You are on page 1of 96

Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Power System Analysis 101

U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER

Power System Analysis 101

2

Power System Analysis

Performance

Power System Analysis

Standards

Power Quality

Load Flow Analysis

Efficiency

System Loss Analysis

Safety

Short Circuit Analysis

Reliability

Reliability Analysis

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

3

 

LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

4

 

Load Flow Analysis

 

1. What is Load Flow?

 

2. Uses of Load Flow Studies

3. Load Flow Control

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

5

What is Load Flow? Bus2 I 23 , Loss 23 = ? Bus3 Bus1 I
What is Load Flow?
Bus2
I 23 , Loss 23 = ?
Bus3
Bus1
I 12 , Loss 12 = ?
V 3 = ?
P 3 , Q 3 = ?
Utility
I 24 , Loss 24 = ?
V 4 = ?
Grid
P 4 , Q 4 = ?
V 1 = 67 kV
Bus4
P 1 , Q 1 = ?
V 2 = ?
P 2 , Q 2 = ?
Lumped Load A
2 MVA 85%PF
Lumped Load B
1 MVA 85%PF
What are the Voltages,
Currents, Power and Losses of
the Distribution System?
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

U. P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

6

What is Load Flow?

Load Flow of an Existing System

Can we see how electric power flows in the system, coming from the sources (where power is purchased) and down to all customers (where power is sold)?

Can we determine:

If any customer is being provided with voltage that is too low (or even too high)?

If too much power flow through any of our equipment, especially our transformers?

How much power is lost along the lines and equipment?

YES! LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

along the lines and equipment? YES! LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification

U. P. National Engineering Center

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

7

 

What is Load Flow?

Load Flow of a Contemplated System

 

Can we have a picture of the system as we contemplate possible changes?

 

Can we determine in advance the effects of:

Growth or addition of new loads

Addition of generating plants

Upgrading of Substation

Expansion of distribution lines

Installations of equipment such as capacitors

before the proposed changes are implemented?

 

YES! LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

8

 

What is Load Flow?

 

Load Flow (also called Power Flow) is a snapshot picture of the power system at a given point.

Load Flow Analysis simulates (i.e.,

 

mathematically determine) the performance of an electric power system under a given set of conditions.

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

 

9

 

What is Load Flow?

 

How would the engineers do that?

• Identify physical components

 

• Know the characteristic of components

• Mathematically represent the behavior of components

• Calculate electrical parameters

 
U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

10

 

What is Load Flow?

 
G
G
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

 

11

What is Load Flow?

Utility Grid or Generator

Substation

Transformer

Transmission

Line

Grid or Generator Substation Transformer Transmission Line             Bus G
Grid or Generator Substation Transformer Transmission Line             Bus G
     
     

Bus

Line             Bus G Distribution Line Distribution Transformer Load Flow
G
G
Distribution Line
Distribution
Line

Distribution

Transformer

  Bus G Distribution Line Distribution Transformer Load Flow mathematically determines the Voltages, Currents,

Load Flow mathematically determines the Voltages, Currents, Power and Losses

Load

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

12

 

Uses of Load Flow Studies

 

Basic Information From a Load Flow Study

 
 

Voltage Profile 

Injected Power (P p and Q p ) p and Q p )

Line Currents (I p q and I p q ) pq and I pq )

Power Flows (P p q and Q p q ) pq and Q pq )

Line Losses (I 2 R and I 2 X) 2 R and I 2 X)

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

 

13

 

Uses of Load Flow Studies

 

Other Information From a Load Flow Study

 
 

Overvoltage and Undervoltage Buses 

Critical and Overloaded Transformers and LinesStudy     Overvoltage and Undervoltage Buses Total System Losses   U. P. National Engineering

Total System Losses 

 
U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

14

 

Uses of Load Flow Studies

Sensitivity Analysis

 
 

1) Take any line, transformer or generator out of service. 2) Add, reduce or remove load to any or all buses.

3) Add, remove or shift generation to any bus.

 

4) Add new transmission or distribution lines.

5) Increase conductor size on T&D lines.

6) Change bus voltages.

7) Change transformer taps.

8) Increase or decrease transformer size.

9) Add or remove rotating or static var supply to buses.

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

15

Uses of Load Flow Studies

1) ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS

Check for voltage violations PGC: 0.95 – 1.05 p.u. (For Transmission) PDC: 0.90 – 1.10 p.u (For Distribution)*

*Recommended 0.95 – 1.05 p.u.

Check for branch power flow violations Transformer Overloads Line Overloads

Check for system losses Caps on Segregated DSL

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

U. P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

16

Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS

Voltage adjustment by utility at delivery point Request TransCo to improve voltage at connection point TransCo as System Operator will determine feasibility based on Economic Dispatch and other adjustments such as transformer tap changing and reactive power compensation

as transformer tap changing and reactive power compensation U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification

U. P. National Engineering Center

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

17

 

Uses of Load Flow Studies

 

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS

 

Transformer tap changing Available Taps

 
 

At Primary Side At Secondary Side Both Sides

Typical Taps

Tap 1: +5% Tap 2: +2.5% Tap 3: 0% (Rated Voltage) Tap 4: -2.5% Tap 5: -5%

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

18

 

Uses of Load Flow Studies

 

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS

 

Capacitor compensation

 
 

Compensate for Peak Loading

Check overvoltages during Off-Peak

Optimize Capacitor Plan

 

System configuration improvement

 
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

 

19

 

Uses of Load Flow Studies

3) EXPANSION PLANNING

 
 

New substation construction

Substation capacity expansion

New feeder segment construction / extension

Addition of parallel feeder segment

 

Reconducting of existing feeder segment/ circuit

Circuit conversion to higher voltage

 

Generator addition

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

20

 

Uses of Load Flow Studies

4) CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

 
 

Reliability analysis of the Transmission (Grid) and Subtransmission System

5) SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS

 
 

Segregation of System Losses

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

 

21

 

Load Flow Control

 

1. For Generating plants, the amount of power that can be delivered can be controlled by the plant operator (as long as within the capacity of the plant)

 

2. Flow of power is affected by the voltages and impedances across the components

 

Specialized Transformers and other equipment may be utilized to control the flow of power across the network

 

3. Capacitors are used to improve the voltage profile across the network

 

• The current drawn by the load is reduced

 

• The voltage drop across the line is reduced

• The voltage at the load side is increased

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

22

 

SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

 

23

 

System Loss Analysis

1. Components of Distribution System Losses

2. Segregation of Distribution System Losses

3. System Loss Reduction and Control

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
 
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

24

 

Components of Distribution System Losses

The Philippine Distribution Code (PDC) mandates system losses to be segregated into the following components:

 

a. Technical Loss;

b. Non-Technical Loss; and

c. Administrative Loss.

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

National Electrification Administration

 
Power System Analysis 101 25 Total Distribution System Losses Energy Delivered to the Distribution System
Power System Analysis 101
25
Total Distribution System Losses
Energy Delivered
to the Distribution
System
Energy
-
Delivered to
Users
=
Total Distribution
System Losses
Administrative
+
Technical Loss
+
Non-Technical Loss
Loss
Bundled Technical & Non-Technical Losses
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
26
Components of Distribution
System Losses
Administrative Losses
The
electric
energy used
by
the
Distribution
Utility in the proper operation of the Distribution
System.
a. Distribution Substations;
b. Offices, warehouses and workshops of the DU; and
c. Other essential electrical loads of the Distribution
Utility.
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

27

 

Components of Distribution System Losses

Technical Losses

 

Load and no-load losses in:

 

a. Sub-transmission lines and substation transformers;

b. Primary distribution lines and distribution transformers;

c. Secondary distribution lines and service drops;

d. Voltage regulators, Capacitors and reactors; and

e. All other electrical equipment necessary for the operation of the distribution system.

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
 
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

28

 

Components of Distribution System Losses

Non-Technical Losses

 

The component that is not related to the physical characteristics and functions of the electrical system, and is caused primarily by human error, whether intentional or not.

 

Includes the electric energy lost due to pilferage, tampering of meters and erroneous meter reading.

Errors that are attributable to inaccuracies in metering and billing.

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

 

29

 

Total Distribution System Losses

Total DSL = Energy Input - Energy Output

Total DSL

 
 

= Σ[Energy delivered by the Transmission System]

+ Σ[Energy delivered by Embedded Generating Plants]

+ Σ[Energy delivered by Other Distribution Systems]

+ Σ[Energy delivered by User Systems with Generating Units]

 

- Σ[Energy delivered to the Users of the Distribution System]

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
 

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

30

 

Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss

 
Technical Losses
Technical
Losses

+

Non-Technical Losses
Non-Technical
Losses
 
 

-

 
Technical Losses
Technical
Losses
Technical Losses

Shall be quantified through 3-Phase (Unbalanced) Load Flow Simulations

 

=

Residual after subtracting Administrative & Technical Losses from the Total Distribution System Losses

after subtracting Administrative & Technical Losses from the Total Distribution System Losses Non-Technical Losses
Non-Technical Losses
Non-Technical
Losses
 
U. P. National Engineering Center   Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center   Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 
Power System Analysis 101 31 Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss Technical Loss = ΣΣΣΣ[Hourly
Power System Analysis 101
31
Unbundling the Technical and
Non-Technical Loss
Technical Loss
= ΣΣΣΣ[Hourly Load and No-Load (or Fixed) Losses in all
electrical equipment, devices and conductors]
a)Sub-transmission Lines
b)Substation Power Transformers
c)Primary Distribution Lines
d)Distribution Transformers
e)Secondary Distribution Lines
f) Service Drops
g)
Voltage Regulators
h)
Capacitors
i)
Reactors
j)
Other electrical equipment
Hourly Load Flow Simulations
Plus Calculated Metering Equipment Loss
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
32
Unbundling the Technical and
Non-Technical Loss
Primary Distribution Lines
Subtransmission Lines
(Main Feeder)
Substation
Transformer
Primary Distribution Lines
(Laterals)
Three-Phase Unbalanced
Load Flow Simulations
Misc Loads
a)Sub-transmission Lines
b)Substation Power Transformers
c)Primary Distribution Lines
Secondary Distribution Lines
Service
d)Distribution Transformers
Distribution
Drop
Transformer
e)Secondary Distribution Lines
f)
Service Drops
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
g)Voltage Regulators
h)Capacitors
i) Reactors
Load Losses and
No-Load (Fixed) Losses
j) Other electrical equipment
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

33

 

Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss

 

Calculation of Metering Equipment

 

Potential Transformer Loss

 

=

Power Loss in PT (kW) x Number of PT x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period

 

Current Transformer Loss

 
 

=

Power Loss in CT (kW) x Number of CT x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period

 

Electric Meter Potential Coil Loss

 
 

=

Power Loss in Electric Meter Potential Coil (kW) x Number of Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period

 

Electric Meter Current Coil Loss

 
 

=

Power Loss in Electric Meter Current Coil (kW) x Number of Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period

 

Operating Hours = No. of days x 24 hours – SAIDI

 
U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center

U.

P.

National Engineering Center

 
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

34

 

Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss

Non-Technical Loss

 
 

= Total Distribution System Losses

 

- Administrative Loss

- Technical Loss

- Recovered Losses

 

Note: Losses recovered from anti-pilferage activities are subtracted from the total distribution system losses.

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U.

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

35

DSL Segregation

Distribution System Data
Distribution System Data

Distribution System Data

 

Distribution System Loss Segregation Program

(3-phase Load Flow)

 
Segregated Technical Loss (Billing Period)

Segregated

Technical

Loss

(Billing Period)

Metering Equipment Loss Distribution Reliability Assessment Metering Equipment Inventory Customer Energy Bill
Metering Equipment Loss Distribution Reliability Assessment Metering Equipment Inventory Customer Energy Bill

Metering

Equipment

Loss

Distribution Reliability Assessment

Metering Equipment

Inventory

Metering Equipment Loss Distribution Reliability Assessment Metering Equipment Inventory Customer Energy Bill
Metering Equipment Loss Distribution Reliability Assessment Metering Equipment Inventory Customer Energy Bill

Customer Energy Bill

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

U. P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

36

Segregated Distribution System Losses

Monthly DSL Segregation

Segregated DSL for the Whole Distribution System

Segregated DSL Per Receiving/Metering Point

Segregated DSL per Substation

Segregated DSL per Feeder

Segregated DSL per Distribution Transformer

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

U. P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

37

Distribution Network Models

Distribution Network Model must capture the unbalance characteristics of the System

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

38

Demand (W)

Normalized Demand (per unit)

Distribution Load Models

Customer Energy Bill
Customer Energy Bill

Time (24 hours)

Normalized Customer Load Curve

Customer Energy Bill Converted to Hourly Power Demand

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

39

Data Requirements

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

40

 

Optimal Level of System Loss

 

Total Cost

 
 

Cost

 
Unrecovered Energy Cost
Unrecovered
Energy Cost

System Loss

Reduction

Program Cost

 

High

Optimal

Low

System Loss

U. P. National Engineering Center   Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center   Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

41

BENECO DSL Segregation

SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES ANALYSIS

BENECO DSL Segregation SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES ANALYSIS
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

42

BENECO DSL Segregation

TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

Technical Loss, Non- 52.76% Technical Loss, 46.74%
Technical
Loss,
Non-
52.76%
Technical
Loss,
46.74%

Administrative

Loss, 0.50%

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101 43 BENECO DSL Segregation SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSSES 13.2 KV System Administrative
Power System Analysis 101
43
BENECO DSL
Segregation
SEGREGATED
SYSTEM LOSSES
13.2 KV System
Administrative
0.3998%
Loss
Technical Loss
9.8906%
Non-Technical Loss
7.4183%
TOTAL LOSSES
17.7088%
13.2KV SYSTEM
23KV SYSTEM
SEGREGATED
23 KV
SYSTEM
LOSSES
System
Administrative
0.0393%
Loss
Technical Loss
6.1051%
Non-Technical
Loss
5.4879%
TOTAL LOSSES
11.6324%
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
44
DSL RESULT PER FEEDER PER HOUR PER DAY IN A MONTH
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101 45 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System
Power System Analysis 101
45
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
46
BENECO DSL Segregation
SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS
% LOSS
% SHARE
Power Transformer Load Loss
0.0590%
0.9338%
Power Transformer No-Load Loss
0.2372%
3.7559%
Primary Line
1.3805%
21.8597%
Primary Service Drop
0.0000%
0.0000%
Dist. XF Load Loss
0.3438%
5.4445%
Dist. XF No-Load Loss
1.7397%
27.5469%
Secondary
2.1652%
34.2848%
Secondary Service Drop
0.0691%
1.0937%
Shunt Capacitor Loss
0.0029%
0.0456%
kWhR Meter Loss
0.3180%
5.0350%
Total Technical Loss
6.3153%
100.0000%
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

47

BENECO DSL Segregation

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

48

BENECO DSL Segregation

TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

49

BENECO DSL Segregation

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

50

BENECO DSL Segregation

FORECASTED SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

51

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

52

 

BENECO SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS (base year 2004)

 
   

Distribution System Loss

Energy (KWHR)

Percentage (%)

Peso Equivalent (Php) (as of February 2007 costing**)

Total System Loss

33,836,577

11.970%

 

P 239,339,641

Administrative Loss

167,791

0.059%

 

P 1,186,854

Technical Loss

17,852,305

6.315%

 

P

126,276,492

Non-Technical Loss

15,816,481

5.595%

 

P

111,876,296

 

BENECO SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS (base year 2004)

 

Technical Losses

Energy (KWHR)

Percentage (%)

Peso Equivalent (Php) (as of February 2007 costing**)

 

Power Xformer Load Loss Power Xformer No-Load

166,700

 

0.0590%

 

P

1,179,134

Loss

670,517

 

0.2372%

 

P

4,742,833

Primary Line

3,902,460

 

1.3805%

 

P

27,603,658

Primary Service Drop

6

 

0.0000%

 

P 42

Dist. XF Load Loss

971,968

 

0.3438%

 

P

6,875,117

Dist. XF No-Load Loss

4,917,765

 

1.7397%

 

P

34,785,321

Secondary

6,120,623

 

2.1652%

 

P

43,293,617

Secondary Service Drop

195,254

 

0.0691%

 

P

1,381,108

Shunt Capacitor Loss

8,147

 

0.0029%

 

P 57,626

kWhR Meter Loss P. National Engineering Center U. Total Technical Loss 898,866 17,852,305   0.3180%
kWhR Meter Loss P. National Engineering Center U. Total Technical Loss 898,866 17,852,305   0.3180%

kWhR Meter Loss

P. National Engineering Center

U.

Total Technical Loss

898,866

17,852,305

 

0.3180%

6.3153%

 

P

6,358,036

P 126,276,492

Power System Engineering

 

National Electrification Administration

 

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

53

SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT

 
   

ENERGY LOSSES (KWHR)

   

LOSSES IN PERCENTAGE (%)

 
 

Metering

 

Metering

             

Connection

Connection

Metering

Non-

 

Pt.

Admin

Non-Technical

Connection Pt.

Technical

Technical

Loss

Loss

Technical Loss

Loss

Loss

Admin Loss

Loss

Loss

Lamut

 

4,898,458

38,384

3,326,440

1,533,634

10.0966%

0.0791%

6.8564%

3.1611%

Irisan

 

5,182,063

6,636

3,081,395

2,094,032

11.8636%

0.0152%

7.0544%

4.7940%

NSC Old 20MVA

 

7,770,156

22,323

3,643,277

4,104,556

11.8636%

0.0341%

5.5626%

6.2669%

NSC New 20MVA

9,854,817

37,680

4,973,278

4,843,859

11.8636%

0.0454%

5.9870%

5.8312%

NPC-Beckel

 

2,682,647

-

959,893

1,722,755

11.8636%

0%

4.2450%

7.6186%

Atok

 

1,595,739

50,108

890,558

655,073

19.5406%

0.6136%

10.9053%

8.0217%

Mankayan

 

932,559

11,625

547,017

373,918

14.8130%

0.1846%

8.6889%

5.9394%

Asin Mini-Hyrdo

97,772

-

38,621

59,151

16.4621%

0%

6.5027%

9.9594%

Bakun Mini-hydro

25,055

-

17,677

7,378

12.1417%

0%

8.5662%

3.5755%

Ampuhaw Mini-

     

24,629

38,613

15.0311%

0%

5.8537%

9.1774%

hydro

 

63,242

-

Ambuclao

 

251,644

1,036

115,060

135,549

20.3546%

0.0838%

9.3068%

10.9641%

NPC-Itogon

 

371,989

-

190,389

181,600

18.8304%

0%

9.6377%

9.1927%

LUELCO

 

110,435

-

44,072

66,364

26.5489%

0%

10.5949%

15.9540%

U. P. National Engineering Center   Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center   Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101

54

NON-TECHNICAL LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT

 

Non-Technical Loss

Cost of Unrecovered NTL (Pesos)

   

Metering Connection

(kWhr)

NTL % (System)

NTL % (Feeder)

Lamut

1,533,634.21

P

11,289,465

0.5425%

3.1611%

Irisan

2,094,031.95

P

15,414,693

0.7408%

4.7940%

NSC Old 20MVA

4,104,556.00

P

30,214,663

1.4520%

6.2669%

NSC New 20MVA

4,843,859.12

P

35,656,858

1.7135%

5.8312%

NPC-Beckel

1,722,754.60

P

12,681,627

0.6094%

7.6186%

Atok

655,072.51

 

P

4,822,153

0.2317%

8.0217%

Mankayan

373,917.67

 

P

2,752,501

0.1323%

5.9394%

Asin Mini-Hyrdo

59,150.85

 

P

435,424

0.0209%

9.9594%

Bakun Mini-hydro

7,378.26

 

P 54,313

0.0026%

3.5755%

Ampuhaw Mini-

       

hydro

38,613.44

 

P

284,243

0.0137%

9.1774%

Ambuclao

135,548.81

 

P

997,809

0.0480%

10.9641%

NPC-Itogon

181,599.91

 

P

1,336,802

0.0642%

9.1927%

LUELCO

66,363.50

 

P

488,518

0.0235%

15.9540%

TOTAL

15,816,480.83

P 116,429,070

5.5951%

 

ACTIVITIES CONSIDERED AND COSTED FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION OPTIMIZATION COMPUTATION

Communal Distribution Transformer Block

Metering

Inspection, Calibration and Apprehension Kwhr Meter Replacement (apprehended and

defective)

Phased-Out Kwhr Meter Replacement (Old kwhr

meters)

Streetlight kwhr Metering

Streetlight Photo Switching

Right-of-Way Clearing

Loose Connection Correction

Software and Hardware Requirements

Sole-Use Distribution Transformer Monitoring ► Procurement Power System Engineering

Sole-Use Distribution Transformer Monitoring

Procurement

Power System Engineering

►

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

55

PRIORITY RANKING IN TERMS OF SELECTED NTL ACTIVITES FOR IMPLEMENTATION

FEEDER COVERAGE

Feeder 5 Feeder 6 U. Totalizer 1 P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Totalizer
Feeder 5 Feeder 6 U. Totalizer 1 P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Totalizer

Feeder 5

Feeder 6

U.

Totalizer 1

P. National Engineering Center

National Electrification Administration

Totalizer 2

Circuit 5

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

56

SUMMARY OF OPTIMIZED PROJECT COST FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION PROGRAM

 

Metering

% Unrecovered NTL per Feeder

Level of Optimum %NTL per Feeder

% Recovered NTL per Feeder

% Recovered NTL as per Entire System

Optimized Project Cost for NTL Reduction

 

Connection

 

Lamut

 

3.161%

2.024%

1.137%

0.3474%

6,643,459.93

Irisan

 

4.794%

3.053%

1.741%

0.4718%

9,021,486.28

NSC Old 20MVA

 

6.267%

2.154%

4.113%

0.4991%

9,544,620.05

NSC New 20MVA

 

5.831%

3.029%

2.802%

0.8901%

17,019,823.88

NPC-Beckel

 

7.619%

3.237%

4.382%

0.2589%

4,950,875.25

Atok

 

8.022%

5.403%

2.618%

0.1561%

2,984,882.11

Mankayan

 

5.939%

4.532%

1.408%

0.1009%

1,929,917.47

Asin Mini-Hyrdo

 

9.959%

5.623%

4.337%

0.0118%

225,901.85

Bakun Mini-hydro

 

3.575%

3.056%

0.520%

0.0022%

42,656.16

Ampuhaw Mini-

           

hydro

 

9.177%

4.752%

4.426%

0.0071%

135,238.81

Ambuclao

 

10.964%

7.769%

3.195%

0.0340%

649,735.01

NPC-Itogon

 

9.193%

5.534%

3.659%

0.0387%

739,469.91

LUELCO

 

15.954%

8.611%

7.343%

0.0127%

242,309.48

TOTAL =

 

5.5951%

2.7644%

 

2.8308%

P 54,130,376.19

 

NOTE:

 

Project Cost for implementation per Metering Connection at targeted reduced Non-technical Loss percentage SHALL NOT EXCEED the computed Optimized Project Cost.

U. P. National Engineering Center   Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center   Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 
Power System Analysis 101 57 BENECO NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Cost of Unrecovered VS
Power System Analysis 101
57
BENECO NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Cost of Unrecovered VS NTL Reduction Program
120
110
Cost of Unrecovered NTL
100
Cost NTL Reduction Program
90
80
Optimum level of
loss reduction
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Non-Technical Loss (%)
OPTIMUM LEVEL OF NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION = 2.7644%
EQUIVALENT PROJECT COST = P53,447,802.55
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Power System Analysis 101
58
System Loss
Reduction and Control
Reduction and Control of Technical Losses
Reduction and Control of Non-Technical
Losses
U.
P. National Engineering Center
National Electrification Administration
Power System Engineering
for Non-Engineers
Cost (Php)
Millions
5.5951%
5.3853%
5.1755%
4.9657%
4.7559%
4.5461%
4.3362%
4.1264%
3.9166%
3.7068%
3.4970%
3.2871%
3.0773%
2.8675%
2.6577%
2.4479%
2.2381%
2.0282%
1.8184%
1.6086%
1.3988%
1.1890%
0.9791%
0.7693%
0.5595%

Power System Analysis 101

 

59

 

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses

 
 

Use the results of the Distribution System Loss Segregator for System Loss Reduction Program.

 

Ranks the losses from the highest to lowest ( Per Substation, Per feeder, per distribution transformer)

Prepare a Specific Technical Loss Reduction Program based on your technical analysis!!!

Simulate your proposed technical loss reduction solutions to quantify the technical loss reduction

Optimize your proposed technical loss reduction solutions

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

60

 

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses

 
 

Distribution Rehabilitation Plan

 

Safety

Power Quality Problem Correction

 

Reduce Technical Losses

 

Distribution Expansion Plan

 
 

Capacity that complies with Power Quality Standards and Controlled Technical Losses

 

PDC:PDC: DistributionDistribution DevelopmentDevelopment PlanPlan

 

TechnicalTechnical AnalysisAnalysis

EconomicEconomic AnalysisAnalysis

FinancialFinancial AnalysisAnalysis

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

 

61

 

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

 

NEA SLRP Causes of Pilferages

 
 

Long run of secondary networks “conducive” for illegal tapping Services run from one building to the next and attached to various structures (e.g., trees) making it difficult for meter readers to follow the wires or spot illegal connections Secondary wiring with “rat’s nest” appearance due to poor workmanship Inaccessible meters (located indoor or inside a compound) Control of meter seals Poor meter records (where and when the meters are installed, maintained, removed, condemned, etc.)

  U. P. National Engineering Center  
 
  U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

62

 

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

 

NEA SLRP

 

Detection of Pilferages

 

Surveillance Teams (working full time) Consumer connections inventory to assure that:

All service connections are metered

 

All energized services are in an “active” status in the billing system

There are no illegal taps, by-passed meters, or tampered meters

Each household is metered separately (no flying taps)

Each consumer is properly classified

 

1. Match all service connections found in the field to a distribution transformer

2. Match the meter number to the account number

3. Check meter reading against previous readings to assure that meter readings are being properly reported

  U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
 
  U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

   

Power System Analysis 101

 

63

 

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

 

NEA SLRP

 

Tampered Meters

 

In-Place Quick-test for Accuracy Hard-to-Detect Tampering

 

Gear teeth removed

Small hole bored at the top of the meter housing

“Floating Neutral”

 

Swapping the line-side and load side

 

Correcting Problems

 

Service conductors are not properly supported

Service wire insulation has deteriorated

  U. P. National Engineering Center  
 
  U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

64

 

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

 

NEA SLRP

 

Apprehension of Pilferers

 

Confronting the consumer Documenting the findings Calculating the amount of electricity stolen Setting the penalty amount to be charged Disconnecting service and removing the meter

 

May include policemen or barangay officials

  U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
 
  U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

   

Power System Analysis 101

 

65

 

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

 

NEA SLRP

 

Punitive Measures Against Pilferers

 

R.A. 7832 – Theft of electricity is a crime

Removal of fraudulent hook-ups Collection for unregistered consumption Penalty charge Connection charge Disconnection of service Filing charges with judicial authorities Charging for tampering with seals Regularly scheduled inspections

  U. P. National Engineering Center  
 
  U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

66

 

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

 

NEA SLRP

 

Prevention of Pilferage by Service Entrance Modification

 

Installation of meters on the service pole

Meter clustering in apartment buildings

Better meter seals

Security plates or cabinets

Coaxial service cable

  U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
 
  U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

   

Power System Analysis 101

 

67

 

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

 

NEA SLRP

 

Political and legal measures

 

Strengthening of laws that would impose severe penalties on employees who collaborate with consumers for the purpose of defrauding the DU

Modification of Procedures for recovery and prosecution

Elimination of political interference with bill collections

Consistent enforcement practices

Publicize successes

  U. P. National Engineering Center  
 
  U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
     
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

68

 

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

 

NEA SLRP

 

Complaints for low voltage from the customers

Look for the overload distribution transformers and compared the billings of all customers connected to that DT.

Distribution transformers that always trips may be suspected for illegal connections.

  U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
 
  U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

   

National Electrification Administration

   

Power System Analysis 101

 

69

 

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
 
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

70

 

Short Circuit Analysis

1. What is Short Circuit?

 

2. Short Circuit Studies

3. Selection of Device Duties

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

National Electrification Administration

 

Power System Analysis 101

71

What is Short Circuit?

+ Very Large Very Small Current Resistance - Flow
+
Very Large
Very Small
Current
Resistance
-
Flow

Short Circuit

I

V

= R

0

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

U. P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

72

What is Short Circuit?

What is Short Circuit? Analogy of Normal and Short Circuit Current in a Hydroelectric plant
What is Short Circuit? Analogy of Normal and Short Circuit Current in a Hydroelectric plant

Analogy of Normal and Short Circuit Current in a Hydroelectric plant

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

U. P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration

for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

73

 

What is Short Circuit?

 

Equipment Explosion because of Short Circuit

Circuit?   Equipment Explosion because of Short Circuit U. P. National Engineering Center      
U. P. National Engineering Center  
U. P. National Engineering Center  

U.

P. National Engineering Center

 
 
 

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

 

74

What is Short Circuit?

Type of Faults

What is Short Circuit? Type of Faults Three Phase Fault Double Line-to-Ground Fault Line-to-Line Fault Single

Three Phase Fault

Double Line-to-Ground Fault

Short Circuit? Type of Faults Three Phase Fault Double Line-to-Ground Fault Line-to-Line Fault Single Line-to-Ground Fault

Line-to-Line Fault

Single Line-to-Ground Fault

U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers
U. National Electrification Administration P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U.

National Electrification Administration

P. National Engineering Center

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101 What is Short Circuit? Sources of Short Circuit Currents G Utility

Power System Analysis 101

Power System Analysis 101 What is Short Circuit? Sources of Short Circuit Currents G Utility MV

What is Short Circuit?

Sources of Short Circuit Currents

G Utility MV Fault LV
G
Utility
MV
Fault
LV

Fault Current Contributors

G Utility MV Fault LV Fault Current Contributors U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification
G Utility MV Fault LV Fault Current Contributors U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification

U.

P. National Engineering Center

National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

75

Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers 75 Power System Analysis 101 What is Short Circuit? PROTECTIVE

Power System Analysis 101

Engineering for Non-Engineers 75 Power System Analysis 101 What is Short Circuit? PROTECTIVE DEVICES: FUSE Low

What is Short Circuit?