. SKF includes in the hydraulic assembly the impeller or propeller. distinguishes the hydraulic assembly from the mechanical assembly. and then soundly selected pump drivers. www. There are problems with short elbows near the suction nozzle of certain pumps and flow stratification and friction losses are sometimes overlooked. Neglecting piping issues can be a costly mistake. we must remind ourselves of the basic question: Why do we have repeat pump failures and how can we avoid them? WHY INSIST ON BETTER PUMPS? The term better pumps describes fluid movers that are designed beyond just soundly engineered hydraulic efficiency and modern metallurgy. but this is not a piping tutorial. metallurgy. Start with a proper specification and put vendors on notice that you have good reasons to ask for and pay for better pumps. foundation. Install pipe reducers the right way. SKF. FREE SUBSCRIPTION TODAY! GET YOUR modern todAy Providing solutions for the worldwide PumP industry POINT 2 Avoid flow close elbows and wrong elbow orientation in double-flow pumps. and driver selection. Some sources advocate a minimum of 5. the suction inlet.
which means they are arranged at a slant. But when three or more deviations occur.” drivers are not included in our tutorial definition of “drive end” or “mechanical assembly. which is our Point 3. . someone decided not to do anything about it. All involved parties should pay very close attention to lube application matters related to process pumps. the best one is rarely supplied on new pumps. cost of ownership. but excludes what it calls “seal rings. or if not operating in perfectly horizontal shaft systems. and not eliminating these vulnerabilities is a costly mistake. and impellers promote flow www. Bearing housings with liquid oil reaching to the center of rolling elements at the lowermost part of the bearing will be involved. please refer back to SKF’s definition. • Bearing housing protector seals are missing from this picture (figure 3). our considerations are confined to lubrication issues on process pumps with liquid oillubricated rolling element bearings. The illustration shows areas of vulnerability. the same type of oil return or pressure equalizing passage is not shown near the 6 o’clock position of the thrust bearing. oil rings are used to lift oil from the sump into the bearings.” The tutorial deals with process pumps—notably API pumps.com Oil Rings Figure 3: A bearing housing with several potentially costly vulnerabilities. a bearing housing with its bearings and bearing protector seals is a major component of the mechanical assembly. As discussed. That said there are a number of reasons why a few well-versed reliability engineers are reluctant to accept pumps that incorporate the drive end shown in figure 3. Each has its purpose and limits.“ We believe SKF’s “seal rings” are really the throat bushing(s)—a component closest to the impeller. figure 3 contains a few clues as to why many pumps tend to fail relatively frequently and often randomly. and value is what one gets. apply to pumps with sleeve bearings. or if not perfectly round. lifetime-related and not just short-term. while at first glance the viewer might see nothing wrong. we can be certain of five facts: • In figure 3. as will housings with oil levels purposely maintained at much lower levels. • The back-to-back oriented thrust bearings of figure 3 are not located in a cartridge. While located near the “drive end. Either of these two possibilities runs counter to the avowed goals of asset preservation and operational excellence. the driver is either an electric motor or a steam turbine. we usually increase failure risk exponentially. Each party blames things on the other and it’s a fruitless argument to say any more. Anyway. Please remember that repeat failures can only happen if the true root cause of failure has remained hidden or. They label as “drive end” the mechanical assembly. For the sake of our tutorial. Still. or cast aspersions at. Pump drive end failures represent an issue that has not been addressed with the urgency it deserves. As to our nomenclature.MAINTENANCE solutions Breathers It will also discredit. They have learned long ago that price is what one pays. It should be noted that the angular contact thrust bearings in figure 3 will usually incorporate cages (ball separators) that are angularly inclined. For now we will exclude sliding bearings although some principles do. in fact. • There is uncertainty as to the type or style of constant level lubricator that will be provided. Allowing these risk increasers to exist will sooner or later hurt the profitability of users and vendors alike. • Although the bottom of the housing bore (at the radial bearing) shows the needed oil return passage. an entire profession. LUBRICATION ISSUES As we examine figure 3. The short overview of reasons is that reliability-focused pros take seriously their obligation to consider the actual. if the true root cause is known. 28 | FEBRUARY 2013 User plants will usually get away with one or two small deviations from best available technology. by pump manufacturers and purchasers has negatively affected the drive ends of many thousands of process pumps.modernpumpingtoday. which limits flinger disc dimensions (if they were to be retrofitted) to no more than the housing bore diameter. flawed drive end (power end) components contribute to elusive repeat failures that often plague these simple machines. SKF includes mechanical seals in the mechanical assembly. These cages often act as small impellers. These oil rings tend to skip and jump at progressively higher shaft surface speeds. DEVIATIONS FROM BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY POINT 3 Oversights can affect lube application. Unless specified.
Consider the comparison of lubricant application via sump level reaching lowermost bearing elements versus lower oil level needed to prevent oil churning and overheating.” Windage is thus our Point 4. As it tries to flow from left to right the lubricant is often opposed by windage Windage in AC bearings can effects that act from right to left.modernpumpingtoday. the pump manufacturer places an oil ring to the left of this bearing. This is more readily evident from figure 4. Before we progress further into the topic. then why not? Perhaps you don’t need them. and particular attention should be given to windage created by the impeller-like air flow action of an inclined bearing cage. POINT 4 40º REDUCING RISK. Do you have balance holes in your pump bearing housings? If not. it will be necessary for the lubricant to overcome this “windage. Kulpsville. ower Vent Connection Water Outlet Thrust B'R'G Thrust B'R'G Cover Lock Washer Oil Seal OIL LEVEL Thrust B'R'G Nut Bearing Bracket Drain Oil Drain www.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 29 . whatever oil application method is chosen. and we must ask: How does one alleviate windage and its effects? The fact that windage may be generated by some of these bearings and is more likely found in particular bearing housing configurations requires thoughtful—and sometimes purely precautionary— abatement of unequal pressures inside a bearing housing. SAVING YOUR PUMP Figure 4: Attempts to apply lubricant in the direction of the arrow (oil flow from left to right) meet with windage (air flow right-to-left) from an inclined cage.from the smaller towards the larger of the two diameters. PA). oppose oil flow. So. Note that the design intent is for oil to flow from left to right. It’s all about risk reduction. The two directions often oppose each other (Source: SKF America. They went through the trouble of drilling balance holes right above the bearings (see figure 5). In many cases. note how carefully now defunct Worthington Pump Company made sure the pressures surrounding all bearings were equalized. but then again—maybe you do.
Inc. the bearing's case diameter (mm) churning risk. exceeded. or the lower third of the lowermost Excessive heat generation results if rolling element are considered a Cooling water can cause dn.. Irving. and Allen Budris. NY (ISBN oil into the bearing must be chosen. Heinz P. not needed on process pumps which 1. “Pump Wisdom. we note that rather similar in different bearing Realize. the two throwers also prevent oil stratification. SKF USA. or willing to listen. as a certain dn threshold is thermal expansion of the bearing 2. Bloch. Don’t waste this precious resource! By way of overview. GA 30047 (ISBN 0-88173-627-9). Fortunately. The owner’s engineers had recorded bearing lube oil in four identical pumps Thrust B'R'G Thrust B'R'G Cover reaching an average of 176 degrees Fahrenheit (80 degrees Celsius) Lock Washer with cooling water in the jacket passages. moisture condensation or restricts Texas.. these concerns were seen to 9-781118-041239). the jacketed 3. New York.000. the passageways were Edition. longer contacts the rolling elements. Taylor.modernpumpingtoday. DN. the lube oil averaged 158 degrees Fahrenheit (70 degrees Celsius). times revolutions-per-minute (N.” (2011). “The Most Persistent PumpThe manufacturers then advocate incorporate rolling element bearings. rpm). John Wiley & Sons. please. Publication 100-955. They were included Bearing Bracket in many books and presentations.com . in 1967. a number of users and bearing from then on flooded by the ambient 4. Pressure equalization passages are drilled near the top of all bearings issues are listed here (see reference 2). “Pump manufacturers found that the ratios air environment. the bearings in process pumps (see will pass during a portion of each shaft product of shaft diameter (D. inches) reference 4). were left open.000 to perhaps 300. In that case. that cooling water one of the oldest and simplest methods sizes typically used in process pumps. Fairmont Press. forty-five years Oil Drain Drain Water Inlet later. some other means of lifting outer ring (see reference 2). Houston. Bearing housing cooling is REFERENCES buildup will exceed desired limits. ranges from 150. However. and implemented in 1967 at an oil to bearing inside diameters (ID) are Water Shield Line Bearing Oil Thrower Vent Connection Water Outlet POINT 5 30 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. That 6-digit number chosen. (1995).MAINTENANCE solutions refinery in Sicily. is very often responsible for actually of oil lubrication consists of an oil bath This allowed these users to focus on reducing the life of rolling element through which the rolling elements a simplified approximation. this “plowing through Whenever DN exceeds 6000 and so as the oil” may cause the lubricant to to avoid risking excessive heat buildup. When. multiplied by shaft rpm. September 18-22. Inc. 1977) In essence. and aiming to stay influence pump reliability. exceeds a means of lifting oil into the bearing are particular number. Second pump users in the United States.” ASME Publication 77-Pet-5 (Energy lowering the oil level so that it no Cooling is harmful if it promotes Technology Conference and Exhibit. heat up significantly and should be oil levels reaching the ball center avoided on susceptible process pumps.. Heinz P. This “no more User’s Handbook—Life Extension. Today. which OIL LEVEL is 18 degrees cooler (10 degrees cooler Celsius). Oil Seal Without cooling water. not everybody has acted on the message. Application Problems for Petroleum and Power Engineers. Lilburn. Bloch. It is predetermined by A PRECIOUS RESOURCE bearing manufacturers who estimate Note also the cooling water jacket in at what point churning and heat figure 5. “Bearings in Centrifugal within the inch-system preferred by cooling water passages in figure 5 Pumps. That is why cooling water Figure 5: The oil level in this 1960s-vintage housing was set for low-to-moderate speed pumps. some other bearings to run hot. ■ revolution (see figure 5). The bearings now lasted Shaft much longer and we Thrust B'R'G Nut shared these findings with Oil all those that were willing Seal to read.” Third of bearing outside diameters (OD) cooling water” decision was reached Edition (2010). as Point 5. Oil throwers create a spray that overcomes windage.
And feed slurry introduction onto the About the Authors Michael Kopper is the president and Robert G. Earlier decanter centrifuges were limited by conveyance efficiency and the impact this had on clarification THE HYDRAULIC ASSIST METHOD capacity. facing technology. havrin. the an inefficient use of the bowl geometry generating thicker cake “hydraulic assist” method and. This is radius than the Figure 1A: Pre-1978 Rotating Assembly Configuration schematically shown centrate discharge in figure 1A. parts.05 centimeters) angle (cake solids gradient profile) change in the pool layered inside the diameter. an award winning. A schematic comparison of the enabling technology The hydraulic assist method (figure 1B) had a number of that resulted in the continuous decanter centrifuge replacing configurations the simplest of which was a circular baffle placed other thickening centrifuges is summarized in figure 1. grit and trash at the periphery of the bowl the inner pool surface. Course adjustment and interfered with was by weir level the clarification with mechanical conveyance fine tuning the desired cake zone of the centrifuge which takes place in a moving layer at thickness. The design was no longer limited differential RPMs by conveyance to discharge soft as cake discharge Figure 1: Enabling technology applied to Cd centrifuges. certified. improved hard solids at reduced capacity and levels of recovery. to a lesser extent.com . Havrin is the director of technology for Centrisys Corporation.02 inches flat sedimentation (0. The allowing cake pool depth needed solids to literally to be balanced to flow downhill. Dual control of bowl characteristic of 10-15 the cake discharge lower viscosity solids. 32 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. capacity made incrementally Figure 1B: Post-1978 Hydraulic Assist Modification was limited by the by weir plates with as little as 0. Further. at the intersection of the cylinder and conical section of the Prior to 1978. repair.modernpumpingtoday. maximize buoyancy The impact of this effects but less than type of operation the solids discharge was later termed 8-10 depth to prevent short “superpool” because degrees circuiting of the feed of the performance to the cake discharge boost achieved. the decanter centrifuge is the design of choice for pool surface resulted in recycling a portion of the solids back centrifugal thickening. decanter centrifuges relied on shallow bowl with a slight annular clearance that selectively transported pool designs and reduced pitch conveyers running at higher thicker solids under the weir.us .PUMP solutions Laying the groundwork for the next generation of centrifuge technology By michael Kopper and Robert g. Adjustments were Even then. global provider of separation equipment. These effects resulted in of the emergence of enabling technologies—that is. and service. degrees This angle overlapped was now practiced. solids from the was at a greater centrifuge. end of the centrifuge.centrisys. Centrisys Corporation T oday. Learn more by visiting www. This is due in large part because into clarification section of the bowl.
The impact on process performance was dramatic. 42. This technology was the Humboldt Type B nozzle bowl decanter centrifuge. this was seen to further increase the no polymer capacity by 50 to 200 percent with typically less than 2 #/ton db polymer.modernpumpingtoday. Dramatic extension of time between rebuilds due to the use of improved hard facing technologies– that is. a new centrifuge technology emerged to challenge the design and was a way around the patent on the hydraulic assist. b. Minimal operator attention via simplified process control. Some of the benefits are listed as follows: 1. No polymer performance became the desired mode of operation (50 to 100 percent higher capacity and without the use of polymer for the same size piece of equipment) and when polymer was added. No need for pre-treatment devices such as screens and cyclones in the process layout. operation and maintenance were dramatically improved versus the pre-1978 thickening designs. b. For the largest size unit of that time period. the unit could run at flow rates up to 120 gallons per minute (454.16 L centimeters). Many of the initial installations ran 24/7 for years with only occasional shutdowns to periodically grease the conveyer bearings. the performance difference is summarized in Table 1 as follows: The performance difference was so dramatic. In less than five years.25 liters per minute) with typically less than 2 #/ton db polymer. Further. Concurrently. www. c. 2. 3. This was primarily seen from: a. Automated controls with a closed system which eliminated the need to manually clean the equipment. Reduced installation costs via a reduced floor space requirement. Reduced operating costs.56 D x 137.14 to 321. Specific areas of improvement as follows: a. b. hydraulic assist technology quickly eliminated both VBC and HSD from future market considerations. Higher capacity per square foot of floor space. Reduced maintenance costs: a. In most installations.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 33 . however. this design had the ability to both thicken and dewater. Elimination or 70 to 80 percent reduction in polymer costs versus earlier designs. all that was needed was to look at the cake solids and make a slight adjustment to the differential RPM. ORIGINS OF HYDRAULIC ASSIST TECHNOLOGY The first generation of hydraulic assist technology was known as the Polymizer™ BD design and manufactured by Sharples.76 liters per minute) based on pilot plant testing for the same unit (16 ¾ D x 54 L inches. No need for polymer tanks and the space needed to inventory those supplies. A full range of municipal WAS processes was explored confirming no polymer. Sintered Tungsten Carbide (STC). Cake solids were controllable while at the same time the recovery of insolubles increased and at significantly higher flow rates. In addition. c.were conveyed while the biomass conveyed and flowed out of the bowl. commercial performance levels from 18 to 85 gallons per minute (68.
This arrangement allowed nozzle sizes between 0. The slot opened periodically with the differential rpm to wipe the nozzle clear of any obstruction Figure 2: humboldt type B thickening centrifuge 30-60 degrees 34 | FEBRUARY 2013 before rotating to the open window where bio-solids passed through a restricted orifice.modernpumpingtoday. % w/w ts Polymer Dosage. The windowed wiper was positioned at the same axial location as the the hydraulic assist but with tighter clearances and a thicker width.” sideby-side competitions around the country. #/ton db No Polymer Performance Performance with Polymer NA 10-20 0 6 200-300 +90 6-12 600 +85 5-6 1000 90 5-6 No Polymer CONTINUOUS DECANTER HYDRAULIC ASSIST Polymer MECHANICAL RELIABILITY Downtime Maintenance Costs Operating Costs Medium Medium High Low Low Low Low Low Low HUMBOLDT TYPE B The Humboldt Type B nozzle bowl decanter centrifuge was introduced to the market in the early 1980s (see figure 2 schematic). the hydraulic assist design won the battle as measured by the test of time. The Type B used a “windowed wiper” and nozzle in place of the hydraulic assist as well as a steeper angle conical section for discharging the large amorphous trash. concurrent flow. However. The mid 1980s set the stage for the high water mark of centrifugal thickening technology and innovation.27 centimeters) ID to be used on equipment. These two designs competed briefly and intensely for several years in high profile. In the end. there was insufficient technical evidence to conclude the superiority of one concept over the other. % w/w Cake Solids. “winner take all. deep pool design (for thickening only). Side-by-side testing filtered through the marketing hype to expose technical weaknesses www. GPM/unit max Recovery of Insolubles.PUMP solutions table 1 Comparison of Hydraulic Assist to Pre-1975 Was Thickening Technology CONTINUOUS DECANTER PRE 1978 PROCESS PERFORMANCE Feed Rate. the Type B centrifuge was a lower speed. To further increase capacity.5 inches (0. the most unique operating feature was the dual solids discharge mechanism built into the design. In contrast to the hydraulic assist.2 to 0. The outer radius of the disk had a slot and wiper assembly.com . However. the design gambled on using a steeper cone angle for conveying large amorphous trash and grit from the system.51 to 1.
and new methods of business management devastated the core competencies of both groups. downsizing.. 1979. Joseph R. ■ REFERENCES 1. “The Role of Centrifuges in Minimizing/Eliminating the Use of Chemical Additives in Dewatering and Thickening of Industrial Wastes”. the stage was set for the next step in the evolution of thickening centrifuges to emerge.modernpumpingtoday. and (c) the development of proprietary technologies which worked in theory but rarely delivered in the field. www.” Water and Waste Engineering (November and December 1969). However. Moll. it did not. However. these problems are too real to be ignored.in both of the designs. Richard T. 3. we will discuss a new generation of sludge thickening technology: the THK 23. ROADBLOCKS TO INNOVATION Corporate takeovers. Stephen H. “New Developments to Reduce Operating Costs of Centrifuges for Thickening and Dewatering Municipal Sludge. And a “dark age” emerged in the industry relative to revolutionary product development replaced instead by marketing claims which did little more than re-invent the wheel.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 35 . 2. 34th Annual Purdue Industrial Waste Conference. Silverman. Alan G.” Humboldt distributed marketing paper (February 1984). New York City. 1981. so the last person standing wins” left little resources available for the expensive research needed for centrifuge development. “What the Wastewater Plant Engineer Should Know About Centrifuges. 4. the philosophy of “everyone is going out of business. May 8–10... and in our next article. Instead of developing improved technologies.. January 20. (b) adjusting the weir level while operating to overcome transient accumulations of trash. “The Humboldt Type ‘B’ Centrifuge: An Effective Tool for Sludge Thickening. The by-product of this stagnation was the loss of market share to gravity belt and rotary drum thickeners. Townsend. Alan G.” New York Water Pollution Control Meeting. the Centrisys re-interpretation of the synergistic hybridization of the hydraulic assist and Type B continuous decanter centrifuge. and Letki. Letki. Thus. revolutionary designs included marketing claims (a) repeating the mistakes of the past by taking risks on the beach angle to increase the clarification capacity of the design. In short.
For more information. similar weather events must have played a role in inspiring our forbearers—in places like Greece. sludge. visit www. oil. China. or entire neighborhoods being swept aside by rising waters can be terrifying. The scenes of cars.PUMP solutions Harness the Power of Hydraulics Hydraulically driven submersible pumps offer advantages over electric alternatives By Andy Falco. As we learn the lessons of the past. but the courage of first responders and the resiliency of storm survivors can be equally inspiring. Hugo. About the Author Andy Falco is the general manager of Hydra-Tech Pumps. 36 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. and others provide head-shaking reminders of the immense power of water and fluid dynamics.hydra-tech. whether powered by a generator or hard wired to a power grid. Surely. and slurry. and Ancient Rome—to harness this liquid energy for positive purposes.3779. engineers are better able to diagnose problems that may have stymied their predecessors—often leading to advancements in technology or applying existing techniques in new and exciting ways. Sri Lanka. Katrina. hydra-tech Pumps S andy. This process continues even now. sewage.modernpumpingtoday.com . houses. In today’s demanding applications requiring pumping of water.com or call 570.645. hydraulically driven submersible pumps can offer a highly efficient alternative to electric submersible pumps.
the 17th century work of Blasé Pascal and the establishment of Pascal’s Law proved the theory of A HISTORY LESSON non-compressible fluids and the manner in which they transfer energy when force is applied. It was two hundred years before Pascal’s work led engineers in England and Australia to build hydraulic power grids with a central generating location piping water under high pressure to consumers like cranes in dockyards and presses in garments factories. the Chinese designed a dam and reservoir system used to irrigate six million acres of land—the Peony Dam of ancient times.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 37 . used to regulate water flow. and each society has found an answer suitable to their own environment. At around the same time. is still in existence today. Historical records show that the sixth-century Mesopotamians and Egyptians developed irrigation methods based on gravity and water flow.modernpumpingtoday. In the same era. hydraulic grids fell from favor. inventors found that using pumps to compress and force hydraulic oils through pump casings was an even more efficient way of using hydraulics. It was not long www. And perhaps most famously. but engineers still understood the value of hydraulic power and continued to advance the technology. Much later. Due to advances in electricity transmission. now known as the Anfeng reservoir. During the early 20th century when mineral oils and other petroleum based oil began replacing water in hydraulic devices. engineers developed the valve tower or valve pit. In Sri Lanka.Solving pumping problems has been an engineering puzzle as old as human civilization. the Romans used watermills as a source of fluid power and engineered and built the Aqueducts. this “new” power source became even more prevalent.
PUMP solutions before these pumps were coupled to a gas or diesel engine and hydraulic power packs (as we know them today) began powering drive all types of machinery. For example. transmission line losses due to resistance in the wire account for additional inefficiencies. In addition to grid losses. Although mechanical losses do happen in hydraulic pipes. wind plants. These high levels have a lot to do with the work of Pascal’s Law on the non-compressibility of liquids and its ability to transfer energy on a one-to-one basis. in sum the hydraulic system’s ability to effectively transfer the stored energy 38 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. or solar power all have various inefficiencies. the inefficiencies of coal fired electric plants. but the modern hydraulic prime movers provide flow under pressure to turn hydraulic motors connected to the impellers with system efficiencies of 90 percent or better. The study found an even more dramatic difference when that same hydraulic submersible was compared to the same electric submersible connected to a grid (carbon footprint equals CO2e). the hydraulically driven submersible consumes about 25 percent less fuel while doing the same amount of work. Many would question these findings given the common school of thought that electricity is 100 percent efficient. the reasons for the larger carbon impact become more evident. A study undertaken by the Manufacturer’s Resource Center of the campus of Lehigh University found that an electric submersible being run by an engine driven generator will create a footprint of nearly 2000 CO2e. including submersible pumps. or 1500 CO 2e. And. magnetic energy dissipation. However.com points out internal electric motor inefficiencies caused by resistance.com . When coupled with grid losses. although some electric devices like the incandescent light bulb are 100 percent efficient by themselves. and motors.modernpumpingtoday. In grid based systems. hoses. For a typical NEMA B designed motor in the 20 to 49 horsepower range the efficiency is 89 percent. engineeringtoolbox. the US Energy Information Agency estimates that transmission losses average 7 percent in the US grid. and mechanical losses. Many well designed hydraulic systems run at 90 percent efficiency on the hydraulic pump side. have designs similar to electric submersibles in that the impellers are rotated by motors. for both grid based and generator based electric power. In more practical terms. MODERN FINDINGS Hydraulically driven submersibles A MORE EFFICIENT FUTURE Compare the systems described above with the typical hydraulically driven submersible pump. tracing total efficiencies all the way back to the source tells another tale. while a like sized hydraulically driven submersible will emit about 25 percent less carbon.
On construction sites. and labor costs are reduced since qualified or licensed electrical repair technicians are not needed. this variable speed operation optimizes efficiencies as the system is regulated to meet pumping conditions.modernpumpingtoday. dirty water and other pumpage. solids handling hydraulic submersibles are popular because they are versatile enough to move a lot of water quickly. On the other hand. When faced with your next pump purchasing decisions. hydraulically powered pumping systems continue to build on their reputation as one of the most flexible and efficient means of moving clear water. you should consider the full impact of the system from its effect on the environment to the effect on your bottom line. hydraulically driven submersibles require no specialized skills or tools for break down service. ■ VARIED APPLICATIONS On the maintenance side. or act as booster pumps to help feed long range pumping systems. electric submersible pumps run either at their constant rated speed or not at all. Having been used in areas as remote as Sierra Leone for creating village water sources to downtown Manhattan as part of the emergency response to super storm Sandy.in a fossil fuel into to mechanical energy surpasses that of the electric pump arrangement. the sand slurry pumps are capable of moving material from a well head in to a remote shaker system. pump driller’s mud and sludge. Several oil recovery companies use these pumps as part of their skimmers systems. In practice.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 39 . The engine coupled hydraulic pump allows the operator to speed up or slow down the submersed impeller and thus the output of the flow of the pump system. hydraulic submersibles have been used around the world by emergency responders to combat flooding in times of power outages. And perhaps most importantly the hydraulic submersible creates no shock hazard—a danger always present with any electric submersible. They are also used deep in mines and quarries for dewatering where intrinsically safe pumps capable of pumping to high heads are required. can fill geo-tubes and perform light duty dredging in canals and around boat slips. in most cases they are serviceable by field personnel. Beyond basic energy consumption calculations are the practical advantages to using the hydraulically driven submersible pumps. In addition hydraulic submersible can run “dry” for long periods of time without fear of thermal overload. using channel or screw impeller pumps to move heavy oils from their skimmers sumps to the barge or recovery bladder. In the world of mining and dredging. or they can pump out bunkers with float switch operation or they www.
The longer water soaks in. the building needs to be thoroughly dried and all water damaged articles should be discarded before reconstruction can take place. sewage can enter living spaces and the sooner untreated water is moved out the better for all.9 billion in direct freshwater flood damages from Virginia to Vermont. These events.com . visit www.modernpumpingtoday.xylemflowcontrol. and the damage from superstorm Sandy cost an estimated 110 lives and billions of dollars.com/rule . For more information on Xylem’s Rule Evacuator Series. hurricane Irene and the remnants of tropical storm Lee. but it can also take lives. and Mississippi. Flooding water not only creates significant damage immediately.DEWATERING solutions n i g n i r e t a w De y c n e g r e m E an Flooding Concern By Jeff Schopperle. where millions lost power F About the Author Jeff Schopperle is a product manager at Xylem. the more damage it will cause to structures and everything they contain. Ohio. Experts agree that removing water quickly and as safely as possible is a critical factor in recovery operations following a flood. combined to produce thirty-seven freshwater flood fatalities and at least $3. That year there were recordbreaking floods along some of the nation’s largest rivers: the Missouri. flooding impacted millions of people along the Eastern seaboard from hurricane Sandy. With rising waters. it can also have a long-term impact on buildings. 40 | FEBRUARY 2013 www.41 billion in 2011 alone. A looding impacts millions of people across North America. happening just over a week apart in late August and early September. Inc. Especially hard hit were New Jersey and New York. Once the water is out. Two tropical storm systems impacted densely populated portions of the Mid-Atlantic and the Northeast. In the United States for example. inc. Mold is an important health concern and will grow on wet areas and behind walls. Xylem. Water is needed for life. In late 2012. The National Council for Healthy Housing recommends that standing water be removed as soon as possible. 108 people lost their lives in flood-related deaths and the damage from floods totaled $8.
fast. only a powered pump will get the job done. generators and fuel powered pumps should only be operated outside of an enclosed space. If the water needs to be pumped out from a basement or the hull of a boat. FLOOD EMERGENCY DEMAND EFFICIENT PUMPING Pump efficiency is another important consideration for any emergency plan. www. or even a safe way to get water moving. The impeller is a disk with specially designed curved blades that push water coming into the center of the impeller outward. Since most pumps rely on electricity or combustion engine to drive the action that will pull out floodwater. To initiate the flow suction is required at the outlet end of the hose. this is typically very slow. a volute. Therefore.modernpumpingtoday. To drain by gravity the inlet of a hose is dropped into standing water and the hose is stretched out such that the outlet is lower than the inlet. it’s always a good idea to have a back-up plan that will provide power in an emergency. Even though water can be moved by gravity in a process called siphoning. While this may be an acceptable method to empty a fish tank. it’s not a very efficient.com CENTERING IN ON PUMP DESIGN FOR EFFICIENCY FEBRUARY 2013 | 41 . a motor. the National Council for Healthy Housing cautions that to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. Pumps that have a power source can move water fast and in a large quantity and removing water quickly and efficiently is the main goal. But the challenge in an emergency is finding a power source to drive a pump. In an emergency where lots of water needs to be moved quickly. This is why a backup plan should always include the right kind of pump and a safe and easy way to run it. The rushing water is collected on the outside of the impeller in a specially designed chamber called a volute which guides it to the pump’s discharge. which can be done by drawn breath. In addition. This is all powered by the motor which spins the impeller. and an impeller. In an emergency situation power might be out and fuel sources are often in limited supply and may be needed to drive other emergency gear.Fast water displacement is best done with a mechanical pump. having a power source is critical. Centrifugal is based on a Latin phrase that means "fleeing the center. Manufacturers can produce pumps that perform efficiently under conditions that can vary widely–from low flow rates with high head (or back pressure) to high flow rates with low head by changing the curvature of the The key to moving water from one place to another is energy. One of the most efficient pump designs for water is a centrifugal pump. Centrifugal pumps consist of three main parts. it will take extra power to move the water up and out to an area of less concern." which is a pretty accurate description based on what the pump is doing to the water.
5 lbs (4.2 kg) 15½" L x 12½" W x 13½ H (394mm x 317mm x 343mm) 1 www. it really excels in work environments requiring fast. which means little maintenance and upfront investment. The pump designed to pump water out of a well should be designed so it’s more efficient at high head and conversely the pump designed to pump water out of a basement should pump efficiently at low head.) Thermal Cut Off (TCO) 2 inch outlet (51 mm) 10½" (267 mm) 5½" (140 mm) 6½ (178 mm) 5½ lbs (2. They make a good choice for emergency pumping needs. even into an area that can’t be seen or that has debris on top of it.4 kg) 9.com . Draw Protection Port Configuration Height Width Length Pump Weight Cable Weight Packaged Weight Packaged Dimensions Master Pack Qty.DEWATERING solutions blades on the impeller. SELECTING AN EMERGENCY PUMP FOR FAST DEWATERING Centrifugal pumps offer a simple design that seldom jams or clogs.3 kg) 15½" L x 12½" W x 10½ H (394mm x 317mm x 267mm) 1 EV8000 12 VDC 8000 GPH (30283 LPH) N/A 30 Amps (approx. Xylem’s Rule Evacuator Series was designed with this in mind.5 kg) 3 lbs (1. and other relatively low head applications.125 inch outlet (35 mm) (Includes adapter for ¾" garden hose thread) 8" (203 mm) 6" (152 mm) 6½ (165 mm) 3 lbs (1. Although the Evacuator is still capable of pumping water at higher heads. which SPECIFICATIONS Voltage Flow Flow with included hose adapter Amp. boats. efficient removal of large concentrations of standing or flooding water.) Thermal Cut Off (TCO) for each motor 3 inch outlet (51 mm) 8½" (215 mm) 12" (305 mm) 13½ (343 mm) 11 lbs (5 kg) 4½ lbs (2 kg) 18 lbs (8. Another way to think of the head is how high the pump has to push the water.modernpumpingtoday. By zeroing in on the conditions under which the pump is intended to operate designers can ensure that the blades move the water in the most efficient manner possible. for example a pump designed to pump water out of a well (high head) is hydraulically going to be a lot different from a pump designed to pump water out of a basement (low head). It was designed to efficiently pump out flooded basements.2 kg) 15½" L x 12½" W x 10½ H (394mm x 317mm x 267mm) 1 EV4000 12 VDC 4000 GPH (113250 LPH) N/A 20 Amps (approx.4 kg) 3 lbs (1. In an emergency situation for example. a pump might need to be lowered into a confined space. drain ditches. 42 | FEBRUARY 2013 EV2000 12 VDC 2000 GPH (7570 LPH) 1700 GPH (7570 LPH) 12 Amps (approx.4 kg) 7 lbs (3.) Thermal Cut Off (TCO) 1. Centrifugal pumps can run dry before they are put in the water.
The Evacuator Series offers high efficiency portable utility pumps. It also has an impact resistant strainer to keep larger debris outside of its inner works. the pump’s outlet ports can be three inches wide offering a big water displacement capacity. and an inline ‘on / off’ switch on the cable itself. The Evacuator pumps can all run dry for extended periods and the impeller design lets sand suspended in water be discharged along with liquids. The pumps offer a perfect collaboration between size and functionality. The products are backed by Rule’s forty-five years of operational experience. Ideal for dropping into a flooded manhole or other areas where portability and maximum water movement is wanted. the Evacuator Series excels in environments requiring fast. 4000 gallons (15. An innovative power connection allows for direct operation from a vehicle's 12-volt battery. Designed as an alternative to gas. and a sizeable 8000 gallons (30.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 43 . diesel or A/C electric powered portable pumps. A CRITICAL CHOICE The criteria for selecting a pump to have on hand for an emergency should meet the following requirements: • Ability to move the maximum amount of water • Use as little power or energy as possible • Be rugged in design and function so that the need for maintenance is negligible • Be compact and portable so they can fit into small spaces • Be safe and simple to operate in any conditions The Evacuator Series is the portable pump of choice for handling unwanted pools of water in a crisis or anytime. The Evacuator 8000’s 30-amp motor has a circuit breaker for added protection and reliability.62 meter) cable assembly provides ample reach to a basement or boat that’s flooded. In times when power is scarce and water is high. The Evacuator Series comes in three capacity ratings to move water fast: 2000 gallons (7570. efficient removal of water. www. When attached to a running vehicle’s battery the Evacuator draws power directly from the 12-volt battery. the Evacuator is just the pump to remove or relocate unwanted water. This means that centrifugal pumps can be used in places where it would be inadvisable to put other kinds of pumps.283 liters) per hour. using two heavy-duty battery clips. Once the pump reaches liquid the spinning impeller will start pumping. the Evacuator is a centrifugal pump product line that meets the criteria outlined above and more. ■ A PUMP THAT STAYS CALM IN A CRISIS Developed in response to customer feedback. A 25-foot (7.142 liters) per hour.modernpumpingtoday.means they can be lowered into these areas.8 liters) per hour. Its rugged ABS plastic housing and bright yellow body make the Evacuator easy to spot.
Though the anticipated energy growth is expected to come mainly from emerging economies. and occupancy sensors. it fails to recognize that as much as 90 percent of energy use within an Commercial industrial facility is in the process. and a full third of the energy consumed in the United States comes from within the Industrial Segment (figure 1). HVAC adjustments. Figure 1: Share of energy consumed by major sectors of the economy. Annual Energy Review 2008) About the Author Robb Dussault is the offer marketing manager for energy management solutions at Schneider Electric. However. 31% THE KEYS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT Energy management in an industrial facility typically starts with an energy assessment. Transportation This heavy dependence on the 28% world’s energy supply makes the US economy and its industrial base extremely sensitive to future disruptions and price volatility. and that CO2 Emissions will need to be cut in half to avoid dramatic climate changes (according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). vendor. the US industrial economy is highly sensitive to the imbalance of this energy equation. or DOE program.com . this energy assessment is commonly followed by a number of energy mitigation efforts targeted to the building systems.MOTOR solutions By Robb dussault. 19% Often. Because the energy management position of an industrial facility is often only a part-time role of the facilities manager. Although this is a logical practice for energy management in commercial buildings. For more information on Energy Performance. there is 22% a common piece of production equipment where the skills of the facilities engineer do apply: pumping equipment. 44 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. it’s the organizational structures that limit the scope of energy mitigation efforts: the facilities engineer often has little expertise or influence over production Residential equipment.modernpumpingtoday. 2008 (Source: US Energy Information Administration [USEIA].com . Schneider Electric T he International Energy Agency predicts global energy demand will be double that of 2007 levels within the next forty years. The US Energy Information Administration has shown that the United States consumes 21 percent of the world’s energy (with less than 5 percent of the world’s population). And volatility in energy prices is quickly entering crisis territory. such as lighting retrofits. based on observations from Industrial the past decade (figure 2). visit www. This article is the second installment in a series exploring new approaches to common pumping industry problems. sometimes acquired at no cost from a utility. university.schneider-electric.
00 2.00 5. 2. which can reduce device energy consumed by more than 90 percent versus traditional starting methods. Compensation for oversized pumps: Pumps are also frequently oversized to allow for anticipated load demand or simply to provide an operational “safety factor.00 73 19 75 19 77 19 79 19 81 19 83 19 85 19 87 19 89 19 91 19 93 19 95 19 97 19 99 20 01 20 03 20 05 20 07 20 09 19 EXAMPLES OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ENERGY MANAGEMENT These challenges can be overcome through a combination of both active and passive energy management approaches: • For example. two good examples being impeller wear and bearing degradation. www.00 3. Efficient pumping allows for more than 50 percent of energy savings potential in an industrial motors. It is a little known fact that pumping and pumping systems account for nearly 25 percent of all industrial motor energy use. The variance could be a function of system usage demand.00 400.elektrimmotors.00 4. process fluctuations or various other varying operating conditions. a passive management approach includes utilizing energy efficient motors.00 1000.00 1. Reducing energy consumption through pumping equipment can be achieved in three main areas within the process: 1.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 45 .00 0.00 800.modernpumpingtoday.” 3. a fact that many industries have yet to grasp. where energy savings can be realized.00 6.com Figure 2: Energy price volatility (Source: USEIA.00 8. Figure 3 provides some insight by industry.00 0. www. making them one of the leading sources for curbing energy consumption. Adjusting pump duty cycles: Applications where pump duty cycles have wide variance based on system demand. Adjusting for pump wear: Pumps also wear over time. a well-publicized and frequently preferred solution already implemented.THIS SecTIon SponSored by Pumps are a major contributor to energy use within industrial process applications. and it’s clear that pumps dominate across the board.00 200. • Using “low consumption” switching devices.00 600.2008) 1200. which over time will reduce the operating efficiency of the system.00 7.
Once these relational comparisons are made. If the actual energy usage trends above the dynamic forecast. 3. air sys. large pieces of equipment.com . Fabrication and Assembly Continuous Process. operations personnel can clearly and fully understand important relationships between energy and the process that drive consumption variability. 2. This tightly correlated model and resulting dynamic forecast allow operations personnel to establish a framework that defines normal operation. such as a high kilowatt pump. quality teams can determine where the largest variability exists and work to normalize performance around “best in class” benchmarks. which summed up state that: • Flow is proportional to motor speed • Pressure is proportional to the motor speed squared • Power is proportional to the motor speed cubed. VFDs allow you to match varying loads. LS UC ER A CT AN TS ISC S R A D D P DU UM UC M CT THENT IC O N S A M PR & DU AN P RO LE OD O E E CT TIONT R P O PR BE RO C & IPM ODDU CHIED TA ME D R I QU B P O O L R T AL IE P L F E N L U O U A P O R TIC RO E PR AL SP EQ C T RIC AS ED AN T PL ELEC DR TR EC N L E KI Pump system Compress. If we consider energy in the context of production data. and constant monitoring and follow up to provide feedback on system deviation. For example. Water Energy Performance for Electric. systems like Energy Performance can model energy usage based upon criteria such as weather conditions. NORMALIZE ENERGY CONSUMPTION TO BENCHMARK FACILITIES table 1: Typical Energy Performance benefits COMPANY DESCRIPTION HEAVY CONSTRUCTION EQUPIMENT MANUFACTURING BATTERY MANUFACTURING PAPER MILL SILICON WATER MANUFACTURING ELECTRICAL PRODUCT MANUFACTURING MUNICIPAL WATER/WASTEWATER 46 | FEBRUARY 2013 PROCESS DESCRIPTION Discreet Process. this provides for system profiling at optimum operating points. combining real-time energy data with real-time process data. Motor upgrade Motor downsizing Replace vs. production plans and process set points. SOLUTION SUMMARY Energy Performance for Electric. due to what are called the affinity laws. These systems deliver tremendous value to end users with large pumping loads by providing: Once this energy usage information is integrated properly to key process data. and subsequently identify energy consumption intervals that are “abnormal” or that fail to meet the minimum efficiency requirements. or to single. rewind Fan system Other processing systems Energy consumption data in the context of relevant production data Dynamic forecasting and modeling of energy usage tied to production plans and process settings The capture of energy events along with analytical tools to facilitate the elimination of the root causes of those events. Systems like Energy Performance can yield efficiency gains of up to 15 percent for energy intensive processes. Continuous Optimization of Process Energy An active energy management strategy.modernpumpingtoday. in real time. the use of regression analysis techniques and standards established by ASHRAE guideline 14. 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 D D AN TS ND S . Additionally. Distributed Arch. the dynamic energy forecast for that piece of equipment can be compared to actual energy use. VFDs represent tremendous energy savings potential in the process.MOTOR solutions Figure 3: Energy savings potential by industry and application 1. Gas. When applied to a single large piece of equipment. 0 Use of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) Especially on centrifugal pumps. maintenance personnel can be alerted to potential nascent failure conditions before an unplanned process shutdown occurs. Assembly Teams Discreet Process. Gas. Energy Performance from Schneider Electric is a system that provides for this optimization. Water Energy Performance With Cost Allocation and Billing Energy Performance With Cost Allocation and GHG Energy Performance Energy Performance with PQ and GHG ESTIMATED BENEFITS 12% ROI 14% ROI 18 Month Payback 15% ROI 16% Utility Savings 28 Month Payback 22 Month Payback www. This forecasting methodology can either be applied to the entire process. Assembly Teams Continuous Process with Co-Generation Batch Process Discrete Process. operations personnel are able to visualize and understand the relationships between various aspects of energy and production.
along with process control set-points into a database for real time analytics and reporting. we must first understand the typical behavior of the end user's industrial process in terms of energy consumption per unit of process output. or a period of energy consumption that is above the established standards of “normal. insulation material.elektrimmotors.3% Pumps 24. the system captures all of the relevant process data.modernpumpingtoday. As these records are captured and stored.8% Material Processing 22. Suction cavitation due to lowpressure/high-vacuum conditions Discharge cavitation due to extremely high discharge pressure. Energy Performance solutions are specific to the client needs and existing infrastructure. optimization.8% Material Handling 12.com INDUSTRIAL MOTOR ENERGY USE Other 4. or infrastructure. cause. Energy Performance would capture the start and stop time.7% Pumps 50.5% SAVINGS POTENTIAL Other 12.5% Compressed Air 27.” Any time an energy event occurs. EE analysis software process. power factor correction Typical return on investment (ROI) figures for production energy optimization range from 20 percent in areas with high energy per-unit costs to 10 percent in areas with lower per-unit energy costs. they will maintain. an energy event is a period of energy consumption that is above the standards established as “normal” or “acceptable. process control. When an energy event occurs. monitoring energy optimization services. whether in industry.0% DEFINING ENERGY EVENTS Fans 13. variable speed drives. when a pump is running at less than 10 percent of optimal efficiency point Concurrent operation of shortduration pump loads such as backwash pumps along with base-load commonly running pump loads Failure to monitor and optimize use of system-wide storage capabilities. Because pumps represent such a significant part of the energy consumed. and an even greater target for energy Monitor.5% Fans 10. NEMA Premium Efficiency motors. Consider the hypothetical example of an energy over-consumption event and the data that would be captured for analysis. Some examples of pump-related causes of energy events are 1. continue to be a focal improve point to drive energy reduction via the process Meter installation. As energy events are better understood and minimized or eliminated. the operations team can achieve active energy management savings of up to Figure 5: Energy Management Process Flow ENERGY AUDIT & MEASURE Fix the basics Optimize through automation & regulation Pump control. shift. In order to implement an Energy Performance system.2% Refrigeration 6. buildings. and crew associated with the event.” can be identified and captured by using a system like Energy Performance.7% Compressed Air 15.0% Figure 4: Energy use and energy savings potential by application (Source: DOE Office of Industrial Technology) 3. an industrial site must capture energy metering information for the parts of the process that consume the most energy. a quality engineer can then perform an FMEA analysis that will identify and correct the processrelated causes of the energy events. normally occurring www.THIS SecTIon SponSored by Energy events. monitor and manage consumption will continue to be viewed as an integral part of all process systems. 2. classification. In order to identify energy events.com | 47 . 4.. duration. Excess consumption is then understood to be defined as energy intensity that is above the normal range or band of consumption behavior. ■ FEBRUARY 2013 BENEFITS FOR THE FUTURE www. often referred to as energy intensity. This metering data must be fed in real-time. thereby operating pumps more often than necessary for system mass balance 15 percent while driving continuous improvement to energy efficiency. In short. optimization software. the need to effectively measure.. Energy Performance can capture all of the energy and process data relevant to the event. In such an example. Some examples along with key terms are shown in table 1: As energy becomes an increasingly valuable commodity. overconsumption.
mixed flow Ingersoll Rand model 50 APMA. CURRENT SITUATION OF THE CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM About the Author William Livoti is the power generation business development manager for WEG Electric Corporation. and ColleCted An analysis of a circulating water pump system By William livoti. Power Engineering Society. This Frequent motor failures. said system full load due to lack contains five 6 x 8 x of cooling capacity. mode of failure is unknown.7 liters) per minute at 260 feet commissioning.modernpumpingtoday. demand fluctuates depending on needs of service water and Excessive vibration. and pumping systems. At full load. moving in and out of the plant in a closed loop. field testing. the circulating water system provides cooling water for a combined cycle power plant that swings load from 150 megawatts to 785 megawatts. 17 Goulds model 3405 Cooling water capacity / supply has pumps generating 1800 Spray heads / pumps and cooling channel inlet for circulating water pumps been an issue since gallons (6813. Cooling water is being recycled constantly. and troubleshooting mechanical seals. The subject units provide cooling water to the main turbine condensers and also supply suction pressure to the low pressure general service cooling water pumps. system by the general service water pumps is unknown. The system has three 900 horsepower. Mr. 4160 volt high pole count induction motor. IEEE. WEg Electric Corporation n this analysis. William is an active member of ASME. The reasons for the analysis / improvement are as follows: • POWER GENERATION solutions I • • • The system has three 1/3 capacity circulating water pumps designated north. Livoti has just completed a book on System Optimization Guidelines with the Hydraulic Institute and is currently preparing a book on Power Plant Process Guidelines for Pumping Systems. 48 | FEBRUARY 2013 www.com . The circulating water system also provides water to the general service Plant cannot achieve water pumps. The pumps feed a common manifold flow is controlled by a motor actuated butterfly valve at the discharge of each pump.234 gallons (322. and south. The pumps are coupled to an Allis Chalmers 900 horsepower. PCIC. ultimately affects circulating water cooling capacity. repairing. The canal system (original design) contains approximately 144 50 APMA circulating water pump pumps with four spray heads per pump. compressors. With over thirty years of experience in the pump industry designing. Based on customer historical data MTBR (mean time between repair) for motors is approximately three years. Calm. Vibration Institute.Cool. The circulating water pumps draw suction from a self contained canal system (system contains 250 million gallons of water) and lake (added in 2001). of head (at BEP). it takes approximately 12 hours to complete one cooling cycle (turnover of cooling water). and MTBR for pump is unknown. central. Demand placed on the circulating water Corrosion damage of upper condenser tubes has become a issue. 444 rpm vertical. and HI working groups and has served the vice chair on the board of directors of Pump Systems Matter. Hydraulic Institute. single stage circulating water pumps that generate 85.646 liters) per minute at 32 feet of head (at design point).
Valve Malfunction Start-up and Shutdown Procedure Load / System Requirements Quality of Motor Rebuild Multiple Pump Operation Faulty valve (center pump) was identified. Testing confirmed motors are operating in service factor. Testing confirmed that the three pump in parallel operation (valves 100% open) the pumps operate close to design. Review / witness start-up and shut-down. Additional testing with all three pumps in service was scheduled for a later date. The pump was not pulled for evaluation. The 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 Flow (GPM) vibration levels were low and in the acceptable Total Discharge Head BHP Field Tested Head Field Tested BHP range for a pump of Rated Point Efficiency Field Tested Eff. If the rotor and bearings are not centered in the stationary components there is a potential for contacting as well as imparting additional load on the motor. inspection. From initial commissioning until late 2004 the plant had minimal run.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 49 . The south. Inspection verified lack of rotor centralization. Testing confirmed start-up procedure has been modified from plant operation manual. In 2005 the plant began frequent operation and load. Description Starts and stops are very hard on this type of pump system and can result in damage to pump. & 3 pumps in service). This motor was removed for disassembly. Motor Sized Properly Obtain motor load over range of operation. End Speed: 440 user electricians obtained 100 motor amperage with 90 clamp-on meters at the pump motor leads and 80 pump performance was calculated at several 70 valve positions. and 60 Rated Point north pumps operating 85234 GPM @ points were plotted on the 50 32 FT design curve.POTENTIAL ROOT CAUSE Root Cause Frequency of Starts/ Stops VERIFICATION PLAN How to Check Review plant data. Performance test pumps in various operating configurations (1.01 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 System with Two Pumps in Service Calibrated analog pressure gauges were attached to the center and south pumps’ discharge flanges. BHP X . Insufficient number of pumps in operation or one pump operating in a throttled condition will force the pump/motor into an off design condition. A flow rate was not able to be obtained. 80 70 60 Head (Feet). Rebuild procedure would have a direct impact on the motor reliability. 10 Pump motor vibration was recorded with a CSI 0 2130 signal analyzer. Results Pumps now experience high number of starts and stops as plant operation has changed. System requirements changed from original design. motor and intake structure. Incorrect start-up procedure can result in high vibration and damage to system components. Disassembly and inspection indicated the pump repair was sub-standard. center. determine trend circulating water pump operating data. Feet (NPSH) ANALYSIS www. Undersized motor will result in elevated operating temperature and reduced motor life. Percent (%). Review operating history of plant. A Panametrics flow meter was installed on the discharge piping of the center pump.2.modernpumpingtoday. Procedure as defined in this document. Root Cause Verification Matrix There has been a recent motor failure on the South pump prompting the analysis. and repair. this design. Faulty or improperly operated valve can push to pump into a undesirable operating condition. capture vibration and motor data. Pipe internal Circulating Water Pumps 4/4/07 scale was apparently dispersing the sound Model: 50 APMA transducers’ signals. system demands more flow which requires additional hp. However the motors operate in the service factor. Disassembly and inspect motor. Pump flows 40 Estimated were estimated based on Estimated Operating Operating Point calculated discharge head Range Center Pump Center and North 30 30% Valve with the assumption that Pumps 100% Valve the pumps are operating 20 close to (slightly below) the curve. Stator / Rotor Centrilization Disassemble and inspect.
With two pumps in operation the pumps operate to the right of the pump performance curve. per side. It was also www. 50 | FEBRUARY 2013 The upper bearing carrier indicated that the carrier was repaired in the past with a metal sleeve. Lack of cooling capacity has prevented plant from making full load. The construction only allows for support at the stator end plates (which are then welded to the frame). After correcting this condition. the test was repeated with both pumps operating with valve in full open position as noted on pump curve. Upon disassembly of the motor. Field Tested BHP 80000 100000 Test Results A faulty valve on the center pump forced the unit back on the curve.41 to 91. This loose sleeve most likely added to the failure condition by allowing some movement of the upper bearing. This rub was on one side of the stator and all the way around on the rotor. said system has approximately three years actual run time due to long term cold stand-by status. At this point. The stator bore was checked the sizes varied and found the stator ID to range from 35.POWER GENERATION solutions Circulating Water Pumps 4/4/07 80 70 Model: 50 APMA Speed: 440 100 90 80 60 Percent (%). • Plant did not receive pump or system curve data upon commissioning of plant. 900 horsepower. 4000 volts. 40 30 20 Estimated Operating Range Center and North Pumps 100% Valve 0 0 20000 40000 60000 Flow (GPM) Total Discharge Head Rated Point BHP Efficiency Field Tested Head Field Tested Eff.055 inches (1. The frame was found to be poorly constructed. There were no findings of damaged bearings (upper or lower). • Each circulating water pump and motor set has been rebuilt at least once since 1979. unit in service has a bad motor bearing. This sleeve has become loose.94 millimeters) of size variation. currently only one vacuum pump in service. • The south circulating water pump motor is currently out for second repair. This does not allow any center support (and per previous history has been braced / welded and repaired in the past). and 128 amps. • Two vacuum pumps are required to charge condensers.com . It should be noted here the average air gap is around . South Motor Inspection The south motor is an Allis Chalmers. • Cooling water capacity / supply has been a issue since commissioning.4 millimeters) An evident rub between the stator and rotor. resulting in shut down. a rub between the stator and rotor was immediately identified. • Corrosion damage of upper condenser tubes has become an issue. • Most recent vibration routes were obtained by plant personnel on 5/06 South unit displayed high vibration. 440 revolutions per minute. additional testing was rescheduled until the repair was completed on the south unit and flow instrumentation installed for more precise flow readings. BHP X .5 centimeters) and up to .023 inches (91. • Plant performance was never documented / verified.986 to 36.modernpumpingtoday. Feet (NPSH) 70 Head (Feet). All grease was intact and no signs of heat damage within bearings at all.037 inches (. however.01 50 Rated Point 85234 GPM @ 32 FT Estimated Operating Point Center Pump 30% Valve 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 0 120000 BRIEF SUMMARY • Equipment in question was commissioned in 1979.
and motor / pump response during shut down and start-up. • De-energize motor. the PUMP SYSTEM TEST WITH THREE UNITS IN SERVICE Test Procedure (Plant Off Line) Each pump was operated individually Loose sleeve on the upper bearing carrier.038 0.Parall to disch OB Vert . In other words the center line of the stator bore (which would have been unclear after the first failure / rub. flow.5X. The start-up and shut-down sequence of any pumping system is very harsh on the pump. This deflection comes from the rotor which magnetically tries to move to close the uneven gap.425 gallons (963.Parall to disch OB Vert .6X. discharge pressure dropped to 5psi.5X. 16X. Findings could suggest that this condition was caused by uneven alignment of motor parts. 8X.Pump no.The start-up sequence/valve positioning/actuation is incorrect resulting in reverse rotation of static pumps. such as the application in question.Parall to disch IB Vert . pressure. 16X. 7X.043 0. PUMP START-UP AND SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURE According to the plant operating manual the circulating water pumps start-up procedure as follows: Start-up • Motor Operated Valve (MOV) at Pump outlet is fully closed or 10 percent open. 16X 2X. 21600 4X. in conjunction with the upper and lower end bells and bearing housings aided the internal misalignment to the point where it allowed the rub to occur again.Perpend to disch Magnitude Freq Spikes In Seconds 0. • Start motor . 3. 21600 3. 11X. The total calculated flow parallel operation is 248.013 2X. The discharge pressure was captured at the pump and in the control room. Shut-down • Motor Operated Valve (MOV) is fully closed.103 liters) per minute. 8X.Perpend to disch Pump no.026 0.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 51 . and the design flow parallel operation is 254. This is due to the time it takes for the “system” to achieve hydraulic stability. 21600 4X. 8X. and in parallel (three units).031 0. and flow were obtained at the DCS control room. amperage. could have been misunderstood).Allow pump to come up to speed and near shut off pressure (30 seconds to 1 minute). 16X 4X NOTES: Pump Speed 440 RPM 8X = 3600 CPM. On start up (when magnetic forces are greatest) at the tighter air gap the forces are so great to cause a deflection within the motor.000 gallons (938. This. www. 21600 4X.3X. Observations With pumps in parallel.modernpumpingtoday. 16X Magnitude In Seconds 0. it appears the rotor has been bumping the stator iron for some time.048 0. 3.Perpend to disch OB Axial IB Hor . 4X. 8X.054 0. 8X 3.Perpend to disch OB Axial IB Hor . 12X. the south pump failed to vent properly. • Slowly open the MOV (approximately 5 minutes to achieve full open position).048 0. From the evidence present.027 Freq Spikes 1X. It appears the vent valve is faulty. All three pumps operating in service factor in parallel operation. 16X = 7200 CPM Imp Vane Count = 4 discovered that the stator had other rub marks from a previous failure.Parall to disch IB Vert . and amperage fluctuated. The south pump vent malfunctions preventing pump from achieving design flow. In the case of a long discharge. Valve positioning was monitored (during startup and shut-down of each pump) as well as discharge pressure.782 liters) per minute. Motor amperage. 5X.028 0. This is propagated from thermal heat expansion and the condition worsens over time. 21600 4X. north Circular motor Location OB Hor . Center Circular motor Location OB Hor .
POWER GENERATION solutions
hydraulic transient could last for 20 to 30 minutes. This transient condition can and will have a negative impact on the pump, motor and intake structure. By maintaining a closed or partially open valve for these longer periods of time, it is likely that there will be unavoidable damage to the pump and system (motor, valves, piping, supports and structure). Additionally, if the MOV actuate too fast or malfunctions or if the system is not properly vented, water hammer can occur. This anomaly will also result in severe damage to the pump and system. Typical damage from these events: • Piping failure • Broken pump shafts • Motor damage • Structural damage • Broken pipe hangers and or supports
Discharge valve sequencing set incorrectly (valve 25 percent open) during start-up and shut down, resulting in reverse rotation condition of parallel pumps.
1:20 1:21 1:22 1:23 1:24 1:26 1:27 1:28 1:29 1:32 1:33 1:34 1:36 1:37 1:39 1:41 1:42 1:44 1:47 1:50 ?? Run Run 80,000 gpm 16 14.5 11.69 13 12 13.7 3/5/2007 10 120 125 120 130 Off 130 130 Run Run Run Start Run Run Run Run 93,000 gpm 11.98 12.5 12.5 12.39 120 120 120 120 Run Run Run Run
Amp Flow Pressure Amp
17 93,000 gpm 12.5 11.8 12
120 120 120 120 Start 93,000 gpm 17–11:15 12:15 15.78 13.4 Run 80,000 gpm Off 16 14.5 125 125 130 130 130 130
14 88,000 gpm 13.4 16 14.5 13 12
130 130 130 130 125 120 Off
north Pump Solo Run
Pump Efficiency Motor Rated Power Motor Shaft Power Pump Shaft Power Motor Efficiency Motor Power Factor Motor Current Motor Power Annual Energy 79.8 900 829,6 829.6 95.9 77.6 120.0 645.4 5653.6
north Pump in Parallel
Pump Efficiency Motor Rated Power Motor Shaft Power Pump Shaft Power Motor Efficiency Motor Power Factor Motor Current Motor Power Annual Energy Annual Cost 78.3 900 917.2 917.2 95.8 79.3 130 714.5 6258.89 312.9
85.0 900 779.1 779.1 95.1 73.3 120.5 611.5 5356.4
% hp hp hp % % amps kW MWh
88.0 1000 815.8 815.8 95.1 72.2 128.0 640.2 5608.2 280.4
% hp hp hp % % amps kW MWh $1000
Center Pump Solo Run
Pump Efficiency Motor Rated Power Motor Shaft Power Pump Shaft Power Motor Efficiency Motor Power Factor Motor Current Motor Power Annual Energy Annual Cost 76.4 900 829.6 829.6 95.9 77.6 120.0 645.4 5653.6 282.7
Center Pump in Parallel
Pump Efficiency Motor Rated Power Motor Shaft Power Pump Shaft Power Motor Efficiency Motor Power Factor Motor Current Motor Power Annual Energy Annual Cost 74.9 900 917.2 917.2 95.8 79.3 130.0 714.5 6258.9 312.9
84.6 900 749.5 749.5 95.0 72.5 117.2 588.3 5153.9 257.7
% hp hp hp % % amps kW MWh $1000
86.6 1000 793.2 793.2 95.0 71.6 125.5 622.7 5454.4 272.7
% hp hp hp % % amps kW MWh $1000
52 | FEBRUARY 2013
South Pump Solo Run
Pump Efficiency Motor Rated Power Motor Shaft Power Pump Shaft Power Motor Efficiency Motor Power Factor Motor Current Motor Power Annual Energy Annual Cost 72.5 900 873.9 873.9 95.8 78.5 125.0 680.2 5958.6 297.9
South Pump in Parallel
Pump Efficiency Motor Rated Power Motor Shaft Power Pump Shaft Power Motor Efficiency Motor Power Factor Motor Current Motor Power Annual Energy Annual Cost 81.5 900 917.2 917.2 95.8 79.3 130.0 714.5 6258.9 312.9
84.6 900 749.5 749.5 95.0 72.5 117.2 588.3 5153.9 257.7
% hp hp hp % % amps kW MWh $1000
88 1000 849.1 849.1 95.1 73 131.7 666.2 5836.0 291.8
% hp hp hp % % amps kW MWh $1000
ANALYSIS (SUMMARY OF RESULTS)
SUGGESTED COUNTERMEASURES (SHORT TERM): • Re-pRogRam pump startup and shut down sequence to prevent reverse rotation condition. This action would include valve positioning and valve activation versus pump activation. RESULT: Eliminate motor damage (cracked stator block, rotor damage, etc.)
100 90 80
• RepaiR/Replace faulty vent valve on South Pump. RESULT: Stable pump, motor operation.
Percent (%), Feet (NPSH)
60 Head (Feet), BHP X .01
North and South Pumps (3) Units in Service Rated Point 85234 GPM @ 32 FT Estimated Operating Point Center Pump 30% Valve Central Pump (3) Units in Service
70 60 50 40 30 20
• TRack/documenT motor stator temperatures during parallel operation. RESULT: Verification temperature is within motor design limits. • disassemble and inspect and repair MOV’s at all three pumps. RESULT: Reliable valve operation, better system control. SUGGESTED COUNTERMEASURES (INTERMEDIATE TERM): • model circulating water pump system over full range of operation, develop system curve. RESULT: This data will provide the information necessary to establish required flow to meet plant full load condition and identify potential opportunities to improve efficiency/reliability of system. • based on new sysTem CURVE and load requirements replace motors with a more robust design and required horsepower rating. RESULT: improved plant efficiency as well as uptime, availability and reliability. ■
Estimated Operating Range Center and North Pumps 100% Valve
10 0 120000
0 0 20000 40000 60000 Flow (GPM) Total Discharge Head Rated Point BHP Efficiency Field Tested Head Field Tested Eff. Field Tested BHP 80000 100000
POTENTIAL ROOT CAUSE
Frequency of Starts/Stops Multiple Pump Operation Valve Malfunction Start-up and Shut-down Procedure Load / System Requirements Quality of Motor Rebuild Motor Stator / Rotor Centrilization Motor Sized Properly
Pumps now experience high number of starts and stops as the plant operation has changed. Testing confirmed that with three pump in parallel operation (valves 100% open) the pumps operate close to design. However the motors operate in the service factor. Faulty valve was identified. Testing confirmed start-up procedure deviates from plant operating / data manual. Modified procedure has negative impact on equipment. From initial commissioning until late 2004 the plant had minimal run. In 2005 the plant began frequent operation and load swings. Disassembly and inspection indicated the pump repair was sub-standard. Inspection verified lack of rotor centralization. Testing confirmed motors are operating in service factor.
Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes
Rises to the Challenge
Circumferential piston pump increases productivity and consistency demands for bakery
By Jeff Best, BestPump ltd.
rustrated by the numerous profitsapping problems experienced in the preparation of butter for cake mix, the management team of a prominent bakery has installed a system that has streamlined and stabilized their production. Bakery Operatives can now rely upon an on-demand supply of tempered, ready-for-mixing butter. Many disruptions to production have been eliminated including damage to mixers, inconsistent batches, and various other issues typically encountered when working with awkward bulk solids—in this case, chilled 55 pound (25 kilogram) butter
blocks ranging from 37.4 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit (3 to 10 degrees Celsius) in temperature.
This butter handling system, nicknamed the BlockBuster, is the flagship product of the pump and processing specialist BestPump. The system’s modular design allowed the end user to specify a bespoke solution with features such as multi-block
conveyor, twin auger configuration, and variable flow rates handled by a positive displacement circumferential piston pump. The system discharges perfectly conditioned butter strands via a special
About the Author
Jeff Best is the managing director of BestPump Ltd., whose customer base includes organizations like small breweries and dairies to huge multi-national manufacturers. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. For more information, visit www.bestpump.co.uk or call 44.0.1236.756.900.
54 | FEBRUARY 2013
The system was ready to run. Having witnessed the problems at first-hand.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 55 . The health and safety risks involved in moving and lifting heavy blocks are obvious and then there is the huge amount of work that has to go into the butter prior to mixing. and the complete system now requires a smaller capital expenditure. A COMMON PROBLEM Butter is such a common ingredient. Customers demonstrated all sorts of butter-handling methods that ranged from melting to chopping to just beating the living daylights out of the block product yet nothing gave satisfactory results. in some cases. The need for an automated solution like this was identified several years ago by BestPump. low maintenance. It was clear that food manufacturers—even market leaders—were using various inefficient and. The BlockBuster system results in safe employees and consistent and reliable products. ongoing microbiological checks continue to certify that the system is sanitary and bug-free. Both of these challenges need to be overcome before considering the batching accuracy and ingredient conditioning for product consistency. The latest BlockBuster model features an ultra-compact design and smaller footprint compared to previous versions. From a cleanliness perspective. Their comprehensive product conditioning and rheology knowledge base resulted in a solution that is made specifically to solve bulk product handling problems. easy cleanability. Other enhancements include a lowered table-top form factor for safer loading and a simplified strip-down procedure for more efficient hot wash cleaning. easy repeatability of recipes. BestPump has been deploying similar systems since 2004 and has yet to log a single maintenance or performance issue. and no more broken mixers! ■ www. THE BLOCKBUSTER ADVANTAGE As operating costs increase and margins decrease. including the training of operators and maintenance staff. and Australia. minimal product waste. archaic methods to get butter out from cold storage and into a ready-to-mix condition. the BlockBuster design concept came directly from the BestPump Engineering Team. The machine is robust and built to the highest standards. has a shorter lead time. The new design uses fewer specialized components.“shower head” extruder at a flow rate of 100 pounds (50 kilograms) per minute but is capable of much higher capacities if required. Even the installation and commissioning times are minimized. The benefits to high-volume consumers of block product like fat or butter include product consistency. yet a satisfactory solution for handling butter seemed out of reach. Disassembly is safe and easy with the augers being removed using an innovative removal system and trolley—no heavy lifting is necessary. supermarkets and leading brands are demanding higher product quality and greater levels of productivity and the BlockBuster appears to tick all the boxes. BestPump came to realize that these problems are universal.modernpumpingtoday. End users have realized complete payback within a timeframe of months due to the numerous savings afforded by automation. in less than one day. workforce efficiency. From previous experience with installations in the United Kingdom. employee safety. North America.
visit www. such as cavitation. moving stock or products with the least possible expenditure of energy while reducing maintenance requirements and extending life. The first problem— cavitation—can reduce capacity or even cause quality problems.modernpumpingtoday. can be especially challenging to solve because eliminating the root causes are often difficult to impossible—so you need a workaround strategy. such as turbulence. Fluid Components international P umps are all too frequently one of the most overlooked and abused pieces of equipment in process automation. Losing a bearing or a seal can lead to pump shutdown.com . etc. For more information about FCI’s line of flow switches and other instruments. or even seal failure. which can result in three negative conditions: (1) flow turbulence. eliminate waste and reduce maintenance costs. Controlling material flow ensures that pumps operate efficiently. yet nothing moves without them and a process becomes inefficient when they don’t operate properly or completely shutFigure 1 down. One of the most common hazards to efficient pump operation is irregular material flow. While it is convenient to blame the pump manufacturer. the pumps in most plants are running near capacity to keep up with material through-put objectives and demand in many industries—such as petrochemicals. more often than not the process or the surrounding equipment configuration is the problem. Nothing can damage a pump faster than the build-up of heat from low flow or dry running conditions. or (3) dry running conditions. temperature changes. The problems of irregular flows and turbulence. Protecting your process and pump starts with analyzing the flow to make sure the media is flowing regularly at the pressure required by the pump with a minimum headloss. Any number of process conditions can cause irregular flow. cut the material costs. (2) low flows. unwanted air ingestion. and protecting the pump against common hazards. are two of the smartest ways that engineers and technicians can help their plant operations. About the Author Jim Delee is a senior member technical staff for Fluid Components International. possibly process line shut-down and the unfavorable conditions could get worse the further you take this type of scenario. including the pump. When the liquid ANALYZE THE FLOW PROTECTING YOUR PROCESS Plant overview With today’s focus on turning plants into 24/7 lean operations. 56 | FEBRUARY 2013 www.com . Optimizing your process for productive operation. Failing to control material flow adequately can lead to some unwanted conditions. These efforts will improve endproduct or batch quality. or pump bearing failure. which occurs when liquid flow dramatically slows down or stops flowing altogether through the line or the pump. Taking good care of your pump always delivers a positive payback and there are some simple strategies that can be employed—starting with an analysis of process media flow rates.VALVES & CONTROLS solutions By Jim delee. in particular.fluidcomponents.
turbulence. pumps require a stable upstream flow profile in the pipeline before liquid enters the pump. Obstructions and/or corrosion in a pipe can change the velocity of the media and affect its pressure as well. such dramatic failures also often ruin the material being processed or reduce process line capacity. symmetric. An inline or elbow flow conditioner can be installed upstream from your pump to ensure an optimal flow profile for efficient operation. the heat can destroy a pump’s bearings or seals. these other devices can create swirl and velocity profile distortion in the pipeline (as well as pressure changes). Isolating the effects of velocity profile distortions. For proper and efficient operation. If repair is even possible. optimizing pump efficiency and www. valves or other equipment that are too close to a pump.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 57 . The conditioned flow stream enters the pump’s impeller in a uniform and equally distributed pattern. swirl and other flow anomalies in your pipeline will result in a repeatable.modernpumpingtoday. a condition where cavities form in the liquid at the point of pump suction. These disturbances can result in excess noise and cavitation. A commonly cited industry pump installation guideline suggests at least 10 diameters of unobstructed pipe be Vortab inline and elbow flow conditioners placed between the point of pump suction and the first elbow or other disturbance. it is going to be a very expensive Figure 2 proposition. resulting in reduced bearing and/or seal life. Irregular flows often result in cavitation. ELIMINATING IRREGULAR FLOWS When plant real estate restrictions result in the placement of elbows.isn’t there to provide cooling. Creating a relatively more benign operating environment helps increase pump life. and swirlfree velocity profile with minimal pressure loss. Of course.
and FLT93 Flow Switch perforated plates.modernpumpingtoday. If an Alarm 2 occurs because the eliminates the swirl condition typically feed line to the pump is running dry. The system or Incorporating anti-swirl mechanisms operator can then decide to keep the into the design of the flow conditioner pump running or to shut it down. maintenance schedules. system or operator. depending on the media and your application’s requirements. seen exiting 90-degree elbows. with its no application. energy cost and ROI.01 and 3 feet per second (FPS) shape of the resultant velocity profile (0. offers a highly The inline or elbow flow robust scheme for pump protection conditioner’s profile conditioning tabs with its dual alarm capability. and the major ones now include • • • • • Paddle Piston Thermal Mass Pressure Magnetic Reed CHOOSING A FLOW SWITCH Each of these technologies have their advantages/disadvantages. honeycombs. increased equipment (pump) life. flow. valves or other equipment are either ignored or pushed to the limits. It can be specified detect not only a low flow situation. lower energy costs. the tapered transfer media. but will alert you to a potential problem and let you make adjustments before a shutdown is necessary. an inline or elbow flow conditioner will eliminate all upstream straight run requirements for pumps. With Alarm 1. One of the most common pump problems is irregular flows caused by turbulence that frequently results when the minimum pipe straight runs required between the point of pump suction and elbows. With the FLT. ■ www. such as the Vortab Flow Conditioner. is “flat” and repeatable regardless This low flow alarm can be regarded of the closecoupled upstream flow as a pre-warning signal for the control disturbances. level or temperature. compressors. 58 | FEBRUARY 2013 In selecting a flow switch for pump protection or any application. Optimizing your process with your pumps in mind offers a wide range of benefits: higher capacity. instrument that indicates both flow Combination point flow switches will and temperature. which can lead to bearing or seal loss requiring expense repairs. There are many types of point outputs are standard and are assignable flow switches available. flow meters. When faced with less than ideal piping configurations. In such situations. The this condition would be an emergency result is a flow stream that enters the signal to shut down the pump pump in such a way that it maximizes immediately because the bearings now the efficiency of its operation and see gas instead of a liquid as a heat reduces stress. reduced maintenance.VALVES & CONTROLS solutions Figure 3 extending bearing life while at the same time decreasing noise and cavitation. be sure to consider pump requirements. Inserting a flow conditioner frequently eliminates turbulent flow issues.com . and/or level sensing in a single device. permanent damage to the pump’s PUMP FLOW MONITORING bearings that will require an overhaul Eliminating the damage caused by a of the pump before more damage low flow or a dry running condition occurs. The FCI ® to flow. the switch will detect forcing higher velocity regions to a low flow situation anywhere between mix with lower velocity regions. In addition. have proved successful in these applications. as well as your plant’s layout. This capability allows the control system or operator to a single switch monitors your direct take corrective measures before the variable interest. CONCLUSIONS When designing new plants or retrofitting old ones. and other critical process equipment. you will quickly be able to narrow the field to one or two best choices.003 to 0. the first step is choosing the appropriate flow technology. There are multiple flow switch sensing technologies available. and temperature simultaneously with excellent accuracy bearings of the pumps are overheated and reliability. The 0. improved quality. Tab type flow conditioners. The dual 6A relay and fail. produce rapid crossstream mixing. including tube bundles. Using a flow switch prevents to fouling or clogging.9 meters per second MPS). Inserting a dual alarm flow switch in your process loop not only protects the pump from damage. Other flow conditioning technology choices. the design of the anti-swirl and profile temperature of the bearings may rise conditioning tabs make them immune very fast. By looking at these factors. environmental conditions. may also be considered depending upon the specifics of the FlexSwitch™ FLT93 Series. but also detecting a dry running in either insertion or in-line styles for pipe or tube installation. can be achieved by installing a point The FLT flow switch is a dual-function flow switch in the process loop. Don’t forget to protect your pump from accidental low flow or dry running conditions. condition. Some may be the only choice in certain media for your application. moving parts design.
vanton Pump and Equipment Corp. a pump is only as strong as its weakest component. when evacuating hazardous fluids from chemical processing facilities or corrosive byproducts from industrial plants. Likewise.688. Because Flex-I-Liner does not incorporate these components in the pump’s design.4216 or visit www. What if the solution not only meant spending less on seals but spending nothing at all? What if you changed the question from “how do I stop a leak?” to “why do I need a seal?” THE FLEX-I-LINER Portable. salts. Large investments in pumps and motors seem useless when “penny wise and pound foolish” seals or valves cannot withstand the regular flow of acids. metal finishing. call 908. answers that question by saying. engineers at Vanton have provided end users with a new. solvents. caustics. The portable. chlorides. but look closer. reagent grade chemicals. About the Author Ken Comerford is the vice president of Vanton Pump and Equipment Corp. For more information. Vanton pumps operate in over seventy-five countries across all industries in which corrosive or ultra pure fluids are handled including water and waste treatment.modernpumpingtoday. chlorides. salts. chemical processing. and viscous fluids with no corrosion of the pump or contamination of the fluid. long-term solution to a chronic problem.SEALING solutions No Seals? No Problem! Non-metallic drum pump is a sealless solution evacuating hazardous and corrosive fluids By Ken Comerford. “you don’t!” Nor does an evacuating pump need valves that inevitably clog or fail when faced with harsh chemicals. pollution control. A The obvious answer would be to invest in higher-end components.vanton. pulp and paper. Often. 60 | FEBRUARY 2013 www. mining.com. chain is only as strong as its weakest link. non-metallic Flex-I-Liner® rotary peristaltic pump from Vanton Pump and Equipment Corp. operators are faced with the frustrating dilemma of watching high-dollar equipment bog down or go offline for repair because supposedly cost-saving components fail.com . non-metallic Flex-I-Liner rotary peristaltic pump from Vanton evacuates drums containing acids. and semiconductor manufacturing. caustics. and reagent grade chemicals common to most processing tasks.
Variety in the Flex-I-Liner’s construction permits its use over the full pH range and for an extensive list of corrosive. it fits on traditional drum lids without protruding. or stand. caustics. and can run dry for extended periods without damage. imparting a progressive squeegee action on the fluid trapped in the channel between the liner and the body block. Buna-N®. or Nordel® elastomers. Vanton believes some ideas have the power to change previously held limits and open the possibilities to new options. The Flex-I-Liner’s self-priming design has no seals to leak or valves to clog. Flanges on the flexible liner are pressed to the side of the body block by concentric grooves on the bracket assembly and the cover plate. ONE PURPOSE FEBRUARY 2013 | 61 . or PTFE.com 275 degrees Fahrenheit (135 degrees Celsius).modernpumpingtoday. like transferring. and the molded flexible liner of natural rubber.The Flex-I-Liner evacuates drums and totes containing hazardous fluids and harsh chemicals. facility operators can remain confident that they can match the right materials of construction to handle the fluid being pumped. adequate seals and reliable valves are necessary components in most pump systems. and has sufficient lift characteristics to operate from the floor.33 to 10 gallons per minute and pressures to 20 psig at temperatures to 180 degrees Fahrenheit (82 degrees Celsius). Neoprene®. for flows to 1150 gallons per hour (261 m3/h) and heads to 185 feet (56 meters) at temperatures to www. isolating the fluid to the channel. Should a new fluid handling task arise at a chemical processing plant or a new byproduct need be removed. Compact in size with integral handle. and viscous fluids. Only two non-metallic parts contact fluid: a thermoplastic body block. eliminating corrosion or contamination associated with metal pumps. The pump is suitable for flows from 0. without corrosion of the pump or contamination of the fluid. dosing. and other hazardous fluid materials. an option like the Flex-I-Liner makes perfect sense. Viton®. and an elastomeric flexible liner that can be replaced in the field without special tools. Being able to choose from a wide choice of thermoplastics and elastomers in which these pumps are available is key to their accomplishing their task. THE POWER OF IDEAS ADDITION BY SUBTRACTION Even though pump engineers cannot design their way out of every persistent problem. A rotor mounted on an eccentric shaft oscillates within the flexible liner. Hypalon®. Of course. volatile. as well as integrated nonmetallic pump/tank systems from 60 to 5000 gallons (227 to 18. The rigid body block is of solid polypropylene. or evacuating harmful acids. skid. Vanton also manufactures horizontal and vertical centrifugal pumps with all fluid contact components of inert thermoplastics.927 liters). ■ MANY FORMS. UHMW polyethylene. but for those situations where a sealless option offers consistent benefits.
and extended valve life. Other features include heavy duty stainless steel shafts and replaceable body seats. This softness allows it to be easily repairable making it ideal for retrieving components with a sharp knife or razor blade. lightweight and compact. NQA-1 and ANSI N45. Available in both double acting and spring return designs.343.haywardflowcontrol.com or by calling 201. also visit www. or Lever and Spring. For more information contact Sarah Kellett at sarah. Super Gel 9 bonds well to an array of substrates. With the GF-PP material. has successfully completed the full qualification of a new scotch yoke rotary pneumatic actuator to the latest industry standards. allowing for ease of installation. the valve is available with three field adjustable closer options: Lever and Weight. at 630. the PMD4/PMS4 actuators are also very robust. hAYWARd FloW ContRol Pmd4 and PmS4 Pneumatic Actuators Hayward Flow Control is proud to announce the launch of their GF-PP (glass filled polypropylene) PMD4/PMS4 Series Pneumatic Actuator line.7600 or email@example.com. These properties also enable Super Gel 9 to withstand rigorous thermal cycling and thermal/mechanical shock.modernpumpingtoday. replaceable resilient seats with integral O-ring sealing beads for positive seating. Designed for the operation of ball. along with a low viscosity and exotherm enabling it to be cast in larger sections up to 2 to 3 inches thick. For more about the full line of Master Bond thermal cycling resistant adhesives. whereas the PMS4 features a range of 44 in-lbs to 230 in-lbs. The compact and rugged design is suitable for harsh environmental conditions and has been supplied for nuclear power projects in countries including China and the USA. the actuators are available with a comprehensive torque range and control solutions to meet customer specifications. It will not shatter during this process. ceramics.kellett@rotork. For more information. The PMD4/ PMS4 Series are available in several sizes for use with Hayward ball valves up through 6inches. solenoid valves with optional voltages. and cycle speed controls. The PMD4/PMS4 features a GF-PP housing that provides the actuator superior corrosion resistance and performance in environments and atmospheres where most metal actuators cannot. the specialist manufacturer of pneumatic and hydraulic valve actuators for the nuclear industry.com or visit www. marketing project coordinator. ease of maintenance. Additional options include solenoid valves for double acting air-toopen and close.429. Air Cushion. For more information. contact Hayward Flow Control at 888.com.4635 or by email at hflow@haywardnet. butterfly.com . from 125 in-lbs to 500 in-lbs. vAl-mAtiC AWWA Swing Check valve Val-Matic’s AWWA Swing Check Valve incorporates design features to provide energy savings. such as metals. 62 | FEBRUARY 2013 www.2. and many rubbers and plastics.8983. marketing manager.com/en/product/index/hiller. Super Gel 9 has an exceptionally low Shore A hardness of about 5-10. Designed for municipal and industrial water and wastewater applications. contact Alissa Kantola. and butterfly valves through 4 inches. the PMD4 has a torque range at 80 psi supply.com.MODERN PUMPING products mAStER Bond Super gel 9 Featuring softness and resilience. This product has a two to one mix ratio by weight or volume. 10CFR21. the longer the working life). and NSF/ANSI 61 fusion bonded epoxy coating on the interior and exterior for corrosion resistance. at jbrenner@masterbond. glass.rotork. It has a long working life of seven to nine hours depending on the mass that is mixed (the smaller the mass. RotoRK FlUid SYStEmS Rotary Pneumatic Actuator Rotork-Hiller. and plug valves. The Swing Check Valve features a 100 percent unrestricted flow area for energy savings and a full-access domed cover with vent port for ease of maintenance without removing the valve from the line.941. Rotork-Hiller rotary actuators meet safety critical applications found in the nuclear power industry and are manufactured under a quality assurance program in compliance with the requirements of 10CFR50 Appendix B. Master Bond Super Gel 9 is a urethane modified epoxy gel that can be employed in a variety of applications. All sizes have NAMUR VDI/VDE 3845 mounting for solenoids and ISO5211 mounting base. auxiliary switch control. contact James Brenner.
The EZstrip technology on which they are based provides a quick and easy way to disassemble. These reliable point-of-use Air Filter/Regulators have been specifically developed for air operated double diaphragm (AODD) pumps to reduce maintenance and lower operating costs. Electrical disconnection is not required. the latest innovation offering four headworks processes on one skid package. For additional information. significantly reducing field installation costs while allowing for a compact footprint. All equipment components are constructed of stainless steel and utilize multiple patented technologies.com.tREBoR intERnAtionAl maxim 50 Aodd Pump The Maxim 50 air-operated double-diaphragm pump is ideal for aggressive. The EZstrip pumps can be installed in new plants or retrofitted into existing Compact C applications.com. grit removal and grit washing into one integrated system. Its unique construction contains no metal parts or elastomer O-ring seals and includes a fluid path that consists of all PTFE and PFA materials. de-rag.com FEBRUARY 2013 | 63 . SANDPIPER recommends the use of a Filter/Regulator with every pump. headworks system combines screening. Both cast iron and stainless steel versions are offered.0 MGD depending on the model. Smith & lovElESS PiStAWorks headworks System Smith & Loveless Inc. All pumps provide dry run protection.treborintl. and maintain the pump insitu. suitable for either recirculation or chemical delivery applications. has shipped its first PISTA®Works™ Headworks System. chemical delivery. contamination-free operation at temperatures up to 356 degrees Fahrenheit (180 degrees Celsius).com.sandpiperpump.mono-pumps. call 800. The complete PISTAWorks system is preassembled and shipped direct to the job site on one truck. wet and contaminated compressed air from decreasing the performance of your AODD pump. This can dramatically reduce the time needed to replace a rotor. packaged. No special tools or skills are required for normal de-ragging operations. or external control. while suction and discharge pipes remain untouched. and a two-year warranty. nov mono EZstrip transfer Pump Recognized as the biggest leap forward in progressing cavity pump design for thirty years. visit www. The PISTAWorks system will service a governmental training facility in Minden.modernpumpingtoday. and drive train by up to 95 percent cutting the typical day-long maintenance operation down to just 30 minutes. The Maxim 50's revolutionary design allows the pump to be configured for specific applications. high purity applications. stator. For complete sizing data information or to find a Smith & Loveless treatment sales representative. plus an option to incorporate WRAS-compliant elastomers. The addition of a Filter/ Regulator will help prevent dirty.898. coupling rod. Features of the improved product line include a liquid filled pressure gauge as well as a full line of accessories such as lockout valves and mounting bracket kits. providing reliable. a preassembled drive train. recently launched a new and improved line of Air Filter/Regulators and Lubricators. PISTAWorks operates peak system flow capacity from 0. a leading brand in the world of air operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. SAndPiPER Air/Filter Regulator SANDPIPER. For more information. visit www. www. The pre-engineered. The recirculation and chemical delivery configurations are self-contained while the external control base option allows for pump operation via existing air control systems or by PLC/PC control using fiber optic inputs from the pump. www.9122 or visit www. during which operational parameters remain unaffected. review the Air Filter/Regulator flyer located on the SANDPIPER website.com.smithandloveless. For more information on Mono pumps and associated equipment. You may select from three control base options: recirculation. the EZstrip™ transfer pumps were designed to incorporate all the best aspects of NOV Mono’s popular and thoroughly proven Compact C Range pumps. Louisiana.5 MGD to 7.
The 5813 range of product already exists and the real game changer is the lead time reduction as the design is a WPII enclosure in a cast versus fabricated frame. I am not just saying that because of the new inverter duty vertical high thrust motor we recently introduced. which areas have the highest ceiling in the future? Tim Albers: We are increasing power range. but induce stresses on motors not encountered in non-inverter applications. but the noise really is sorted out by well-trained people. This includes Close Coupled Pump motors and if approved will have a large effect on the pumping industry.com . mpT: nidec has recently expanded its line of TiTan®ii motors to include the 5812 and 5813 frame vertical motors. The addition of grounding rings to motors is a great example of adding to longevity. The biggest advantage for this motor is in severe environments. modern pumping Today: what are today’s pump users asking for in a motor? what are you hearing from your customers? Tim Albers: One item that seems to cut across all markets is a motor that is truly inverter duty. efficiency. The Department of Energy is working toward regulating pump efficiency. A qualified. people are still key. with the IEC standard being predominant in the world. ASI gave Nidec the ability to build product above power levels that resided in the Nidec portfolio. As an example. but it is truly across the pumping industry: verticals. Mechanical features become more consistent. mpT: it’s easier for end users to communicate with manufacturers today than ever before. talked with Modern Pumping Today about the opportunities and challenges that arise. Tim Albers. The question really is “What comes next?” An example of what may be next would be the Department of Energy considering whether or not to apply the NEMA Premium standard to a much broader range of motors currently regulated at the EPACT level. premium efficiency is gaining support in some segments that are not currently regulated. It was brought about by a change in technology that allowed for cost effective installations. mpT: How do you reconcile the needs of domestic and international customers? Tim Albers: The trend is moving toward harmonization of standards across the world. Online tools continue to be improved. The 5812 is a new TEFC motor and offers the highest horsepower available for a high thrust vertical motor in a TEFC enclosure. Does greater communication equal greater clarity? How can manufacturers ensure they separate “the signal” from “the noise”? Tim Albers: Great question. Up front application work can be supported by online tools. mpT: How does a cast iron frame benefit nidec’s production of these motors? what can customers expect? Tim Albers: A few advantages include a shorter lead time. and its flagship brand US Motors. Nidec’s director of marketing for industrial motors and systems. technically competent sales force and application support are still very relevant. The global manufacturing base to cover current power range usage is pretty well covered in the world. However. industrial standards. This initiative and the continued push to increase overall efficiency keeps motor efficiency in focus. what are the main needs in water treatment and processing that you’re meeting with this product? Tim Albers: The needs being met are different between the 5812 and the 5813. the Department of Energy has recently regulated Open Dripproof motors in the ¼ horsepower through 3 horsepower range of single and three phase designs. and reliability in our products.modernpumpingtoday. is actively expanding its client base around the world.PUMPING trends What Comes Next? Nidec’s Tim Albers on government regulation. As the company intensifies its influence in new markets for products like the TITAN®II vertical motor. two unique standards still exist. and the global customer base of the future idec Motor Corporation. packaged solutions such as the WPII add on as well as increased consistency of the product. Electrical performance really does not change. We have moved from fabricating each frame from scratch to adding a Min/Max type of KANBAN for 5813 frames to lower lead time for manufacturing. ■ www. but when an end user has a problem. It is really a function of adding the product to a portfolio such as Nidec did when we purchased ASI in Italy. Some severe environment applications include process water and wastewater in mining and pumping in coastal areas such as for desalination systems. Nidec is specifically working through acquisition and new product development to expand our IEC product lines and continues to enhance and develop new NEMA products. such as in the submersible pump market. horizontals. That helps the pump manufacturers when calculating the Reed Critical Frequency of the pump and motor system. 64 | FEBRUARY 2013 N Many things are happening in motor efficiency and the most prominent is the EISA legislation that went into effect in December of 2010 to set the efficiency standard for general purpose motors at the NEMA Premium level. For fractional motors. mpT: when you look ahead to new products. and low and medium voltage in many markets. One other item is efficiency. IEC and NEMA. Inverters allow systems to be optimized.
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