You are on page 1of 96

Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Power System Analysis 101

U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER

Power System Analysis 101

2

Power System Analysis

 Performance Power System Analysis Standards Power Quality Load Flow Analysis Efficiency System Loss Analysis Safety Short Circuit Analysis Reliability Reliability Analysis

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

 Power System Analysis 101 3 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 4 Load Flow Analysis 1. What is Load Flow? 2. Uses of Load Flow Studies 3. Load Flow Control U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101

5

Bus2
I 23 , Loss 23 = ?
Bus3
Bus1
I 12 , Loss 12 = ?
V 3 = ?
P 3 , Q 3 = ?
Utility
I 24 , Loss 24 = ?
V 4 = ?
Grid
P 4 , Q 4 = ?
V 1 = 67 kV
Bus4
P 1 , Q 1 = ?
V 2 = ?
P 2 , Q 2 = ?
2 MVA 85%PF
1 MVA 85%PF
What are the Voltages,
Currents, Power and Losses of
the Distribution System?
 U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

6

Load Flow of an Existing System

Can we see how electric power flows in the system, coming from the sources (where power is purchased) and down to all customers (where power is sold)?

Can we determine:

If any customer is being provided with voltage that is too low (or even too high)?

If too much power flow through any of our equipment, especially our transformers?

How much power is lost along the lines and equipment?

U. P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

 Power System Analysis 101 9 What is Load Flow? How would the engineers do that? • Identify physical components • Know the characteristic of components • Mathematically represent the behavior of components • Calculate electrical parameters U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 10 What is Load Flow? G U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101

11

Utility Grid or Generator

Substation

Transformer

Transmission

Line

Bus

G
Distribution
Line

Distribution

Transformer

Load Flow mathematically determines the Voltages, Currents, Power and Losses

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

12

Basic Information From a Load Flow Study

Voltage Profile

Injected Power (P p and Q p )

Line Currents (I pq and I pq )

Power Flows (P pq and Q pq )

Line Losses (I 2 R and I 2 X)

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

15

1) ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS

Check for voltage violations PGC: 0.95 – 1.05 p.u. (For Transmission) PDC: 0.90 – 1.10 p.u (For Distribution)*

*Recommended 0.95 – 1.05 p.u.

Check for system losses Caps on Segregated DSL

 U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

16

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS

Voltage adjustment by utility at delivery point Request TransCo to improve voltage at connection point TransCo as System Operator will determine feasibility based on Economic Dispatch and other adjustments such as transformer tap changing and reactive power compensation

U. P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

 Power System Analysis 101 17 Uses of Load Flow Studies 2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS • Transformer tap changing Available Taps At Primary Side At Secondary Side Both Sides Typical Taps Tap 1: +5% Tap 2: +2.5% Tap 3: 0% (Rated Voltage) Tap 4: -2.5% Tap 5: -5% U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 18 Uses of Load Flow Studies 2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS •Capacitor compensation • Compensate for Peak Loading • Check overvoltages during Off-Peak • Optimize Capacitor Plan • System configuration improvement U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 19 Uses of Load Flow Studies 3) EXPANSION PLANNING • New substation construction • Substation capacity expansion • New feeder segment construction / extension • Addition of parallel feeder segment • Reconducting of existing feeder segment/ circuit • Circuit conversion to higher voltage • Generator addition U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 20 Uses of Load Flow Studies 4) CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS Reliability analysis of the Transmission (Grid) and Subtransmission System 5) SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS Segregation of System Losses U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 21 Load Flow Control 1. For Generating plants, the amount of power that can be delivered can be controlled by the plant operator (as long as within the capacity of the plant) 2. Flow of power is affected by the voltages and impedances across the components • Specialized Transformers and other equipment may be utilized to control the flow of power across the network 3. Capacitors are used to improve the voltage profile across the network • The current drawn by the load is reduced • The voltage drop across the line is reduced • The voltage at the load side is increased U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 22 SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 23 System Loss Analysis 1. Components of Distribution System Losses 2. Segregation of Distribution System Losses 3. System Loss Reduction and Control U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 24 Components of Distribution System Losses The Philippine Distribution Code (PDC) mandates system losses to be segregated into the following components: a. Technical Loss; b. Non-Technical Loss; and c. Administrative Loss. U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
Power System Analysis 101
25
Total Distribution System Losses
Energy Delivered
to the Distribution
System
Energy
-
Delivered to
Users
=
Total Distribution
System Losses
+
Technical Loss
+
Non-Technical Loss
Loss
Bundled Technical & Non-Technical Losses
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
26
Components of Distribution
System Losses
The
electric
energy used
by
the
Distribution
Utility in the proper operation of the Distribution
System.
a. Distribution Substations;
b. Offices, warehouses and workshops of the DU; and
c. Other essential electrical loads of the Distribution
Utility.
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
 Power System Analysis 101 27 Components of Distribution System Losses Technical Losses Load and no-load losses in: a. Sub-transmission lines and substation transformers; b. Primary distribution lines and distribution transformers; c. Secondary distribution lines and service drops; d. Voltage regulators, Capacitors and reactors; and e. All other electrical equipment necessary for the operation of the distribution system. U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 28 Components of Distribution System Losses Non-Technical Losses The component that is not related to the physical characteristics and functions of the electrical system, and is caused primarily by human error, whether intentional or not. Includes the electric energy lost due to pilferage, tampering of meters and erroneous meter reading. Errors that are attributable to inaccuracies in metering and billing. U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 29 Total Distribution System Losses Total DSL = Energy Input - Energy Output Total DSL = Σ[Energy delivered by the Transmission System] + Σ[Energy delivered by Embedded Generating Plants] + Σ[Energy delivered by Other Distribution Systems] + Σ[Energy delivered by User Systems with Generating Units] - Σ[Energy delivered to the Users of the Distribution System] U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 30 Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Technical Losses + Non-Technical Losses - Technical Losses Shall be quantified through 3-Phase (Unbalanced) Load Flow Simulations = Residual after subtracting Administrative & Technical Losses from the Total Distribution System Losses Non-Technical Losses U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
Power System Analysis 101
31
Unbundling the Technical and
Non-Technical Loss
Technical Loss
electrical equipment, devices and conductors]
a)Sub-transmission Lines
b)Substation Power Transformers
c)Primary Distribution Lines
d)Distribution Transformers
e)Secondary Distribution Lines
f) Service Drops
g)
Voltage Regulators
h)
Capacitors
i)
Reactors
j)
Other electrical equipment
Plus Calculated Metering Equipment Loss
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
32
Unbundling the Technical and
Non-Technical Loss
Primary Distribution Lines
Subtransmission Lines
(Main Feeder)
Substation
Transformer
Primary Distribution Lines
(Laterals)
Three-Phase Unbalanced
a)Sub-transmission Lines
b)Substation Power Transformers
c)Primary Distribution Lines
Secondary Distribution Lines
Service
d)Distribution Transformers
Distribution
Drop
Transformer
e)Secondary Distribution Lines
f)
Service Drops
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
g)Voltage Regulators
h)Capacitors
i) Reactors
j) Other electrical equipment
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
 Power System Analysis 101 33 Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Calculation of Metering Equipment Potential Transformer Loss = Power Loss in PT (kW) x Number of PT x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Current Transformer Loss = Power Loss in CT (kW) x Number of CT x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Electric Meter Potential Coil Loss = Power Loss in Electric Meter Potential Coil (kW) x Number of Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Electric Meter Current Coil Loss = Power Loss in Electric Meter Current Coil (kW) x Number of Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Operating Hours = No. of days x 24 hours – SAIDI U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 34 Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Non-Technical Loss = Total Distribution System Losses - Administrative Loss - Technical Loss - Recovered Losses Note: Losses recovered from anti-pilferage activities are subtracted from the total distribution system losses. U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101

35

DSL Segregation

 Distribution System Data Distribution System Loss Segregation Program (3-phase Load Flow) Segregated Technical Loss (Billing Period) Metering Equipment Loss Distribution Reliability Assessment Metering Equipment Inventory Customer Energy Bill
 U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

36

Segregated Distribution System Losses

Monthly DSL Segregation

Segregated DSL for the Whole Distribution System

Segregated DSL Per Receiving/Metering Point

Segregated DSL per Substation

Segregated DSL per Feeder

Segregated DSL per Distribution Transformer

 U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

37

Distribution Network Models

Distribution Network Model must capture the unbalance characteristics of the System

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

38

Demand (W)

Normalized Demand (per unit)

Customer Energy Bill

Time (24 hours)

Customer Energy Bill Converted to Hourly Power Demand

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

39

Data Requirements

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

40

Optimal Level of System Loss

Total Cost

Cost

Unrecovered
Energy Cost

System Loss

Reduction

Program Cost

High

Optimal

Low

System Loss

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

41

BENECO DSL Segregation

SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES ANALYSIS

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

42

BENECO DSL Segregation

TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

Technical
Loss,
Non-
52.76%
Technical
Loss,
46.74%

Loss, 0.50%

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101
43
BENECO DSL
Segregation
SEGREGATED
SYSTEM LOSSES
13.2 KV System
0.3998%
Loss
Technical Loss
9.8906%
Non-Technical Loss
7.4183%
TOTAL LOSSES
17.7088%
13.2KV SYSTEM
23KV SYSTEM
SEGREGATED
23 KV
SYSTEM
LOSSES
System
0.0393%
Loss
Technical Loss
6.1051%
Non-Technical
Loss
5.4879%
TOTAL LOSSES
11.6324%
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
44
DSL RESULT PER FEEDER PER HOUR PER DAY IN A MONTH
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
45
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
46
BENECO DSL Segregation
SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS
% LOSS
% SHARE
0.0590%
0.9338%
0.2372%
3.7559%
Primary Line
1.3805%
21.8597%
Primary Service Drop
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.3438%
5.4445%
1.7397%
27.5469%
Secondary
2.1652%
34.2848%
Secondary Service Drop
0.0691%
1.0937%
Shunt Capacitor Loss
0.0029%
0.0456%
kWhR Meter Loss
0.3180%
5.0350%
Total Technical Loss
6.3153%
100.0000%
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

47

BENECO DSL Segregation

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

48

BENECO DSL Segregation

TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

49

BENECO DSL Segregation

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

50

BENECO DSL Segregation

FORECASTED SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

51

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

52

BENECO SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS (base year 2004)

Distribution System Loss

Energy (KWHR)

Percentage (%)

Peso Equivalent (Php) (as of February 2007 costing**)

Total System Loss

33,836,577

11.970%

P 239,339,641

167,791

0.059%

P 1,186,854

Technical Loss

17,852,305

6.315%

P

126,276,492

Non-Technical Loss

15,816,481

5.595%

P

111,876,296

BENECO SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS (base year 2004)

Technical Losses

Energy (KWHR)

Percentage (%)

Peso Equivalent (Php) (as of February 2007 costing**)

166,700

0.0590%

P

1,179,134

Loss

670,517

0.2372%

P

4,742,833

Primary Line

3,902,460

1.3805%

P

27,603,658

Primary Service Drop

6

0.0000%

P 42

971,968

0.3438%

P

6,875,117

4,917,765

1.7397%

P

34,785,321

Secondary

6,120,623

2.1652%

P

43,293,617

Secondary Service Drop

195,254

0.0691%

P

1,381,108

Shunt Capacitor Loss

8,147

0.0029%

P 57,626

kWhR Meter Loss

P. National Engineering Center

U.

Total Technical Loss

898,866

17,852,305

0.3180%

6.3153%

P

6,358,036

P 126,276,492

Power System Engineering

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

53

 SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT ENERGY LOSSES (KWHR) LOSSES IN PERCENTAGE (%) Metering Metering Connection Connection Metering Non- Pt. Admin Non-Technical Connection Pt. Technical Technical Loss Loss Technical Loss Loss Loss Admin Loss Loss Loss Lamut 4,898,458 38,384 3,326,440 1,533,634 10.0966% 0.0791% 6.8564% 3.1611% Irisan 5,182,063 6,636 3,081,395 2,094,032 11.8636% 0.0152% 7.0544% 4.7940% NSC Old 20MVA 7,770,156 22,323 3,643,277 4,104,556 11.8636% 0.0341% 5.5626% 6.2669% NSC New 20MVA 9,854,817 37,680 4,973,278 4,843,859 11.8636% 0.0454% 5.9870% 5.8312% NPC-Beckel 2,682,647 - 959,893 1,722,755 11.8636% 0% 4.2450% 7.6186% Atok 1,595,739 50,108 890,558 655,073 19.5406% 0.6136% 10.9053% 8.0217% Mankayan 932,559 11,625 547,017 373,918 14.8130% 0.1846% 8.6889% 5.9394% Asin Mini-Hyrdo 97,772 - 38,621 59,151 16.4621% 0% 6.5027% 9.9594% Bakun Mini-hydro 25,055 - 17,677 7,378 12.1417% 0% 8.5662% 3.5755% Ampuhaw Mini- 24,629 38,613 15.0311% 0% 5.8537% 9.1774% hydro 63,242 - Ambuclao 251,644 1,036 115,060 135,549 20.3546% 0.0838% 9.3068% 10.9641% NPC-Itogon 371,989 - 190,389 181,600 18.8304% 0% 9.6377% 9.1927% LUELCO 110,435 - 44,072 66,364 26.5489% 0% 10.5949% 15.9540% U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101

54

NON-TECHNICAL LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT

 Non-Technical Loss Cost of Unrecovered NTL (Pesos) Metering Connection (kWhr) NTL % (System) NTL % (Feeder) Lamut 1,533,634.21 P 11,289,465 0.5425% 3.1611% Irisan 2,094,031.95 P 15,414,693 0.7408% 4.7940% NSC Old 20MVA 4,104,556.00 P 30,214,663 1.4520% 6.2669% NSC New 20MVA 4,843,859.12 P 35,656,858 1.7135% 5.8312% NPC-Beckel 1,722,754.60 P 12,681,627 0.6094% 7.6186% Atok 655,072.51 P 4,822,153 0.2317% 8.0217% Mankayan 373,917.67 P 2,752,501 0.1323% 5.9394% Asin Mini-Hyrdo 59,150.85 P 435,424 0.0209% 9.9594% Bakun Mini-hydro 7,378.26 P 54,313 0.0026% 3.5755% Ampuhaw Mini- hydro 38,613.44 P 284,243 0.0137% 9.1774% Ambuclao 135,548.81 P 997,809 0.0480% 10.9641% NPC-Itogon 181,599.91 P 1,336,802 0.0642% 9.1927% LUELCO 66,363.50 P 488,518 0.0235% 15.9540% TOTAL 15,816,480.83 P 116,429,070 5.5951%

ACTIVITIES CONSIDERED AND COSTED FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION OPTIMIZATION COMPUTATION

Communal Distribution Transformer Block

Metering

Inspection, Calibration and Apprehension Kwhr Meter Replacement (apprehended and

defective)

Phased-Out Kwhr Meter Replacement (Old kwhr

meters)

Streetlight kwhr Metering

Streetlight Photo Switching

Right-of-Way Clearing

Loose Connection Correction

Software and Hardware Requirements

 Sole-Use Distribution Transformer Monitoring ► Procurement Power System Engineering ► U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

55

PRIORITY RANKING IN TERMS OF SELECTED NTL ACTIVITES FOR IMPLEMENTATION

FEEDER COVERAGE

Feeder 5

Feeder 6

U.

Totalizer 1

P. National Engineering Center

Totalizer 2

Circuit 5

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

56

SUMMARY OF OPTIMIZED PROJECT COST FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION PROGRAM

Metering

% Unrecovered NTL per Feeder

Level of Optimum %NTL per Feeder

% Recovered NTL per Feeder

% Recovered NTL as per Entire System

Optimized Project Cost for NTL Reduction

Connection

Lamut

3.161%

2.024%

1.137%

0.3474%

6,643,459.93

Irisan

4.794%

3.053%

1.741%

0.4718%

9,021,486.28

NSC Old 20MVA

6.267%

2.154%

4.113%

0.4991%

9,544,620.05

NSC New 20MVA

5.831%

3.029%

2.802%

0.8901%

17,019,823.88

NPC-Beckel

7.619%

3.237%

4.382%

0.2589%

4,950,875.25

Atok

8.022%

5.403%

2.618%

0.1561%

2,984,882.11

Mankayan

5.939%

4.532%

1.408%

0.1009%

1,929,917.47

Asin Mini-Hyrdo

9.959%

5.623%

4.337%

0.0118%

225,901.85

Bakun Mini-hydro

3.575%

3.056%

0.520%

0.0022%

42,656.16

Ampuhaw Mini-

hydro

9.177%

4.752%

4.426%

0.0071%

135,238.81

Ambuclao

10.964%

7.769%

3.195%

0.0340%

649,735.01

NPC-Itogon

9.193%

5.534%

3.659%

0.0387%

739,469.91

LUELCO

15.954%

8.611%

7.343%

0.0127%

242,309.48

TOTAL =

5.5951%

2.7644%

2.8308%

P 54,130,376.19

NOTE:

Project Cost for implementation per Metering Connection at targeted reduced Non-technical Loss percentage SHALL NOT EXCEED the computed Optimized Project Cost.

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101
57
BENECO NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Cost of Unrecovered VS NTL Reduction Program
120
110
Cost of Unrecovered NTL
100
Cost NTL Reduction Program
90
80
Optimum level of
loss reduction
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Non-Technical Loss (%)
OPTIMUM LEVEL OF NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION = 2.7644%
EQUIVALENT PROJECT COST = P53,447,802.55
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
58
System Loss
Reduction and Control
Reduction and Control of Technical Losses
Reduction and Control of Non-Technical
Losses
U.
P. National Engineering Center
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Cost (Php)
Millions
5.5951%
5.3853%
5.1755%
4.9657%
4.7559%
4.5461%
4.3362%
4.1264%
3.9166%
3.7068%
3.4970%
3.2871%
3.0773%
2.8675%
2.6577%
2.4479%
2.2381%
2.0282%
1.8184%
1.6086%
1.3988%
1.1890%
0.9791%
0.7693%
0.5595%
 Power System Analysis 101 59 Reduction and Control of Technical Losses Use the results of the Distribution System Loss Segregator for System Loss Reduction Program. Ranks the losses from the highest to lowest ( Per Substation, Per feeder, per distribution transformer) Prepare a Specific Technical Loss Reduction Program based on your technical analysis!!! Simulate your proposed technical loss reduction solutions to quantify the technical loss reduction Optimize your proposed technical loss reduction solutions U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 60 Reduction and Control of Technical Losses Distribution Rehabilitation Plan Safety Power Quality Problem Correction Reduce Technical Losses Distribution Expansion Plan Capacity that complies with Power Quality Standards and Controlled Technical Losses PDC:PDC: DistributionDistribution DevelopmentDevelopment PlanPlan •• TechnicalTechnical AnalysisAnalysis •• EconomicEconomic AnalysisAnalysis •• FinancialFinancial AnalysisAnalysis U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 61 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP Causes of Pilferages Long run of secondary networks “conducive” for illegal tapping Services run from one building to the next and attached to various structures (e.g., trees) making it difficult for meter readers to follow the wires or spot illegal connections Secondary wiring with “rat’s nest” appearance due to poor workmanship Inaccessible meters (located indoor or inside a compound) Control of meter seals Poor meter records (where and when the meters are installed, maintained, removed, condemned, etc.) U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 62 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP Detection of Pilferages Surveillance Teams (working full time) Consumer connections inventory to assure that: • All service connections are metered • All energized services are in an “active” status in the billing system • There are no illegal taps, by-passed meters, or tampered meters • Each household is metered separately (no flying taps) • Each consumer is properly classified 1. Match all service connections found in the field to a distribution transformer 2. Match the meter number to the account number 3. Check meter reading against previous readings to assure that meter readings are being properly reported U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 63 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP Tampered Meters In-Place Quick-test for Accuracy Hard-to-Detect Tampering • Gear teeth removed • Small hole bored at the top of the meter housing • “Floating Neutral” • Swapping the line-side and load side Correcting Problems • Service conductors are not properly supported • Service wire insulation has deteriorated U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 64 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP Apprehension of Pilferers Confronting the consumer Documenting the findings Calculating the amount of electricity stolen Setting the penalty amount to be charged Disconnecting service and removing the meter • May include policemen or barangay officials U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 65 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP Punitive Measures Against Pilferers R.A. 7832 – Theft of electricity is a crime Removal of fraudulent hook-ups Collection for unregistered consumption Penalty charge Connection charge Disconnection of service Filing charges with judicial authorities Charging for tampering with seals Regularly scheduled inspections U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 66 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP Prevention of Pilferage by Service Entrance Modification Installation of meters on the service pole Meter clustering in apartment buildings Better meter seals Security plates or cabinets Coaxial service cable U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 67 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP Political and legal measures Strengthening of laws that would impose severe penalties on employees who collaborate with consumers for the purpose of defrauding the DU Modification of Procedures for recovery and prosecution Elimination of political interference with bill collections Consistent enforcement practices Publicize successes U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 68 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses NEA SLRP Complaints for low voltage from the customers Look for the overload distribution transformers and compared the billings of all customers connected to that DT. Distribution transformers that always trips may be suspected for illegal connections. U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration
 Power System Analysis 101 69 SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers Power System Analysis 101 70 Short Circuit Analysis 1. What is Short Circuit? 2. Short Circuit Studies 3. Selection of Device Duties U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101

71

What is Short Circuit?

+
Very Large
Very Small
Current
Resistance
-
Flow

Short Circuit

I

V

= R

0

 U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

72

What is Short Circuit?

Analogy of Normal and Short Circuit Current in a Hydroelectric plant

 U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

73

What is Short Circuit?

Equipment Explosion because of Short Circuit

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

74

What is Short Circuit?

Type of Faults

Three Phase Fault

Double Line-to-Ground Fault

Line-to-Line Fault

Single Line-to-Ground Fault

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

What is Short Circuit?

Sources of Short Circuit Currents

G
Utility
MV
Fault
LV

Fault Current Contributors

U.

P. National Engineering Center