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Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Training Course in
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System 101

U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER


NATIONAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION

Power System 101 2

Power System 101


Course Outline
1. What is Electricity?
2. How is Electricity Produced?
3. How is Electricity Transported?
4. How is Electric Power Industry
organized?
5. Electric Circuits – the language of
electrical engineers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
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Power System 101 3

What is Electricity?
Electricity is basically
electrons flow.
Appliances converts electrical
Electrons carries energy energy to useful form of energy
(called electrical energy).
When electron flows to
electrical appliances, the
energy carried by electrons
are converted to useful
form of energy
 Light
 Mechanical Power
 Heat
 Pressure, and
 Chemical Action
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Power System 101 4

What Makes Electrons Move?


 Voltage is the electromotive force (EMF) or the pressure
which causes electrons to move. Voltage is measured in
Volts
Electric Current is the
rate at which electrons flow
through a circuit (wires).
The unit of measurement
for Electric Current is
Amperes.

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Power System 101 5

What Makes Electrons Move?

Analogy of electricity and water

Water Pressure = Voltage

Water Pressure Voltage causes the


causes the flow of flow of current
water

V I

Water Flow = Current

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Power System 101 6

What Makes Electrons Move?


Types of Voltage Generated

Direct Current (DC) Voltage

Alternating Current (AC) Voltage


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Power System 101 7

What Makes Electrons Move?


FREQUENCY OF ALTERNATING-CURRENT VOLTAGE

FREQUENCY – the number of complete cycles


of alternating current in one
second (measured in Hertz, Hz)
1 Cycle

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Power System 101 8

What Makes Electrons Move?


N

S FREQUENCY OF AC VOLTAGE
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Power System 101 9

Three Phase Generator

Phase c Phase b

Phase a
a b c

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Power System 101 10

How is Electricity Produced?

Electricity is Produced by HEAT

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Power System 101 11

How is Electricity Produced?

Electricity is
Produced by
CHEMICAL
ACTION
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Power System 101 12

How is Electricity Produced?

Electricity is
Produced by
LIGHT

Photovoltaic
(PV) Effect

Solar Cell

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Power System 101 13

Stand Alone PV System

PV Controller Load

Battery

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Power System 101 14

Stand Alone Solar Home System

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Power System 101 15

Solar
Battery
Charging
Station

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Power System 101 16

Solar-
Powered
Community
Lighting

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Power System 101 17

Grid-Connected Solar Home System

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Power System 101 18

Solar Power Plant

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Power System 101 19

How is Electricity Produced?


Electricity is Produced by MECHANICAL ACTION
AND MAGNETISM

Electro-magnet

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Power System 101 20

Hydroelectric Power Plant

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Power System 101 21

Hydro Electric
Power Plants

• Pondage (Dam) Hydro Electric Plant


• Run-of-River Hydro Electric Plant
• Pumped-Storage Hydro Electric Plant
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Power System 101 22

Pondage (Dam Type)


Hydro Electric Power Plants

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Power System 101 23

Run-of-the River
Hydro Electric Power Plants

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Power System 101 24

Pumped-Storage
Hydro Electric Power Plants

Upper
Reservoir
Power
Generation
Caliraya Lake

Lower
Reservoir
Water Laguna Lake
Pumping

Kalayaan Pumped-Storage Power Plant

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Power System 101 25

Thermal Power Plant

Boiler
• Oil-Fired
Thermal Power
Plant
Turbine G
• Coal-Fired
Thermal Power
Plant

Thermal Power Plant


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Power System 101 26

Coal-Fired Power Plant

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Power System 101 27

Coal-Fired Power Plant

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Power System 101 28

Geothermal Power Plant

Natural steam
from earth

TO TURBINE HEAT EXCHANGER


Source: PNOC-EDC H2 0
ACTIVE
GEOTHERMAL UNPRODUCTIVE
Mayon Volcano R
WELLS
E
WELL

U RE
SS SU
FI FIS AM
I M P E R M E A B L E R O C K
S TE
HIGH PRESSURE

HEAT HEAT

M A G M A T I C I N T R U S I O N

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Power System 101 29

Geothermal Power Plant

Source: PNOC-EDC

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Power System 101 30

Geothermal Power Plant

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Power System 101 31

Geothermal Power Plant

Source: PNOC-EDC

Southern Negros Geothermal


Production Field (Palinpinon)
Source: PNOC-EDC

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Power System 101 32

Nuclear Power Plant

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Power System 101 33

Nuclear Power Plant

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Power System 101 34

Diesel Power Plant

Source: Vilspa

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Power System 101 35

Wind Power Plant

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Power System 101 36

Wind Power Plant

Wind Farm

Source: PNOC-EDC

PNOC-EDC Northern
Luzon Wind Power
Source: PNOC-EDC Project
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Power System 101 37

Wind Power Plant

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Power System 101 38

Biomass Power Plant

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Power System 101 39

Generating Unit

Steam Turbine

Hydraulic Turbine

Inside the Power


Generating Unit
Power Plant

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Power System 101 40

How is Electricity Transported?

Transmission System
An interconnected network of overhead
lines, cables, power substations and
associated devices whose primary
purpose is to transport electricity from
the generating plants to the distribution
facilities.

• Operates at very high voltages


• Uses a loop configuration
• Also used to interconnect one EPS to another
Source:Unknown

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Power System 101 41

Transporting Electricity in Bulk

Power Transformer at
High Voltage Substation
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Power System 101 42

Transporting Electricity in Bulk

Power = Voltage x Current

• Transporting bulk power (large amount of energy


in short time) will require large current. This
means bigger conductors.
• Transporting the same bulk power in higher
voltage will result in lower current. This means
smaller conductors.

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Power System 101 43

Transporting Electricity in Bulk

STEP-UP TRANSFORMER
STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMER

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Power System 101 44

Transporting Electricity in Bulk

Transmission Lines

Source: IEEE-USA

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Power System 101 45

Transporting Electricity in Bulk

Outdoor High Voltage Switchyard


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Power System 101 46

Transmission System
LABRADOR
BPPC
BOTOLAN BAUANG

2X300MW ~ ~ 2X650MW

230KV SCFTPP LA
MCFTPP
TRINIDAD

KADAMPAT 500KV

OLONGAPO
BINGA

230KV
SUBIC
SAN MANUEL
SAN MANUEL 500KV OLD
NEW

HERMOSA

500KV

SAN JOSE 230KV MEXICO

Loop Configuration LOAD CENTER

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Power System 101 47

Philippine Transmission System

 Three Transmission Grids:


Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao
 Transmission Voltages
Luzon: 230 and 500 kV
Visayas : 69, 138 and 230 kV
Mindanao : 69 and 138 kV
 Luzon and Visayas Grids are interconnected
via a 350 kV HVDC submarine cable

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Power System 101 48

Transmission System
TRANSCO Major Interconnection Projects

Upgrade 2006 Upgrade in 2005

Postponed to 2005
Postponed for 2011

Postponed to 2006
On-going

Source: TransCo

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Power System 101 49

Distribution of Electricity
Subtransmission Lines
Primary Distribution Lines
(Main Feeder)
Substation
Transformer Primary Distribution
Lines (Laterals)

Misc Loads

Distribution Secondary Distribution Lines

System Service
Drop

Residential Commercial Industrial


Distribution
Transformer

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Power System 101 50

Distribution System

The system of wires and associated facilities


that are owned by a franchised distribution
utility.
 It is used to deliver electric energy to End-Users
within the franchise area;
 It extends between Transmission System and
End-User premises;
 Distribution voltages in the Philippines
 Primary : 4.16, 13.2/13.8, 23 or 34.5 kV
 Secondary: 115/230 or 230 volts

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Power System 101 51

Distribution Substation

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Power System 101 52

Primary Distribution Lines

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Power System 101 53

Distribution Transformers

Pole-Mounted Pad-Mounted
Transformer Transformer

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Power System 101 54

Electricity Consumers

RESIDENTIAL

COMMERCIAL

INDUSTRIAL

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Power System 101 55

Load Characteristics

PEAK
100

80
Percent of Peak Load

60

40 OFF-
PEAK
20 Load Profile
of Residential
Customer
12 4 8 12 4 8 12

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Power System 101 56

Load Characteristics

100
PEAK

80
Percent of Peak Load

60

40 OFF-
PEAK Load Profile of
20
Commercial
Customer
12 4 8 12 4 8 12
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Power System 101 57

Load Characteristics

100
PEAK

80
OFF-
Percent of Peak Load

PEAK
60

40

20
Load Profile
of Industrial
0 Customer
12 4 8 12 4 8 12
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Power System 101 58

Load Characteristics

Average Demand
Load Factor =
Peak Demand
Energy Annual kWh
Average Demand = =
Time 8760 hrs
Annual kWh / 8760
Load Factor =
Peak Demand

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Power System 101 59

Load Characteristics

COINCIDENT PEAK

NON-COINCIDENT PEAK

• By Customer Class
• By Delivery Point

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Power System 101 60

The Electric Power System


 Generation
 Power Plants

 Transmission
 Transmission Substations
Primary
 Transmission Lines Distribution
Feeder

 Distribution Distribution
 Power Substation Transformer

 Primary Distribution Feeders


 Distribution Transformers
 Secondary Distribution Lines
 Services

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Power System 101 61

The Electric Power System


(Embedded Generator)
Coal Plant
Wind Farm

End
Hydro Plant Users

End
Users
Generation Transmission Distribution
System System System
Small-Hydro

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Power System 101 62

Three-Phase Power System


Phase C Ic
c
Vc
Phase A Ia
a
o
Va

Vbo Ground
b
Phase B Ib

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Power System 101 63

The First Electric Power System


Pearl Street Station built by Thomas
Edison in New York City in 1882.
 Steam engine coupled to a 110-volt
Direct Current (DC) generator

 Underground cable system

 All loads were incandescent bulbs

 59 customers within an area 1.5 km in


radius

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Power System 101 64

How is the Electric Power


Industry Organized?
Four Models of Electricity Structures
1. Model 1 – Monopoly
2. Model 2 – Purchasing Agency
3. Model 3 – Wholesale Competition
4. Model 4 – Retail Competition

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Power System 101 65

Model 1 - Monopoly
a) Vertical Integration b) Separate retailer/distributor

Generator
Generator
Generator
Generator

Wholesaler/
Wholesaler/ Wholesaler/
Wholesaler/
Transco
Transco Transco
Transco

Energy
sales
DU DU
DU
DU
Energy flows
in the same
Consumer
Consumer Consumer
Consumer company

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Power System 101 66

Model 2– Purchasing Agency


(Single Buyer Market)
(a) Integrated Version (b) Disaggregated Version
Own
Own Own
Own
IPP Gens.
Gens.
IPP IPP Gens.
Gens.
IPP
Energy
sales

Wholesale Wholesale
Wholesale
Purchasing Purchasing
Purchasing Energy
Agent Agent
Agent flows in
same
company

DU
DU DU
DU DU
DU DU
DU

Consumer
Consumer Consumer Consumer
Consumer Consumer
Consumer Consumer
Consumer

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Power System 101 67

Model 3 – Wholesale Competition


IPP IPP IPP IPP IPP

Transmission System
Wholesale (Bilateral Contracts & Spot) Market Energy
sales

DU DU DU DU

Consumer
Consumer Consumer
Consumer Consumer
Consumer Consumer

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Power System 101 68

Model 4– Retail Competition


IPP IPP IPP IPP IPP

D
Transmission System
i
r Wholesale Market
e
c Energy
t
sales
S
DU/
DU/ DU/
DU/
Retailer
Retailer Retailer
Retailer Retailer
Retailer
a Retailer
Retailer Retailer
Retailer
l
e
Distribution System
Retail Market
Consumer
Consumer Consumer
Consumer Consumer
Consumer Consumer
Consumer Consumer

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Power System 101 69

TRANSITION REQUIREMENTS

MODEL
MODEL 11 MODEL
MODEL 22 MODEL
MODEL 33 MODEL
MODEL 44
Monopoly
Monopoly Purchasing
Purchasing Agent
Agent Wholesale
Wholesale Competition
Competition Retail
Retail Competition
Competition

Power
Power Transmission Distribution
Purchase
Purchase Network Access Network Access
Contracts
Contracts & Markets & Stranded
Costs

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Power System 101 70

The Philippine Electric Power Industry

1890 - Three arc lamps installed along main


thoroughfare in Manila
1892 - La Electricista lighted Manila using a DC system
1895 - 1st Power Station was installed in Manila by La
Electricista
1903 - MERALCO was granted a franchise to supply
electricity to Manila

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Power System 101 71

The Philippine Electric Power Industry

GEN TRANSMISSION DISTRIBUTION

MERALCO (in the beginning) End-Users

Industry Structure: Vertically Integrated

Electricity Market: Monopoly

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Power System 101 72

The Philippine Electric Power Industry

1936 - NPC was established to develop hydro-electric


generation and associated transmission system
1960 - Electrification Administration (EA) was created
and total electrification was declared as a
national policy
1969 - “Area Coverage” concept was legislated. EA
was transformed to NEA to establish Electric
Cooperatives
1972 - NPC was granted a monopoly in power
generation and transmission and mandated to
establish Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao Grids

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Power System 101 73

The Philippine Electric Power Industry


PD 40 (1972)

Distributors
NPC NPC
GEN TRANSMISSION Directly
Retail
Connected
Customers
Customers

Industry Structure: Separate Generation-Transmission


and Distribution-Retailer
Electricity Market: Monopoly
Only NPC is responsible for planning, building and operating power
plants and for transmitting bulk power to Distributors and Directly
Connected Customers.
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Power System 101 74

The Philippine Electric Power Industry


1987 - government allowed private investors to
participate in power generation

Distribution
15 - 20%

Generation
Transmission 60 - 70%
10 - 15%

Cost of Capital in Electric Power Industry

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Power System 101 75

The Philippine Electric Power Industry

EO 215 (1987 )

NPC NPC Distribution End-


GEN TRANSMISSION Utilities Users

IPP
GEN
Electricity Market: Central Purchasing Agent
Planning & Operation: Centralized / NPC is Committed
The Problem: Open Access in Transmission
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Power System 101 76

The Philippine Electric Power Industry


2001 - The Electric Power Industry Reform Act

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Power System 101 77

The Philippine Electric Power Industry

Each milestone has a context:


…Problems to Solve!
…Issues to Address!

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Power System 101 78


The Philippine Electric Power Industry according to EPIRA
Competitive Regulated Regulated Competitive

Generation Transmission Distribution Supply


SectorU. P. National Engineering
Sector Center SectorPower System Engineering
Sector
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Power System 101 79
EPIRA Electricity Market
Bilateral
Contracts

Competitive Regulated Regulated Competitive

Wholesale Retail

Spot
Power System Engineering
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Market
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Power System 101 80

The Wholesale Electricity


Spot Market (WESM)
 Market place for trading electricity as a
commodity
 A market clearing house that reflects the
market-based value of electricity
 Uses the concept of a “pool” where all
electricity output from generators are
centrally coordinated while allowing
generators as well as consumers to
compete to be scheduled and dispatched to
meet the electricity demand in real time

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Power System 101 81

WESM Price Determination


Based on Principles of Supply and Demand
Demand curve:
Either: consumers submit price/ quantity bids
Or: demand load is estimated

Supply curve:
 Each generator submits price / quantity offers
 Market supply curve construct from aggregated
individual offer functions
Price:
Intersect of Supply and Demand curves
Participants earn “profit” when market price is more
favourable than their offer / bid
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Power System 101 82

WESM Price Determination


Based on Principles of Supply and Demand
Php

Demand

Supply

Market Price

MWh

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Power System 101 83

WESM Price Determination


Single Market and Fixed Demand

 Three generating companies


 “A” with capacity of 300MW at “price” of P 1500
 “B” with capacity of 300MW at “price” of P 1800
 “C” with capacity of 500MW at “price” of P 2400

 Fixed demand of 650 MWh in a given


hour
 A single injection/demand point
(actual or notional)

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Power System 101 84

WESM Price Determination


Single Market and Fixed Demand
Price Setting
Pesos

Market
A 2400 C
Price
300MWh at P
1500

Demand 1800
B Market
B
300MWh at P 1800
1500
650MW A
h
Supply

C Demand
500MWh at P
2400

300 600 650 1100


MWh

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Power System 101 85

WESM Price Determination


Single Market and Fixed Demand
Market Clearing Price = P 2400 = Price at Marginal Generator

Generator A
Offer: 300MWh at P 1500
Generation: 300MWh

Generator B Market Demand

Offer: 300MWh at P 1800 P 2400 650MWh


Generation: 300MWh

Generator C
Offer: 500MWh at P 2400
Generation: 50MWh

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Power System 101 86

WESM Price Determination


Two Node Transmission System
 Transmission system between the “nodes”:
 Capacity of 100MW
 1% marginal losses
 Two generating companies at Node 1
 “A” with capacity of 300MW at “price” of P 1500
 “B” with capacity of 300MW at “price” of P 1800
 One generating companies at Node 2
 “C” with capacity of 500MW at “price” of P 2400
 Fixed demand at Node 1 of 400 MWh in a
given hour
 Fixed demand at Node 2 of 250 MWh in a
given hour
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Power System 101 87

WESM Price Determination


Two Node Transmission System

Generator A Generator B Generator C


Capacity:300MWh at P 1500 Capacity:300MWh at P 1800 Capacity:500MWh at P 2400
Generation: 300MWh Generation: 100MWh
200MWh Generation: 151MWh

Node 1 100MW line Node 2


P 1800 losses of 1% P 2400

Nodal price difference = 600


Demand Demand
Being: 300MWh 99MWh
Cost of losses = 24
Congestion cost = 576
Demand Demand
400MWh 250MWh

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Power System 101 88

WESM Price Determination


Demand-side Bidding
As before:
 Three generating companies
 “A” with capacity of 300MW at “price” of P 1500
 “B” with capacity of 300MW at “price” of P 1800
 “C” with capacity of 500MW at “price” of P 2400
A single injection/demand point (actual or

notional)
Modification:
 Demand:
 550MWh at P 75000 - effectively fixed demand
 150MWh at P 2100 - dispatchable load that will only be
used if the price is below P2100 per MWh
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Power System 101 89

WESM Price Determination


Demand-side Bidding
Price Setting

Pesos 550MWh at
P 75000 Demand
75000
A 550MW at
300MWh at P 1500 P 75000

150MWh
at P2100
B Market Demand
300MWh at P 1800 2400 C
2100
Market Price
C 150MWh at 1800
P 2100 B
500MWh at P 2400
1500
A Supply

MWh
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Power System 101 90

WESM Price Determination


Demand-side Bidding
Market Clearing Price = P 2100

Generator A
Offer: 300MWh at P 1500
Generation: 300MWh 550MWh at P 75000
550MWh at P 75000
300MWh at P 75000

Generator B Market
P 2100 Demand
Offer: 300MWh at P 1800
Generation: 300MWh
Generation: 250MWh

150MWh at P 2100
Generator C 50MWh at P 2100
Offer: 500MWh at P 2400
Generation: nil

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Power System 101 91

WESM Pricing and Settlement


Ex Ante Pricing with Ex Post Imbalance Settlement

Pesos

Ex Post Market Price


2400 C
Ex ante Settlement
= 1800 x 580 = P
Ex Ante Market
1800 Price
10440K
B
Ex post Imbalance
1500 Settlement
A Supply = 2400 x 70 =P 1680K

Total settlement = P 12120K

Estimate Actual
Demand Demand
MWh
580 650

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Power System 101 92

WESM Spot Prices

UK

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Power System 101 93

Electric Circuit
The Language of Electrical Engineers
Analogy
Water Pressure +
causes the Voltage Electric Current Resistance
flow of water R
= V - I
Voltage

Electric Circuit

Water Flow = Current

V R
I
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Power System 101 94

Electric Circuit
Ohm’s Law
Voltage
Current =
Resistance
Resistance is the property of a material to oppose the flow of
current measured in ohms (Ω Ω)

V = 100 volts V = 100 volts V = 100 volts


R = 1 Ohm R = 100,000 ohms R = 0.0001 ohm
I = 100/1 = 100 A I = 0.001 A I = 1,000,000A
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Power System 101 95

Electric Circuit
Switch is “ON” Switch is “OFF”

+ +
Current No Current
- Flows - Flow

Closed Circuit Open Circuit

Resistance of Air is very high ( ≈ ∞ )

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering


National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System 101 96

Electric Circuit

+ Very Large
Very Small
Current Resistance
- Flow

Short Circuit

Resistance of conductor is very small ( ≈ 0)

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Power System 101 97

RESISTANCE OF MATERIAL
 Conductor is a material
that will allow current to
flow (e.g. electric wires)
 Insulator is a material
that will prevent current
to flow (e.g., rubber)

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering


National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System 101 98

RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTOR
 Good conductors are materials with low
resistance (Copper and Aluminum)
 Small conductor (cross-sectional area)
has high resistance
 Long conductor has high resistance

Power Loss = I2R


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Power System 101 99

Kirchoff’s Laws
 Kirchoff’s Voltage Law
 The Sum of all Voltages in a Circuit is equal to Zero
VLine
+ -
+

+
Vsource I VLoad
-

Vsource - VLine - VLoad = 0 Vsource = VLine + VLoad

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering


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Power System 101 100

Kirchoff’s Laws
 Kirchoff’s Current Law
 The sum of Currents entering a node is equal to the
ssum of all currents leaving the node

I2
I1
I1 = I2 + I3 + I4
I3
I4

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Power System 101 101

POWER and ENERGY


When Electric Current Flows: Work is Done
(Light or heat is produced)

Energy is the Work done (measured in watt-hours)

1 kilowatt-hour of electric energy = 1,000 watt-hours

Power is the rate at which Energy is


generated, transported or consumed
(measured in watts, kilowatt, Megawatts)

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering


National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System 101 102

POWER and ENERGY


Energy (kW-Hr)
Power (kW) =
Time (Hr)

Low Power Power of


Fewer Electrons per
hour High Power Electric Bulbs
More Electrons per hour

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Power System 101 103

POWER and ENERGY

Rate of Consuming 100 kW-Hrs of Energy 50


5 Hrs vs. 2 Hrs
40

100 kW-Hrs
kW kW 30
20
20
10
10 100 kW-Hrs
1 2 3 4 5 1 2
Hrs Hrs
Which requires larger electrical equipment?
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System 101 104

POWER
 Active Power – Real Power Consumed (W, kW, MW)
 Reactive Power – Power required by energy
conversion equipment but not consumed (Var, kVar,
Mvar)
 Apparent Power – Vectorial Sum of Active and
Reactive Power (VA, kVA, MVA)

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Power System 101 105

Power Flow

Active Power (kW)

Reactive Power (kVar)

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Power System 101 106

POWER FACTOR
Measures the efficiency of utilization
of power equipment

Active Power
Power Factor =
Apparent Power
Apparent Power
kVA Reactive Power
kVar Engineers Definition
θ

Active Power kW
PF = Cosθ???
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National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

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Power System 101 107

POWER FACTOR

? kVA
80 kVar
? kVA
θ 40 kVar
θ
100 kW 100 kW

PF = PF =

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering


National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Power System 101 108

POWER FACTOR

133.33
KVAR
102
75 KVAR
48.43 KVAR
KVAR

100 100 100 100 100


KW KW KW KW KW

100 KVA 111.11 KVA 125 KVA 142.86 KVA 166.67KVA


PF = 1.00 PF = 0.90 PF = 0.80 PF = 0.70 PF = 0.60

Reactive and Apparent Power at different power


factor for constant Active Power

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National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

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Power System 101 109

POWER FACTOR

43.59
KVAR 60 71.41
80
KVAR KVAR
KVAR
100
KW
90 80
KW 70
KW 60
KW
KW

100 KVA 100 KVA 100 KVA 100 KVA 100 KVA
PF =1.00 PF = 0.90 PF = 0.80 PF= 0.70 PF = 0.60

Active Power that can be supplied by the same


equipment at different Power Factor

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering


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Power System 101 110

POWER FACTOR
Benefits of Capacitor Installations
• Demand reduction
• Energy reduction
• Voltage improvement
(Increase Revenue)
• Reduction of technical losses

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National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

55
Power System 101 111

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering


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